Byung-Yoon Cha

Chubu University, Касугай, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (35)79.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nobiletin is unique flavonoid having polymethoxy groups and has exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects. Here we examined the inhibition of nobiletin on melanogenesis induced by endothelin-1 (ET) and stem cell factor (SCF) in normal human melanocytes. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced ET plus SCF-stimulated tyrosinase activity without causing cytotoxicity. Nobiletin reduced cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which is a key transcription factor for tyrosinase expression in pigmentation induced by ET plus SCF stimulation. Nobiletin treatment effectively decreased ET plus SCF-induced Raf, MEK, and ERK phosphorylation and also down-regulated the forskolin-induced phosphorylation of CREB. Furthermore, nobiletin inhibited ET plus SCF-triggered production of melanin and expression of MITF/tyrosinase in a three-dimensional human epidermal model. In accordance with protein expression, the expression of genes related to the pigmentation was also increased in the cells stimulated with ET plus SCF and the co-treatment with nobiletin decreased obviously the ET plus SCF-triggered gene expressions of tyrosinase, PMEL, TRP1, and MITF. Nobiletin contributes to hypopigmentation by downregulating MITF and tyrosinase expression through reduced Raf-1 phosphorylation. Our findings implicate nobiletin as a potential new whitening agent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 12/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and osteoporosis are associated with estrogen deficiency following menopause. Therefore, it is important to prevent and treat both disorders to maintain a healthy life in postmenopausal women. Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone, exhibits various pharmacologic effects, including anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of nobiletin on obesity, obesity-related metabolic disorders, and bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Mice were divided into four groups and underwent sham operation or OVX. OVX mice were treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg nobiletin, or received vehicle alone (0.3% carboxyl methyl cellu-lose/0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide). Nobiletin decreased body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight in OVX mice. Nobiletin also decreased triglyceride levels, and tended to reduce plasma to-tal cholesterol and glucose levels. Additionally, nobiletin prevented the reduction in bone mineral density of the trabecular region of the femur in OVX mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nobiletin improves adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prevents bone loss in OVX mice. Therefore, nobiletin is expected to have beneficial effects for the prevention and improvement of metabolic disorders and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
    Pharmacology & Pharmacy 09/2014; 5(10):959-965.
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    ABSTRACT: Using B16 melanoma cells for screening, we found that a marine sponge extract has a potent anti-pigmenting effect and identified arenarol as its major active compound. In normal human melanocytes (NHMs), arenarol significantly abrogated the endothelin 1 (EDN1) stimulated expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and dopachrome tautomerase at the transcriptional, translational and enzymatic activity (only for tyrosinase) levels. That effect was accompanied by the attenuation of the increased expression level of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) protein at the transcriptional and translational levels. Analysis of EDN1 signaling demonstrated that arenarol significantly suppressed the EDN1-induced phosphorylation of MEK, ERK, MITF and CREB but not of Raf-1s. In contrast, the forskolin-induced phosphorylation of CREB was not down-regulated by arenarol. As for the mode of action of the suppressed phosphorylation of MEK, Raf-1 activity was not directly inhibited by arenarol in vitro and pretreatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid did not affect the down-regulated phosphorylation of MEK that was induced by arenarol in NHMs. The sum of these findings suggests that arenarol abrogates the EDN1-stimulated expression of melanocyte-specific proteins by interrupting MEK phosphorylation in an as yet unknown Raf-1 inactivation mechanism.
