Ming-Huei Sheu

Taipei Veterans General Hospital, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (28)62.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed the association between the tortuosity of the thoracic aorta as measured by the reporting standards for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), described by the Society for Vascular Surgery, and midterm outcomes after TEVAR for atherosclerotic aneurysms. We analyzed 77 consecutive patients who underwent TEVAR for atherosclerotic aneurysms from November 2006 through May 2013 in a single institution. The preoperative aortic tortuosity index (TI) was calculated by computed tomography aortography, and patients were divided into low-tortuosity (TI ≤ 1.29) and high-tortuosity (TI > 1.29) groups. The relationships between TI and the occurrence of endoleaks, complications, and survival were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 29 ± 26 months. During this period, endoleaks occurred in 19 patients. Patients in the high-tortuosity group were at greater risk for endoleaks (odds ratio, 9.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-48.1; P = .004) and stroke (odds ratio, 13.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-169; P = .047) than those in the low-tortuosity group. The overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 73%, 69%, and 63%, respectively, for the high-tortuosity group and 92%, 92%, and 86%, respectively, for the low tortuosity group. Our findings demonstrated that high tortuosity of the thoracic aorta is associated with higher rates of endoleaks and lower survival in patients undergoing TEVAR for atherosclerotic aneurysms. Patients with aneurysms in a highly tortuous aorta may therefore need greater attention in preoperative planning, perioperative procedures, and follow-up examinations.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 05/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Context CT scans of the lumbar spine (CTLS) have demonstrated a higher level of accuracy than plain film, and have been used to assess patients with spinal disorder when MR is not available. Nevertheless, radiation exposure remains a serious safety concern. Iterative reconstruction (IR) decreases the CT radiation dose for diagnostic imaging. However, the feasibility of using IR in CTLS is unclear. Purpose To evaluate the imaging quality and diagnostic reliability of CTLS with IR. Study Design/Setting A prospective study. Patient Sample All patients from out-patient departments who suffered from spinal disorders and were referred for CTLS Outcome Measures In acquired CT images, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the dural sac (DS), intervertebral disc (IVD), psoas muscle (PM), and L5 vertebral body (BM), the contrast-to-noise ratio between the dural sac and the intervertebral disc (D-D CNR), and the subjective imaging qualities were compared across groups. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with Kappa values. The study was supported by a grant from our institution. Methods Patients receiving low radiation CTLS were divided into three groups. A 150 mAs tube current with 120 kVp tube voltage was used with group A and a 230 mAs tube current with 100 kVp tube voltage with group B. Intended end radiation exposure was 50% less than that of the control group. Tube modulation was active for all groups. The images of the two low-radiation groups were reconstructed by IR; those of the control group by filtered back projection. Results The SNRs of the DS, IVD, PM, BM, and D-D CNR of group A were not inferior to those of the control group. All SNRs and D-D CNRs for group B were inferior to those of the control group. Except for that of the facet joint, all subjective imaging ratings for anatomic regions were equivalent between groups A and B. Inter-observer agreement was highest for the control group (0.72-0.88), followed by group A (0.69-0.83) and group B (0.55-0.83). Conclusions Fifty percent tube current reduction combined with IR provides equivalent diagnostic accuracy and improved patient safety when compared with conventional CTLS. Our results support its use as a screening tool. With the tube modulation technique, further adjustments in weighting IR and FBP algorithms based on BMI become unnecessary.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 01/2014; · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Chun-Ku Chen, Hsiao-Ping Chou, Ming-Huei Sheu
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    ABSTRACT: Image-guided tumor ablation for lung malignancies has emerged as a treatment modality for medically inoperable patients. Overall, image-guided lung tumor ablation is a minimally invasive procedure that has an acceptable safety profile and less impact on lung function. This is important for patients with poor pulmonary and/or cardiac functions or with multiple comorbidities, which prevent them from undergoing surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Herein, we review the principle, techniques, clinical application, and patient outcomes of image-guided lung tumor ablation.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 04/2013; · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel angioedema is a rare adverse effect of iodinated contrast medium. Here, we report the first case of contrast medium-induced small bowel angioedema with concurrent respiratory tract symptoms. A patient with colon cancer underwent CT scanning for preoperative staging. After injection of the contrast medium, a persistent cough developed and CT images showed that the small bowel wall was abnormally thickened. It returned to normal by the follow-up. The persistent coughing that developed right after the CT and small bowel wall thickening on the contrast-enhanced CT suggested the diagnosis of small bowel angioedema induced by the contrast medium.
