Youn-Kwan Jung

Daegu Fatima Hospital, Yeoncheon Gun, South Korea

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Publications (12)48.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine with a chondroprotective effect that is elevated in cartilage and synovium in patients with osteoarthritis. However, the role of IL-10 during endochondral bone formation and its mechanism of action have not been elucidated. MethodsIL-10–/– mice and IL-10–treated tibial organ cultures were used to study loss and gain of IL-10 functions, respectively, during endochondral bone formation. Primary chondrocytes from the long bones of mouse embryos were cultured with and without IL-10. To assess the role of IL-10 in chondrogenic differentiation, we conducted mesenchymal cell micromass cultures. ResultsThe lengths of whole skeletons from IL-10–/– mice were similar to those of their wild-type littermates, although their skull diameters were smaller. The tibial growth plates of IL-10–/– mice showed shortening of the proliferating zone. Treatment with IL-10 significantly increased tibial lengths in organ culture. IL-10 also induced chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation in primary chondrocytes in vitro. Mechanistically, IL-10 activated STAT-3 and the Smad1/5/8 and ERK-1/2 MAP kinase pathways and induced the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and BMP-6 in primary chondrocytes. Furthermore, the blocking of BMP signaling attenuated the IL-10–mediated induction of cyclin D1 and RUNX-2 in primary chondrocytes and suppressed Alcian blue and alkaline phosphatase staining in mesenchymal cell micromass cultures. Conclusion These results indicate that IL-10 acts as a stimulator of chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic or hypertrophic differentiation via activation of the BMP signaling pathway.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 12/2013; 65(12). · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Dual Ig domain Containing Adhesion Molecule (DICAM), a protein with homology to the junctional adhesion molecule family, has been demonstrated to interact with integrin αVβ3 that plays a critical role in angiogenesis. Here, we determined the role of DICAM during angiogenesis and the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis.Methods and ResultsDICAM was expressed on the endothelial cells of large vessels to small capillaries. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), DICAM was up-regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through the MEK/ERK and PI3 K/AKT pathways. Furthermore, the exogenous expression of DICAM in HUVECs suppressed angiogenesis in vitro Matrigel and in vivo plug assays, and conversely, DICAM knockdown enhanced angiogenesis. In addition, DICAM inhibited HUVEC migration and accelerated apoptosis via down-regulation of Bcl-2, but did not affect viability or proliferation of HUVEC. Mechanistically, the exogenous expression of DICAM suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylarion of AKT and p38 MAP kinase. When integrin signaling was activated by vitronectin, a forced expression of DICAM attenuated integrin β3/FAK signaling and downstream AKT and p38 MAP kinase signaling in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Collectively, DICAM suppressed angiogenesis by attenuating AKT and p38 MAP kinase signaling, which suggests that DICAM may be a novel negative regulator of angiogenesis.
    Cardiovascular Research 02/2013; · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into osteoblast-like cells has been implicated in the context of vascular calcification. We investigated the roles of vitamin D receptor (Vdr) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in response to vitamin D3 using in vitro VSMCs cultures and in vivo in Vdr knockout (Vdr (-/-) ) and Runx2 carboxy-terminus truncated heterozygous (Runx2 (+/ΔC) ) mice. Treatment of VSMCs with active vitamin D3 promoted matrix mineral deposition, and increased the expressions of Vdr, Runx2, and of osteoblastic genes but decreased the expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain in primary VSMCs cultures. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested an interaction between Vdr and Runx2. Furthermore, silencing Vdr or Runx2 attenuated the procalcific effects of vitamin D3. Functional cooperation between Vdr and Runx2 in vascular calcification was also confirmed in in vivo mouse models. Vascular calcification induced by high-dose vitamin D3 was completely inhibited in Vdr (-/-) or Runx2 (+/ΔC) mice, despite elevated levels of serum calcium or alkaline phosphatase. Collectively, these findings suggest that functional cooperation between Vdr and Runx2 is necessary for vascular calcification in response to vitamin D3.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83584. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing adhesion molecule (DICAM) is involved in cell-cell adhesion through a heterophilic interaction with αVβ3 integrin, which suggests that DICAM may participate in osteoclast differentiation. DICAM was localized in the plasma membrane of RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells, and its expression gradually increased during osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Forced expression of DICAM in BMMs and RAW264.7 cells blocked the generation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts. Conversely, knockdown of DICAM by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) increased osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 cells. DICAM-mediated suppression of osteoclast differentiation was in part due to the inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, which was corroborated by a decrease in the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1. Mechanistically, DICAM directly interacted with integrin β3, which inhibited heterodimerization between integrin αV and β3. Exogenous expression of integrin β3 or high-dose M-CSF rescued DICAM-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting crosstalk between the integrin β3 and c-Fms pathways. Finally, recombinant DICAM ectodomain suppressed the RANKL- and M-CSF-induced osteoclastogenesis of BMMs. Collectively, these results indicate that DICAM acts as a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the integrin αVβ3 pathway.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 04/2012; 27(9):2024-34. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The essential osteoblast-related transcription factor Runx2 and the female steroid hormone estrogen are known to play pivotal roles in bone homeostasis; however, the functional interaction between Runx2- and estrogen-mediated signaling in skeletal tissues is minimally understood. Here we provide evidence that aromatase (CYP19), a rate-limiting enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis in mammals, is transcriptionally regulated by Runx2. Consistent with the presence of multiple Runx2 binding sites, the binding of Runx2 to the aromatase promoter was demonstrated in vitro and confirmed in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The bone-specific aromatase promoter is activated by Runx2, and endogenous aromatase gene expression is upregulated by Runx2 overexpression, establishing the aromatase gene as a target of Runx2. The biological significance of the Runx2 transcriptional control of the aromatase gene is reflected by the enhanced estrogen biosynthesis in response to Runx2 in cultured cells. Reduced in vivo expression of skeletal aromatase gene and low bone mineral density are evident in Runx2 mutant mice. Collectively, these findings uncover a novel link between Runx2-mediated osteoblastogenic processes and the osteoblast-mediated biosynthesis of estrogen as an osteoprotective steroid hormone.