    Cytotechnology 05/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induces the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), leading to the development of various vascular disorders such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhibitors of PDGF-induced cellular events would be candidate agents for treating these diseases. During the search for such inhibitors from marine sources, we isolated petrosiols A-D (1-4) and related compounds from the marine sponge Petrosia strongylata. These metabolites, which we previously reported as neurotrophic substances, showed an inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced DNA synthesis at IC(50) values of 0.69-2.2μM. Petrosiol A (1) inhibited PDGF-induced cell proliferation without remarkable cytotoxicity and arrested cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 to S phase by inducing the downregulation of the expression of G1 checkpoint proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)2, and CDK4 and the upregulation of the expression of p21 and p27. In addition, petrosiol A (1) inhibited the phosphorylation of PDGF receptor-β and its downstream proteins such as phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. These results suggest that 1 inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation by interrupting the phosphorylation of PDGF receptor-β followed by downstream signal transduction. Furthermore, petrosiol A (1) suppressed PDGF-induced actin filament dissociation and cell migration, suggesting that 1 and its derivatives may be used for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liquorice is one of the botanicals used frequently as a traditional medicine in the West and in the East. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is involved in the development of CVD by inducing abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. In our preliminary study, dehydroglyasperin C (DGC), an active compound of liquorice, showed strong antioxidant activity. Since phytochemicals with antioxidant activities showed beneficial effects on chronic inflammatory diseases, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of DGC on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Treatment of HASMC with DGC for 24 h significantly decreased PDGF-induced cell number and DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test and thymidine incorporation. Upon cell cycle analysis, DGC blocked the PDGF-induced progression through the G0/G1 to S phase of the cell cycle, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK); 2, cyclin E, CDK4 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, DGC significantly attenuated PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PDGF receptor-β, phospholipase C-γ1, AKT and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, and DGC inhibited cell migration and the dissociation of actin filaments by PDGF. In a rat vascular balloon injury model, DGC suppressed an excessive reduction in luminal diameters and neointimal formation compared with the control group. These results demonstrate the mechanistic basis for the prevention of CVD and the potential therapeutic properties of DGC.
    The British journal of nutrition 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The G-quadruplex is one of the most frequently studied secondary DNA structures and consists of 4 guanine residues that interact through Watson–Crick and Hoogsteen pairing. The G-quadruplex formation is thought to be a molecular switch for gene expression. Genome-wide analyses of G-quadruplexes have been published for many species; however, only one genome-wide analysis of G-quadruplexes in plants has been reported. Here, we propose a new approach involving a two-step procedure for identifying G-quadruplex-forming sequences (potential G4 DNA motif regions: G4MRs) and classifying positional relationships between G4MRs and genes. By using this approach, we exhaustively searched for G4MRs in the whole genomes of 8 species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera, Homo sapiens, Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. We classified genes on the basis of their positional relationships to their proximal G4MRs. We identified novel rules for G4MRs in plants, such as G4MR-enrichment in the template strands at transcription start sites (TSSs). Next, we focused on the template strands of TSSs and conducted gene ontology (GO) analysis of genes proximal to G4MRs. We identified GO terms such as chloroplast and nucleosome (or histone) in O. sativa. Although these terms were strongly associated in O. sativa, weak associations were identified in other plants. These results will be helpful for elucidating the functional roles of G4 DNA.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 12/2012; 114(5):570-575. · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nobiletin (NOB) is a polymethoxylated flavone present in citrus fruits and has been reported to have antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is known about the effects of NOB on obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we examined the effects of NOB on obesity and insulin resistance, and the underlying mechanisms, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Obese mice were fed a HFD for 8weeks and then treated without (HFD control group) or with NOB at 10 or 100mg/kg. NOB decreased body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and plasma triglyceride. Plasma glucose levels tended to decrease compared with the HFD group and improved plasma adiponectin levels and glucose tolerance. Furthermore, NOB altered the expression levels of several lipid metabolism-related and adipokine genes. NOB increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, PPAR-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, uncoupling protein-2 and adiponectin, and decreased the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in WAT. NOB also up-regulated glucose transporter-4 protein expression and Akt phosphorylation and suppressed IκBα degradation in WAT. Taken together, these results suggest that NOB improves adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. These effects may be elicited by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related and adipokine genes, and by regulating the expression of inflammatory makers and activity of the insulin signaling pathway.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 08/2012; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flos Magnoliae (FM) is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb for symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis and headache. Although several FM species have been used as substitutes or adulterants for clinical use, possible differences in their pharmacological actions have not been reported. To confirm the effects of FM on skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, we tested the effects of several compounds isolated from FM on glucose uptake by L6 myotubes. We found that fargesin, a component of FM, dose-dependently stimulated glucose consumption in L6 myotubes, which was accompanied by enhanced glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 translocation to the cell surface. Fargesin-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor. Fargesin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a key component in the insulin signaling pathway, which was completely inhibited by wortmannin. Here, we demonstrated that fargesin, a bioactive component of Flos Magnoliae, increases basal glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes by activating the PI3 K-Akt pathway.
    Journal of Natural Medicines 07/2012; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Honokiol and magnolol, ingredients of Magnolia officinalis, which is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines, have been reported to have antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenic effects. Effects of these compounds on glucose metabolism in adipocytes have also been reported. However, their effects on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the direct effects and signaling pathways activated by honokiol and magnolol in skeletal muscle cells using L6 myotubes. We found that honokiol and magnolol dose-dependently acutely stimulated glucose uptake without synergistic effects of combined administration in L6 myotubes. Treatment with honokiol and magnolol also stimulated glucose transporter-4 translocation to the cell surface. Honokiol- and magnolol-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Both honokiol and magnolol stimulated Akt phosphorylation, a key element in the insulin signaling pathway, which was completely inhibited by wortmannin. These results suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism by activating the insulin signaling pathway. © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    BioFactors 06/2012; 38(5):372-7. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of fargesin, a neolignan isolated from Magnolia plants, on obesity and insulin resistance and the possible mechanisms involved in these effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Fargesin promoted the glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HFD-induced obese mice, fargesin decreased the body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT), and plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose levels, and improved the glucose tolerance. Fargesin increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and WAT of HFD-induced obese mice. Fargesin also decreased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and leptin in WAT. Taken together, the present findings suggest that fargesin improves dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia by activating Akt and AMPK in WAT.
    BioFactors 06/2012; 38(4):300-8. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dried flower buds of Magnolia sp. are widely used as herbal medicines because of their anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial and anti-platelet activities. Here, we found that veraguensin and galgravin, lignan compounds derived from Magnolia sp., dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast formation in co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblastic cells. These compounds also inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow macrophages. In the RANKL-induced signaling pathway, veraguensin and galgravin reduced p38 phosphorylation and suppressed the expression of c-Fos, a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. Veraguensin and galgravin also inhibited osteoclastic pit formation, which was accompanied by decreased mature osteoclast viability. In conclusion, these results indicate that veraguensin and galgravin can inhibit bone resorption and may offer novel compounds for the development of drugs to treat bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis.
    Cytotechnology 04/2012; 64(3):315-22. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a ProteoChip coated with a calixcrown derivative protein linker to measure adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels and compared the results with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Adiponectin and MCP-1 levels in normal human serum and RAW264 cell supernatants, respectively, were measured. The ProteoChip quantification results correlated with those from the ELISA kits; however, the ProteoChip required less sample volume, exhibited higher sensitivity, and had a wider detection range. The ProteoChip was capable of detecting and quantifying small amounts of protein, possibly replacing ELISA kits in evaluating the levels of adiponectin and MCP-1.
    Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry 04/2012; 33(2):166-79. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl) is a major phenolic compound purified from Magnolia officinalis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of magnolol on vascular contractions. 2. Rat aortic rings were mounted in organ baths. Magnolol was added cumulatively (0.3-30 μmol/L) to elicit relaxation in endothelium-intact and -denuded rat aortic rings precontracted with U46619 (30 nmol/L, 20 min), NaF (8.0 mmol/L, 40 min), phenylephrine (1.0 or 0.1 μmol/L, 15 min) or phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 0.3 or 0.1 μmol/L, 40 min). In separate experiments, cumulative concentrationresponse curves were obtained for NaF (2.0-12 mmol/L), U46619 (1.0 nmol/L1.0 μmol/L) or PDBu (1.0 nmol/L1.0 μmol/L) after pretreatment with either magnolol or vehicle for 30 min in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. After completion of the functional study, we measured the amount of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) RhoA by using a G-LISA RhoA Activation Assay, as well as the phosphorylation of 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC₂₀), myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for heterotrimeric myosin light-chain phosphatase of 17 kDa (CPI-17) by immunobloting. 3. Magnolol (0.3-30 μmol/L) reduced vascular tension induced by the thromboxane A₂ agonist U46619 (30 nmol/L), sodium fluoride (NaF) (8.0 mmol/L) and the α₁ -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (1.0 or 0.1 μmol/L) in both endothelium-intact and -denuded rings. The magnitude of the relaxation effects of magnolol on the contraction induced by each of the drugs were similar. The magnitude of the effect of magnolol in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings were similar. 4. Pretreatment of rat aortic rings with 1.0, 3.0 or 10 μmol/L magnolol for 30 min dose-dependently inhibited the maximum response on the concentration-response curves to NaF and U46619, but not to phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). 5. Magnolol (3.0 or 10 μmol/L) decreased RhoA activation, as well as the phosphorylation of MLC₂₀ , MYPT1(Thr855) and CPI-17(Thr38) induced by either 8.0 mmol/L NaF or 30 nmol/L U46619. In contrast, magnolol did not affect PDBu (0.1 μmol/L)-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17(Thr38) . 6. In conclusion, magnolol reduces vascular contraction by inhibiting the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in endothelium-denuded rat aorta.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2012; 39(1):28-36. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Honokiol is a small-molecule polyphenol isolated from the species Magnolia obovata. We hypothesized that honokiol attenuated vascular contractions through the inhibition of the RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling pathway. Rat aortic rings were denuded of endothelium, mounted in organ baths, and subjected to contraction or relaxation. Phosphorylation of 20kDa myosin light chains (MLC(20) ), myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) and protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated inhibitory protein for heterotrimeric myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) of 17kDa (CPI17) were examined by immunoblot. We also measured the amount of guanosine triphosphate RhoA as a marker for RhoA activation. Pretreatment with honokiol dose-dependently inhibited the concentration-response curves in response to sodium fluoride (NaF) or thromboxane A(2) agonist U46619. Honokiol decreased the phosphorylation levels of MLC(20) , MYPT1(Thr855) and CPI17(Thr38) as well as the activation of RhoA induced by 8.0mm NaF or 30nm U46619. These results demonstrated that honokiol attenuated vascular contraction through the inhibition of the RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling pathway.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 09/2011; 63(9):1244-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB can induce abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that are involved in the development of CVD. In our preliminary study, phytoalexin glyceollins (glyceollins I, II and III) isolated from soyabean seeds cultured with Aspergillus sojae showed strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Since antioxidants showed beneficial effects on chronic inflammatory diseases, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of glyceollins on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Incubation of resting HASMC with glyceollins for 24 h significantly diminished PDGF-increased cell number and DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity. In addition to blocking of the PDGF-inducible progression through the G0/G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle, glyceollins down-regulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and cyclin D1, and up-regulated the expression of CDK inhibitors such as p27kip1 and p53.Glyceollins also effectively inhibited reactive oxygen species generation and phosphorylation of PDGF receptor-β, phospholipase Cγ1, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 by PDGF stimulation. Furthermore, glyceollins were found to inhibit PDGF-induced dissociation of actin filaments and cell migration. Thus, the results suggest that glyceollins could become a potent therapeutic agent for regulating VSMC-associated vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2011; 107(1):24-35. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mass and function of bones depend on the maintenance of a complicated balance between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. An inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and/or function is expected to be useful for treatment of bone lytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumor metastasis into bone. Biselyngbyaside is a recently isolated macrolide compound from marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya sp. that shows wide-spectrum cytotoxicity toward human tumor cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of biselyngbyaside on osteoclast differentiation and function. Biselyngbyaside inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse monocytic RAW264 cells and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages at a low concentration. Similarly, biselyngbyaside suppressed osteoblastic cell-mediated osteoclast differentiation in cocultures. In the RANKL-induced signaling pathway, biselyngbyaside inhibited the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are important transcription factors in osteoclast differentiation. In mature osteoclasts, biselyngbyaside decreased resorption-pit formation. Biselyngbyaside also induced apoptosis accompanied by the induction of caspase-3 activation and nuclear condensation, and these effects were negated by the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK. Taken together, the present findings indicate that biselyngbyaside suppresses bone resorption via inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Thus, biselyngbyaside may be useful for the prevention of bone lytic diseases.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2011; 113(2):440-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling causes enhanced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The downregulation of RANKL expression and its downstream signals may be an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. Here, we found that coptisine, one of the isoquinoline alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma, exhibited inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Although coptisine has been studied for its antipyretic, antiphotooxidative, dampness dispelling, antidote, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, its effects on osteoclastogenesis have not been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of coptisine on osteoblastic cells as well as osteoclast precursors for osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The addition of coptisine to cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and primary osteoblastic cells with 10(-8) M 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) caused significant inhibition of osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that coptisine inhibited RANKL gene expression and stimulated the osteoprotegerin gene expression induced by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) in osteoblastic cells. Coptisine strongly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation when added during the early stage of bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, suggesting that it acts on osteoclast precursors to inhibit RANKL/RANK signaling. Among the RANK signaling pathways, coptisine inhibited NF-κB p65 phosphorylations, which are regulated in response to RANKL in BMMs. Coptisine also inhibited the RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1, which is a key transcription factor. In addition, 10 μM coptisine significantly inhibited both the survival of mature osteoclasts and their pit-forming activity in cocultures. Thus, coptisine has potential for the treatment or prevention of several bone diseases characterized by excessive bone destruction.
    Journal of Natural Medicines 06/2011; 66(1):8-16. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone mass is regulated by osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We previously reported that harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Harmine promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting their proliferation. Harmine also increased the mRNA expressions of the osteoblast marker genes ALP and Osteocalcin. Furthermore, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was enhanced by treatment with harmine. Harmine also induced osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells. Structure-activity relationship studies using harmine-related β-carboline alkaloids revealed that the C3-C4 double bond and 7-hydroxy or 7-methoxy group of harmine were important for its osteogenic activity. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist noggin and its receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 attenuated harmine-promoted ALP activity. In addition, harmine increased the mRNA expressions of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Bmp-6, Bmp-7 and its target gene Id1. Harmine also enhanced the mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, which are key transcription factors in osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP-responsive and Runx2-responsive reporters were activated by harmine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that harmine enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of BMPs and activating BMP and Runx2 pathways. Our findings suggest that harmine has bone anabolic effects and may be useful for the treatment of bone-decreasing diseases and bone regeneration as a lead compound.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 409(2):260-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenic activity of six diarylheptanoids, acerogenin A (1), (R)-acerogenin B (2), aceroside I (3), aceroside B(1) (4), aceroside III (5) and (-)-centrolobol (6) and two phenolic compounds; (+)-rhododendrol (7) and (+)-cathechin (8), isolated from the stem bark of Acer nikoense (Nikko maple) was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as a marker for early osteoblast differentiation. We found that the diphenyl ether-type cyclic diarylheptanoids 1-5 promoted ALP activity in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting cell proliferation, but linear-type diarylheptanoid 6 and phenolic compounds 7 and 8 did not. Diphenyl ether-type cyclic diarylheptanoids 1-4 also increased protein production of osteocalcin, a late stage maker for osteoblast differentiation, and induced osteoblastic mineralization. Structure-activity relationships of these compounds demonstrated that the stimulative efficacy of aglycones was higher than that of its glycosides. Taken together, diphenyl ether-type cyclic diarylheptanoids promote early- and late-stage osteoblastogenesis, which may open the possibility for the development of novel osteogenic agents.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 06/2011; 21(11):3248-51. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Citrus depressa Hayata (commonly known as shiikuwasa) is cultivated in the northern areas of Okinawa, Japan, and used as a juice. In this study, we examined the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of shiikuwasa peel extract (SE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD or HFD containing 1% or 1.5% (w/w) SE (HFD+1 SE and HFD+1.5 SE, respectively) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. The plasma triglyceride and leptin levels were also significantly reduced in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. Histological examinations showed that the sizes of the adipocytes were significantly smaller in the HFD+1.5 SE group than in the HFD group. The HFD+1.5 SE group also showed significantly lower mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, such as activating protein 2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase 1, fatty acid transport protein and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, than the HFD group. These results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of SE may be elicited by regulating the expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in white adipose tissue.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 06/2011; 18(8-9):648-54. · 2.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

251 Citations
79.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Chubu University
      • Research Institute for Biological Functions
      Касугай, Aichi, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty & Graduate School of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Matsumoto Dental University
      • Institute for Oral Science
      Matsumoto, Nagano-ken, Japan