    Clinical imaging 07/2012; 36(4):386-9. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the coronary artery calcium levels usually provides important information that can be used in patient prognosis and stratification of treatment when coronary artery disease is suspected. However, plaques, with or without significant stenosis, have been reported in patients without coronary artery calcium. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of the development of coronary artery plaques in individuals with a zero calcium score. Analysis of coronary artery calcium levels and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) were performed using 64-slice computed tomography (CT). The demographic data, clinical risk factors, and imaging features of 519 consecutive patients (54 ± 10 years, male:female ratio of 56:44) were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of plaques and the degree of the resulting stenosis were recorded. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the frequency and risk factors associated with the presence of coronary artery plaques. Among 66 patients, 82 coronary arteries were found to have plaques, and six coronary arteries showed significant stenosis. Univariate analysis showed that an age greater than 55 years, male gender, a body mass index (BMI) of more than 27, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are significant factors associated with the development of coronary artery plaques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an age over 55 years (p = 0.012, OR = 2.13, 95% C.I. = 1.18-3.84) and BMI greater than 27 (p = 0.026, OR = 2.01, 95% C.I. = 1.09-3.72) are independent factors associated with the presence of plaques in patients with a zero calcium score. The results of this study show that plaques are present in a significant proportion of individuals with a zero coronary artery calcium score. In addition, advanced age and obesity are risk factors associated with the development of plaques.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 01/2012; 75(1):10-5. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant systemic arteries supplying the intralobar pulmonary sequestration can become dilated and have atherosclerotic change. Computed tomography is very useful in demonstrating the aberrant artery. We report a case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration with giant branching aneurysmal aberrant artery, and demonstrated the discontinuity of the bronchus by 64-slice computed tomography, which has not previously been described.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 08/2011; 74(8):372-5. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital structural variant in which a segment of the epicardial coronary artery tunnels into and is surrounded by the myocardium. MB has been correlated to some clinical complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The depiction rate of MB varies significantly between catheter coronary angiography and autopsy studies. This study aimed to assess the depiction rate of MB among Taiwanese by coronary computed tomographyic angiography (CCTA), to determine the anatomical features of the tunneling vessels, and to evaluate the outcome of patients having MB. Between September 2006 and December 2007, 425 subjects (264 men and 161 women; mean age 59.6 ± 11.7 years) underwent ECG-gated CCTA by a 64-dectector row scanner in our institution. The presence and the location of MB in CCTA images and the presence of atherosclerosis in the tunneling vessels were evaluated and recorded. Major CVD events in the cohort were tracked from the day of CCTA examination until on March 2009 termination of follow-up. The depiction rate of MB was 20.9% (89/425). A total of 122 MB were depicted by CCTA. Thirty-six tunneling segments (29.5%) were situated in the distal portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), 23 segments (18.8%) were in the middle portion of the LAD, 19 (15.5%) were in the first obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex artery, 18 (14.7%) in the first diagonal branch of the LAD, and 10 (8.1%) were in the ramus medianus. Nine tunneling segments (7.3%) had concomitant atherosclerotic plaques at the time of CCTA. One hundred and nine tunneled segments (89.3%) were superficially located in the myocardium, with a mean depth of 1.9 ± 0.81 mm (range, 0.9-4 mm). Twelve patients with CVD events were recorded during the mean follow-up interval of 21.91 ± 4.03 months (range, 3.08-28.82 months). All 12 patients with CVD events had no MB on CCTA. The depiction rate of MB by CCTA was 20.9% in this study. The most common location of MB was in the LAD. Concomitant atherosclerotic plaques were found in 7.3% of MB cases. Eighty-nine percent of tunneling vessels were superficially situated. None of the enrolled subjects with MB developed CVD event during the follow-up period. No statistical correlation was found between the presence of MB and CVD event (p = 0.057).
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 04/2011; 74(4):164-8. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contains ganglionated plexuses and adipocytes that can affect the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to quantify the EAT surrounding the left atrium (LA) and correlate it with occurrence of AF and outcome after catheter ablation. EAT was evaluated using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in 68 patients with AF and 34 controls. EAT volume was acquired by semiautomatically tracing axial images from the pulmonary artery to the coronary sinus. Topographic distribution of EAT was assessed by dividing the periatrial space into 8 equal regions. EAT volume significantly increased in patients with AF than in controls (29.9 ± 12.1 vs 20.2 ± 6.5 cm(3), p <0.001). Most EAT was located in regions (1) within the superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery, and right-sided roof of the LA (29.8%), (2) within the aortic root, pulmonary trunk, and left atrial appendage (26.5%), and (3) between the left inferior pulmonary vein and left atrioventricular groove (18.1%). Baseline variables were analyzed in patients with (n = 24) and without (n = 44) AF recurrence after ablation. The recurrent group showed significantly increased EAT (35.2 ± 12.5 vs 26.8 ± 11.1 cm(3), p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed that EAT was an independent predictor of AF recurrence after ablation (p = 0.038). In conclusion, EAT of LA was increased in patients with AF. Large clusters of EAT were observed adjacent to the anterior roof, left atrial appendage, and lateral mitral isthmus. Abundance of EAT was independently related to AF recurrence after ablation.
    The American journal of cardiology 03/2011; 107(10):1498-503. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 03/2011; 40(1):e67. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding pulmonary vein (PV) function before and after catheter ablation can validate the benefit of the treatment and provide mechanistic insight into atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate the functional remodeling process of PVs by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). We assessed the dynamic function of four PVs by MDCT at systolic and diastolic phases. Twelve points around each PV ostium were used to assess the magnitude and abnormalities of the regional wall motion. The axis of PV shifting during cardiac cycle was also determined. Seventy-four paroxysmal AF patients and 29 controls were enrolled. In those of AF, the superior PVs had poorer contractile function (ejection fraction: P = 0.01 for left; P = 0.009 for right; magnitude of the motion: P = 0.01 for left; P = 0.02 for right) which mainly resulted from the decreased movement of the posterior wall. In contrast, the function of inferior PVs was similar between two groups. After a mean follow-up of 158 ± 95 days, the PV motion improved in the patients without any AF recurrence. In addition, analysis of the pre-ablation PV function showed that the angles, which shifted during cardiac cycle of left (P = 0.035) and right (P = 0.014) inferior PV, were significantly decreased in recurrent patients. The contractile function of the superior PVs was impaired in paroxysmal AF patients. This was attributed to the hypokinesia of the posterior wall of PVs and improved after circumferential ablation in the patients without recurrence. MDCT images can effectively delineate the functional characteristics of PVs.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 11/2010; 27(7):1049-58. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidating the functional properties and remodeling process of the entire left atrium (LA) is important not only for offering the mechanistic insight into atrial fibrillation (AF) but also for assessing the effectiveness of catheter ablation. We included 65 patients with paroxysmal AF and 29 controls. Baseline multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) was acquired in all subjects and a follow-up MDCT was available in 48 patients after pulmonary vein and LA ablation. The 3-dimensional images at atrial end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) were analyzed. The LA volume (ED: 61.11 +/- 15.94 vs 54.12 +/- 8.94 mL/m(2), P = 0.03; ES: 45.29 +/- 17.64 vs 33.38 +/- 7.78 mL/m(2), P < 0.001) was increased, and ejection fraction (EF) (26.93 +/- 13.40 vs 38.09 +/- 11.62%, P < 0.001) decreased in AF patients as compared to controls. After ablation, the ES LA volume (44.73 +/- 14.93 vs 38.04 +/- 11.51 mL/m(2), P = 0.04) decreased and the LA EF (25.04 +/- 13.13 vs 30.82 +/- 7.85%, P = 0.03) increased in patients without any AF recurrence. The wall motion (WM) analysis of the 18 segments of LA revealed increased motional magnitudes of entire LA except for the anterior roof. In contrast, the volume, EF, and WM of LA remained similar in patients with recurrence. Dilated LA with global hypokinesia was noted in AF patients. Improved LA transport function was demonstrated in patients without any recurrence after ablation. However, the anatomic and functional reverse remodeling was not significant in patients with AF recurrence.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 10/2009; 21(3):270-7. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial bridging (MB) is a condition in which a segment of the major epicardial coronary artery is tunneled within and surrounded by the myocardium. This condition has been linked to severe complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of MB in Taiwanese subjects examined with electrocardiogram-gated, 16-slice, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography, as well as to determine the location, depth, and length of the bridged segments and the concomitant atherosclerosis of MB. From August 2004 to May 2005, 276 consecutive subjects referred to our department for MDCT coronary angiography were enrolled in the study after written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Twenty-four subjects (8.7%) had at least one coronary segment that was completely surrounded by myocardium. Patients ranged in age from 27 to 76 years, with an average of 54 +/- 12 years. Thirty coronary segments were found to have MB. The most common location of MB was in segment 7, which accounted for 14 coronary segments (46.7%) of the total number of bridged segments; left anterior descending artery (LAD) segments accounted for 23 (76.7%); and right coronary artery and left circumflex artery segments accounted for three (10%) and two (6.7%), respectively. The length of bridged segments ranged from 5.2 to 50.6 mm, with an average length of 24.6 +/- 11.8 mm, and the depth of the bridged segments ranged from 0.5 to 9.1 mm, with an average depth of 3.65 +/- 1.89 mm. Two bridged segments (6.7%) had concomitant atherosclerosis; these were located in segment 7 (24.0 mm long and 6.10 mm deep) and segment 8 (27.1 mm long and 7.0 mm deep). Bridged segments with concomitant atherosclerosis were deeper, but not longer, compared with bridged segments without concomitant atherosclerosis (p < 0.05). Electrocardiogram-gated MDCT is an effective noninvasive tool for evaluating MB in a clinical setting. The most common location of MB was in the LAD, especially in segment 7. Bridged segments with concomitant atherosclerosis were deeper, but not longer, compared with bridged segments without concomitant atherosclerosis.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 06/2009; 108(6):469-74. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    Ming-Huei Sheu
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 06/2008; 71(5):232-3. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the imaging of the left atrial (LA) muscular bundle and the relationship between the bundle and inducibility of tachyarrhythmia after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Noninducibility is used as a clinical end point of atrial substrate ablation after PVI. However, little is known about the role of the LA muscular bundles in tachyarrhythmia after PVI. Forty-three consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who underwent catheter ablation were included. Bi-atrial isochronal mapping was performed with the NavX system (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota) during sinus rhythm. After 4 PVI, inducible organized LA flutter with or without transforming to atrial fibrillation (AF) (LA flutter/AF) was ablated with additional lines at the roof and/or mitral isthmus. The existence of bilateral muscular bundles was an independent predictor of LA flutter/AF after PVI (p = 0.02). Patients with LA flutter/AF after PVI had a greater index of the double potentials (5.4 +/- 3.4% vs. 2.8 +/- 1.8%, p = 0.006) and interpotential interval (33 +/- 5 ms vs. 29 +/- 4 ms, p = 0.02) than without LA flutter/AF. The muscular bundles were identified in 28% patients using 16-slice multidetector computed tomography, which were identical to the isochrone map. Patients with noninducible LA flutter/AF after PVI plus the additional linear ablation had a lower recurrence rate as compared with the patients without it (19% vs. 75%, p = 0.02). Left atrial muscular bundles may provide a conduction block line and barrier, which is important for the formation of LA flutter/AF after PVI. The noninducibility of LA flutter/AF achieved after additional linear ablation may contribute to a better outcome in RF ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2007; 50(10):964-73. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrio-bronchial fistula (ABF) can be a rare but potentially lethal complication following the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Understanding the extent of the contact between the bronchial tree and pulmonary veins (PVs) is critical to avoid this complication. We investigated the anatomic relationship between the four PVs and bronchial tree using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images. Seventy patients with drug refractory AF were included. They underwent 16-slice MDCT before the ablation. The spatial relationship between the bronchus and PVs was demonstrated by the multi-planar images. The bronchus was in direct contact with four PVs in the vast majority of patients. The mean distances between the bronchus and the ostia of right superior, left superior, right inferior, and left inferior PV were 7.1 +/- 5.5, 3.5 +/- 4.8, 12.3 +/- 5.6, and 17.9 +/- 6.8 mm, respectively. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group I: proximal contact (<5 mm from the PV ostium) and Group II: distal contact (>5 mm from the PV ostium). For the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV), the Group I patients were associated with thinner connective tissue between them (P = 0.001), a larger RSPV (17.2 +/- 2.2 vs 15.5 +/- 2.1 mm, P < 0.001), and right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) diameter (15.9 +/- 1.9 vs 14.6 +/- 1.6 mm, P < 0.01). For the left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV), the Group I patients were associated with an older age (P = 0.02). Isolation of the superior PVs may carry the potential risk of bronchial damage. The clinical or anatomic characteristics associated with the proximal contact between the bronchi and superior PVs can provide useful information to prevent this complication.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 09/2007; 18(10):1056-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The left atrial appendage (LAA) has been proven to be the most important site of thrombus formation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the information regarding the morphometric alteration of the LAA related to the outcome of AF ablation is still lacking. Thus, we evaluated the long-term changes of the LAA morphology in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Group 1 included 15 controls without any AF history. Group 2 included 40 patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal AF. They were divided into two subgroups: group 2a included 30 patients without AF recurrence after pulmonary vein (PV) ablation. Group 2b included 10 patients with late recurrence of AF. The LAA morphology before and after (20 +/- 11 months) ablation was evaluated by three-dimensional MRA. The group 2 patients had a larger baseline LAA size (including the LAA orifice, neck, and length) and less eccentric LAA orifice and neck. After the AF ablation, there was a significant reduction in the LAA size in the group 2a patients, and the morphology of the LAA neck became more eccentric during the follow-up period. In group 2b, the LAA size increased and no significant change in the eccentricity of the orifice and neck could be noted. The morphometric remodeling of the LAA in the AF patients could be reversed after a successful ablation of the AF. Progressive dilation of the LAA was noted in the patients with AF recurrence. These structural changes in the LAA may play a role in reducing the potential risk of cerebrovascular accidents.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2007; 18(1):47-52. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging of the aorta has received less attention than imaging of the coronary beds, despite the possible link between aortic and coronary artery disease (CAD). Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) with 100 ms scanning speed can eliminate pulsation-related motion artifacts. The goals of this study were to evaluate EBCT-detected subclinical atherosclerosis over the whole aorta as in routine abdominal and thoracic CT scans and analyze whether or not the measurements of aortic calcification (AC) can independently predict the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), which is a surrogate marker of CAD. A consecutive series of 196 adults (male:female, 127:69; mean age, 65.9 +/- 10.5 years) were enrolled for EBCT examinations of the coronary arteries and whole aorta. CAC and AC were calculated by the Agatston method. Major cardiovascular risk factors were also recorded. The greatest amount of AC was seen at the abdominal aorta, followed by the descending aortic arch, thoracic aorta, and ascending aorta. Total AC was significantly correlated with CAC (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors of age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and family history, the three independent significant determinants of CAC were abdominal AC, thoracic descending AC, and male gender (model r2 = 0.495, p < 0.001). For receiver operating characteristic analysis in predicting the presence of CAC, the threshold of descending AC was 11, with 68.3% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity. The optimal threshold of abdominal AC was 123, with 74.1% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity. AC values in different portions of the aorta are independent predictors for the presence of CAC.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 10/2006; 69(9):409-14. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The left atrium (LA) ablation in different regions, including LA appendage (LAA), LA roof, and LA septum, has recently been proposed to improve the success rate of treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomy of LAA, LA roof, and LA septum, using computed tomography (CT). Multidetector CT scan was used to depict the LA in 47 patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal AF (39 males, age = 50 +/- 12 years) and 49 control subjects (34 males, age = 54 +/- 11 years). The area of LAA orifice, neck, and the length of roof line were greater in AF group than in control subjects. Three types of LAA locations and two types of LAA ridges were observed. Higher incidence of inferior LAA was noted in AF patients. The different morphologies of LA roof were described. Roof pouches were revealed in 15% of AF and 14% of controls. Moreover, we found septal ridge in 32% of AF and 23% of controls. Considerable variations of LAA and LA roof morphologies were demonstrated. Peculiar structures, including roof pouches and septal ridges, were delineated by CT imaging. These findings were important for determining the strategy of AF ablation and avoiding the procedure-related complications.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 10/2006; 17(9):951-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 03/2006; 17(2 Pt 1):402-3. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common complications following percutaneous lung biopsy are pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage. There have been few cases of pneumomediastinum occurred after fluoroscopy guided biopsy. Literature revealed no case of massive air leak with pneumomediastium, pneumopericardium, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax developing secondary to computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. This report presents a case of massive air leak after this procedure.
    European Journal of Radiology Extra 01/2006; 60(1):15-17.