    Molecular and cellular biology 03/2010; 30(10):2365-75. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orthodontic tooth movement results from the combinational process of both bone resorption and formation in the compressive and tension sides, respectively. However, the genes responsible for new bone formation in tension sides have not been determined. In this study, we used DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR to identify genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells that undergo significant changes in expression in response to static tensional forces (2 or 12 hours). The genes found were alkaline phospatase (ALP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and several collagen genes. Furthermore, an ELISA evaluating the expression of VEGF, type IV collagen and MMP-2 found levels significantly increased after 24 and 72 hours (P 0.05). ALP activity was also increased after 24 hours (P 0.05). Collectively, we found the genes up-regulated in our study by the static tensional force are related to osteogenic processes such as matrix synthesis and angiogenesis.
    BMB reports 08/2009; 42(7):427-32. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members are abundant with diverse functions including cell adhesion in various tissues. Here, we identified and characterized a novel adhesion molecule that belongs to the CTX protein family and named as DICAM (Dual Ig domain containing cell adhesion molecule). DICAM is a type I transmembrane protein with two V-type Ig domains in the extracellular region and a short cytoplasmic tail of 442 amino acids. DICAM is found to be expressed ubiquitously in various organs and cell lines. Subcellular localization of DICAM was observed in the cell-cell contact region and nucleus of cultured epithelial cells. Cell-cell contact region was colocalized with tight junction protein, ZO-1. The DICAM increased MDCK cell adhesion to 60% levels of fibronectin. DICAM mediated cell adhesion was specific for the alphavbeta3 integrin; other integrins, alpha2, alpha5, beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, were not involved in cell adhesion. In identifying the interacting domain of DICAM with alphavbeta3, the Ig domain 2 showed higher cell adhesion activity than that of Ig domain 1. Although RGD motif in Ig domain 2 was engaged in cell adhesion, it was not participated in DICAM-alphavbeta3 mediated cell adhesion. Furthermore, differentially expressing DICAM stable cells showed well correlated cell to cell adhesion capability with integrin beta3-overexpressing cells. Collectively, these results indicate that DICAM, a novel dual Ig domain containing adhesion molecule, mediates cell adhesion via alphavbeta3 integrin.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2008; 216(3):603-14. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the upstream regulator of Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation in bone tissues. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of Runx2 gene expression, we analyzed Runx2 promoter activity in osseous (MC3T3-E1, KS483, Kusa) and non-osseous (NIH3T3, C3H10T1/2, mouse embryonic fibroblasts) cells and also identified Runx2 upstream regulator using a Runx2 promoter-derived luciferase reporter system. After cloning 15 serial deletion constructs from -6832 bp/+390 bp to -37 bp/+390 bp of the Runx2-P1 promoter, we performed a transient transfection assay in osseous and non-osseous cells. A reduction in Runx2 promoter activity was observed in two regions; one was between -3 kb and -1 kb, and the other was between -155 bp and -75 bp. The step-down pattern in promoter activity between -3 kb and -1 kb was observed only in osseous cells. Interestingly, the step-down pattern between -155 bp and -75 bp was revealed in both cell types. Consistently, beta-galactosidase staining in axial skeleton of -3 kb-Runx2-P1-LacZ transgenic mice was positive, but that of all skeletal tissues of -1 kb-Runx2-P1-LacZ transgenic mice was negative. To identify upstream regulators of the Runx2-P1 promoter, we screened 100 transcription factors using Runx2-P1-luciferase reporter constructs in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Among them, HIF2A was identified as the strongest activator of Runx2-P1 promoter activity. A HIF2A-responsive site on the Runx2 promoter was identified between -106 bp and -104 bp by mutation analysis. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the binding of HIF2A to the Runx2-P1 promoter in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Knock-down using siRNA against HIF2A confirmed that HIF2A is an important regulator of Runx2 gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that the region between -3 kb and -1 kb is required for the minimal skeletal tissue-specific expression of Runx2, and that the region between -155 bp and -75 bp is important for its basal transcription, which may be in part mediated by HIF2A in bone tissues.
    Gene 07/2008; 416(1-2):53-60. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of non-syndromic hyperplastic dental follicle (HDF) fibroblasts and normal dental follicle (NDF) fibroblasts using cDNA microarrays, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. Microarray analysis showed that several collagens genes were upregulated in the HDFos, including collagen types I, IV, VIII, and XI and TIMP-1, -3, and -4 (fold ratio > 2.0). In contrast, the expression of MMP-1, -3, -10, and -16 together with IL-8 was more than two fold downregulated. The differential expression of the genes encoding alkaline phosphatase, MMP-1, -3, -8, and IL-8 was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, while that of 24 HDFs and 18 NDFs was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. However, HDFs showed stronger expression of MMP-3 than NDFs (P < 0.001). Collectively, these results indicate that defective regulation of MMPs mediating connective tissue remodeling may be responsible for abnormal tooth eruption.
    BMB reports 04/2008; 41(4):322-7. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compressive force is an important mechanical stimulus on the periodontal ligament (PDL) and is closely related to therapeutic tooth movement. In this study, early or late response genes related to the compressive stress in PDL cells were evaluated. Particularly, the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was studied. The primary cultured cells from PDL were grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel, and received a continuous static compressive force (1.76 g/cm(2)). The expressed genes were screened by cDNA microarray assays for 2 or 12 hours after the initiation of the mechanical force application. The genes of interest that showed significant changes in expression in the cDNA microarray assay were analyzed further by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA), and ALP assays. ALP, IL-6, and IL-8 were selected among the genes that significantly changed expression (/M/ >0.7) and subsequently were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The secreted protein concentrations for IL-6, IL-8, and ALP activity were measured at 72 hours after application of continuous static compressive force. The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased at 72 hours (P <0.001), but there was no significant change in IL-8 (P >0.05). ALP activity was decreased approximately 41.5% compared to the control (P = 0.015). Considering that IL-6 is a potent osteoclast activator and the compressive side of PDL during orthodontic tooth movement shows the resorption of calcified tissue, the changed expression of IL-6 and ALP in response to the static compressive force in PDL cells may contribute to the orthodontic tooth movement or alveolar bone remodeling.
    Journal of Periodontology 03/2007; 78(3):446-52. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We incidentally found that osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts express Fas ligand (FasL) as well as Fas, which was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescent staining, and RT-PCR. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FasL in differentiation and cell death of osteoclasts. To study the role of FasL in osteoclastogenesis, neutralizing anti-FasL mAb or rFasL was added during receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis using bone marrow-derived macrophages. Neutralization of endogenous FasL by anti-FasL mAb decreased osteoclastogenesis, whereas rFasL enhanced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rFasL up-regulated the secretion of osteoclastogenic cytokines, such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and the activation of NF-kappaB. Functional blocking of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha using IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble TNFR confirmed that those cytokines mediated the effect of FasL on osteoclastogenesis. The osteoclast precursors were relatively resistant to rFasL-induced apoptosis especially before RANKL treatment, resulting in minimal cell loss by rFasL treatment during osteoclastogenesis. Although rFasL increased the cell death of mature osteoclasts, growth factor withdrawal induced much more cell death. However, anti-FasL mAb did not affect the survival of mature osteoclasts, suggesting that the endogenous FasL does not have a role in the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Finally, in contrast to the effect on apoptosis, rFasL-assisted osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by caspases. In conclusion, FasL has a novel function in bone homeostasis by enhancing the differentiation of osteoclasts, which was not considered previously.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2006; 175(11):7193-201. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale single-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from cell type specific libraries has proven to be a powerful approach for the discovery of novel gene functions, identification of novel gene family members, and definition of gene expression profiles. HCS-2/8 chondrocyte has been used as a cell culture model to study chondrocyte differentiation. Here we performed 3350 single-pass sequencing reactions obtained from the 5' ends of cDNAs from HCS-2/8 cells. To define the expression profiles of HCS-2/8 chondrocytes, we analyzed the identity of these representative cDNA sequences using database searches (BLAST). The sequences represent 1927 unique genes with known function (i.e., unigene clusters), 38 transcripts that are similar to genes with known function, 739 expressed genes with unknown function (i.e., expressed sequence tags), and 18 cDNAs which have not previously been sequenced. Interestingly, many transcripts were expressed from chromosome 12 compared with total genes, while the fewer numbers of cDNAs were derived from genes on chromosomes 14, 18 and Y. The chondrocytic phenotype of HCS-2/8 cells is reflected by abundant expression of genes related to cell structure and motility and the 20 most frequently expressed unigenes reflect a chondrocyte-related gene expression signature. Thus, our data establish a representative set of more than 2000 genes expressed in a chondrocytic cell line. This finding provides a framework for understanding cell growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and their metabolic function in the formation and remodeling of cartilage.
    Gene 05/2004; 330:85-92. · 2.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

123 Citations
48.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Daegu Fatima Hospital
      Yeoncheon Gun, South Korea
  • 2004–2010
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      • • School of Medicine
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Hallym University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan