Jason S Shapiro

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (33)47.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For over 25 years, emergency medicine researchers have examined 72-hour return visits as a marker for high-risk patient visits and as a surrogate measure for quality of care. Individual emergency departments (EDs) frequently use 72-hour returns as a screening tool to identify deficits in care, although comprehensive departmental reviews of this nature may consume considerable resources. We discuss the lack of published data supporting the use of 72-hour return frequency as an overall performance measure and examine why this is not a valid use, describe a conceptual framework for reviewing 72-hour return cases as a screening tool, and call for future studies to test various models for conducting such QA reviews of patients who return to the ED within 72 hours.
    The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that using communitywide data from a health information exchange (HIE) could improve the ability to identify frequent emergency department (ED) users-those with four or more ED visits in thirty days-by allowing ED use to be measured across unaffiliated hospitals. When we analyzed HIE-wide data instead of site-specific data, we identified 20.3 percent more frequent ED users (5,756 versus 4,785) and 16.0 percent more visits by them to the ED (53,031 versus 45,771). Additionally, we found that 28.8 percent of frequent ED users visited multiple EDs during the twelve-month study period, versus 3.0 percent of all ED users. All three differences were significant ($$p ). An improved ability to identify frequent ED users allows better targeting of case management and other services that can improve frequent ED users' health and reduce their use of costly emergency medical services.
    Health Affairs 12/2013; 32(12):2193-8. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services "meaningful use" incentive programs, in tandem with the boundless additional requirements for detailed reporting of quality metrics, have galvanized hospital efforts to implement hospital-based electronic health records. As such, emergency department information systems (EDISs) are an important and unique component of most hospitals' electronic health records. System functionality varies greatly and affects physician decisionmaking, clinician workflow, communication, and, ultimately, the overall quality of care and patient safety. This article is a joint effort by members of the Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Section and the Informatics Section of the American College of Emergency Physicians. The aim of this effort is to examine the benefits and potential threats to quality and patient safety that could result from the choice of a particular EDIS, its implementation and optimization, and the hospital's or physician group's approach to continuous improvement of the EDIS. Specifically, we explored the following areas of potential EDIS safety concerns: communication failure, wrong order-wrong patient errors, poor data display, and alert fatigue. Case studies are presented that illustrate the potential harm that could befall patients from an inferior EDIS product or suboptimal execution of such a product in the clinical environment. The authors have developed 7 recommendations to improve patient safety with respect to the deployment of EDISs. These include ensuring that emergency providers actively participate in selection of the EDIS product, in the design of processes related to EDIS implementation and optimization, and in the monitoring of the system's ongoing success or failure. Our recommendations apply to emergency departments using any type of EDIS: custom-developed systems, best-of-breed vendor systems, or enterprise systems.
    Annals of emergency medicine 06/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the performance of LOINC® and RadLex standard terminologies for covering CT test names from three sites in a health information exchange (HIE) with the eventual goal of building an HIE-based clinical decision support system to alert providers of prior duplicate CTs. Given the goal, the most important parameter to assess was coverage for high frequency exams that were most likely to be repeated. We showed that both LOINC® and RadLex provided sufficient coverage for our use case through calculations of (a) high coverage of 90% and 94%, respectively for the subset of CTs accounting for 99% of exams performed and (b) high concept token coverage (total percentage of exams performed that map to terminologies) of 92% and 95%, respectively. With trends toward greater interoperability, this work may provide a framework for those wishing to map radiology site codes to a standard nomenclature for purposes of tracking resource utilization.
    AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 01/2013; 2013:94-102.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: For a health information exchange (HIE) organization to succeed in any given region, it is important to understand the optimal catchment area for the patient population it is serving. The objective of this analysis was to understand the geographical distribution of the patients being served by one HIE organization in New York City (NYC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient demographic data were obtained from the New York Clinical Information Exchange (NYCLIX), a regional health information organization (RHIO) representing most of the major medical centers in the borough of Manhattan in NYC. Patients' home address zip codes were used to create a research dataset with aggregate counts of patients by US county and international standards organization country. Times Square was designated as the geographical center point of the RHIO for distance calculations. RESULTS: Most patients (87.7%) live within a 30 mile radius from Times Square and there was a precipitous drop off of patients visiting RHIO-affiliated facilities at distances greater than 100 miles. 43.6% of patients visiting NYCLIX facilities were from the other NYC boroughs rather than from Manhattan itself (31.9%). DISCUSSION: Most patients who seek care at members of NYCLIX live within a well-defined area and a clear decrease in patients visiting NYCLIX sites with distance was identified. Understanding the geographical distribution of patients visiting the large medical centers in the RHIO can inform the RHIO's planning as it looks to add new participant organizations in the surrounding geographical area.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 10/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to understand home healthcare nurses' current experiences in obtaining outside clinical information at the point of care and the type of clinical information they most desire in their patients' health information exchange profile. A Web-based survey was deployed to home health workers in New York to learn about their experiences retrieving outside clinical data prior to having access to health information exchange, preferred data elements and sources in their patients' health information exchange profiles, and how availability of outside clinical data may affect emergency department referrals. Of the 2383 participants, 566 responded for a 23.8% overall response rate, and 469 of these respondents were RNs. Most RNs, 96.7%, agreed that easier and quicker access to outside information would benefit delivery of care, and 72.6% said the number of emergency department referrals would decrease. When asked about pre-health information exchange access to patient data, 96.3% said it was problematic. Inpatient discharge summaries were chosen most often by the RNs as a top five desired data element 81.5% of the time. Obtaining outside clinical information has been a challenge without health information exchange, but improved access to this information may lead to improved care. Further study is required to assess experiences with the use of health information exchange.
    Computers, informatics, nursing: CIN 05/2012; 30(9):503-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The trend towards hospitalist medicine can lead to disjointed patient care. Outpatient clinicians may be unaware of patients' encounters with a disparate healthcare system. Electronic notifications to outpatient clinicians of patients' emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions and discharges using health information exchange can inform outpatient clinicians of patients' hospital-based events. Objective Assess outpatient clinicians' impressions of a new, secure messaging-based, patient event notification system. Methods Twenty outpatient clinicians receiving notifications of hospital-based events were recruited and 14 agreed to participate. Using a semi-structured interview, clinicians were asked about their use of notifications and the impact on their practices. Results Nine of 14 interviewed clinicians (64%) thought that without notifications, they would have heard about fewer than 10% of ED visits before the patient's next visit. Nine clinicians (64%) thought that without notifications, they would have heard about fewer than 25% of inpatient admissions and discharges before the patient's next visit. Six clinicians (43%) reported that they call the inpatient team more often because of notifications. Eight users (57%) thought that notifications improved patient safety by increasing their awareness of the patients' clinical events and their medication changes. Key themes identified were the importance of workflow integration and a desire for more clinical information in notifications. Conclusions The notification system is perceived by clinicians to be of value. These findings should instigate further message-oriented use of health information exchange and point to refinements that can lead to even greater benefits.
    Informatics in primary care 01/2012; 20(4):249-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Notifying ambulatory providers when their patients visit the hospital is a simple concept but potentially a powerful tool for improving care coordination. A health information exchange (HIE) can provide automatic notifications to its members by building services on top of their existing infrastructure. NYCLIX, Inc., a functioning HIE in New York City, has developed a system that detects hospital admissions, discharges and emergency department visits and notifies their providers. The system has been in use since November 2010. Out of 63,305 patients enrolled 6,913 (11%) had one or more events in the study period and on average there were 238 events per day. While event notifications have a clinical value, their use also involves non-clinical care coordination; new workflows should be designed to incorporate a broader care team in their use. This paper describes the user requirements for the notification system, system design, current status, lessons learned and future directions.
    AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 01/2012; 2012:635-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Employing new health information technologies while concurrently providing quality patient care and reducing risk is a major challenge in all health care sectors. In this study, we investigated the usability gaps in the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) as ten nurses differentiated by two experience levels, namely six expert nurses and four novice nurses, completed two lists of nine scenario-based tasks. Standard usability tests using video analysis, including four sets of performance measures, a task completion survey, the system usability scale (SUS), and sub-task analysis were conducted in order to analyze usability gaps between the two nurse groups. A varying degree of usability gaps were observed between the expert and novice nurse groups, as novice nurses completed the tasks both less efficiently, and expressed less satisfaction with the EDIS. The most interesting finding in this study was the result of 'percent task success rate,' the clearest performance measure, with no substantial difference observed between the two nurse groups. Geometric mean values between expert and novice nurse groups for this measure were 60% vs. 62% in scenario 1 and 66% vs. 55% in scenario 2 respectively, while there were some marginal to substantial gaps observed in other performance measures. In addition to performance measures and the SUS, sub-task analysis highlighted navigation pattern differences between users, regardless of experience level. This study will serve as a baseline study for a future comparative usability evaluation of EDIS in other institutions with similar clinical settings.
    Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2012; 3(1):135-53. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Public health relies on data reported by health care partners, and information technology makes such reporting easier than ever. However, data are often structured according to a variety of different terminologies and formats, making data interfaces complex and costly. As one strategy to address these challenges, health information organizations (HIOs) have been established to allow secure, integrated sharing of clinical information among numerous stakeholders, including clinical partners and public health, through health information exchange (HIE). We give detailed descriptions of 11 typical cases in which HIOs can be used for public health purposes. We believe that HIOs, and HIE in general, can improve the efficiency and quality of public health reporting, facilitate public health investigation, improve emergency response, and enable public health to communicate information to the clinical community.
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2011; 101(4):616-23. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • A. Onyile, J. S. Shapiro, G. Kuperman
    Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2011; 58(4).
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    N Genes, J Shapiro, S Vaidya, G Kuperman
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency physicians are trained to make decisions quickly and with limited patient information. Health Information Exchange (HIE) has the potential to improve emergency care by bringing relevant patient data from non-affiliated organizations to the bedside. NYCLIX (New York CLinical Information eXchange) offers HIE functionality among multiple New York metropolitan area provider organizations and has pilot users in several member emergency departments (EDs). We conducted semi-structured interviews at three participating EDs with emergency physicians trained to use NYCLIX. Among "users" with > 1 login, responses to questions regarding typical usage scenarios, successful retrieval of data, and areas for improving the interface were recorded. Among "non-users" with ≤1 login, questions about NYCLIX accessibility and utility were asked. Both groups were asked to recall items from prior training regarding data sources and availability. Eighteen NYCLIX pilot users, all board certified emergency physicians, were interviewed. Of the 14 physicians with more than one login ,half estimated successful retrieval of HIE data affecting patient care. Four non-users (one login or less) cited forgotten login information as a major reason for non-use. Though both groups made errors, users were more likely to recall true NYCLIX member sites and data elements than non-users. Improvements suggested as likely to facilitate usage included a single automated login to both the ED information system (EDIS) and HIE, and automatic notification of HIE data availability in the EDIS All respondents reported satisfaction with their training. Integrating HIE into existing ED workflows remains a challenge, though a substantial fraction of users report changes in management based on HIE data. Though interviewees believed their training was adequate, significant errors in their understanding of available NYCLIX data elements and participating sites persist.
    Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2011; 2(3):263-9. · 0.39 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2011; 58(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The participants of the Electronic Collaboration working group of the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference developed recommendations and research questions for improving regional quality of care through the use of electronic collaboration. A writing group devised a working draft prior to the meeting and presented this to the breakout session at the consensus conference for input and approval. The recommendations include: 1) patient health information should be available electronically across the entire health care delivery system from the 9-1-1 call to the emergency department (ED) visit through hospitalization and outpatient care, 2) relevant patient health information should be shared electronically across the entire health care delivery system, 3) Web-based collaborative technologies should be employed to facilitate patient transfer and timely access to specialists, 4) personal health record adoption should be considered as a way to improve patient health, and 5) any comprehensive reform of regionalization in emergency care must include telemedicine. The workgroup emphasized the need for funding increases so that research in this new and exciting area can expand.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 12/2010; 17(12):1312-21. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the accuracy of troponin laboratory results versus International Classification of Diseases clinical modification codes (ICD-9-CM) in identifying acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rule-out (R/O) patients who present to emergency departments (EDs). Retrospective data analysis and chart review (to establish gold standard) were conducted on ED patients. Data retrieved from a clinical data warehouse were reviewed to identify patients with two or more troponins within 24 h of ED registration and ICD-9-CM codes consistent with ACS R/O. Of 329 charts reviewed, 17 were determined to be ACS R/O. A total of 31 out of 329 (9.42%, 95% CI: 6.26–12.58%) had two or more troponins with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 77.08–100%) and specificity of 95.51% (95% CI: 92.42–97.43%). A total of 32 out of 329 patients (9.73%, 95% CI: 6.53–12.93%) had R/O ICD-9-CM codes with a sensitivity of 76.47% (95% CI: 49.76–83.00%) and specificity of 93.91% (95% CI: 90.50–96.19%). All 17 gold-standard ACS R/O patients were identified using troponins while ICD-9-CM identified 13 out of 17. Clinical data (two troponins) availability is timelier and compares well with billing data (ICD-9-CM codes) in ACS R/O patient identification. Clinical data use may be generalized to identify other disease specific cohorts for clinical research.
    Future Cardiology 09/2010; 6(5):725-31.
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to measure the financial impact of implementing a fully integrated emergency department information system (EDIS) and determine the length of time to "break even" on the initial investment. A before-and-after study design was performed using a framework of analysis consisting of four 15-month phases: 1) preimplementation, 2) peri-implementation, 3) postimplementation, and 4) sustained effects. Registration and financial data were reviewed. Costs and rates of professional and facility charges and receipts were calculated for the phases in question and compared against monthly averages for covariates such as volume, collections rates, acuity, age, admission rate, and insurance status with an autoregressive time series analysis using a segmented model. The break-even point was calculated by measuring cumulative monthly receipts for the last three study phases in excess of the average monthly receipts from the preimplementation phase, corrected for change in volume, and then plotting this against cumulative overall cost. Time to break even on the initial EDIS investment was less than 8 months. Total revenue enhancement at the end of the 5-year study period was $16,138,953 with an increase of 69.40% in charges and 70.06% in receipts. This corresponds to an increase in receipts per patient from $50 to $90 for professional services and $131 to $183 for facilities charges. Other than volume, there were no significant changes in trends for covariates between the preimplementation and sustained-effects periods. A comprehensive EDIS implementation with process redesign resulted in sustained increases in professional and facility revenues and a rapid initial break-even point. .
    Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2010; 17(5):527-35. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical practice guidelines are developed to reduce variations in clinical practice, with the goal of improving health care quality and cost. However, evidence-based practice guidelines face barriers to dissemination, implementation, usability, integration into practice, and use. The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) clinical policies have been shown to be safe and effective and are even cited by other specialties. In spite of the benefits of the ACEP clinical policies, implementation of these clinical practice guidelines into physician practice continues to be a challenge. Translation of the ACEP clinical policies into real-time computerized clinical decision support systems could help address these barriers and improve clinician decision making at the point of care. The investigators convened an emergency medicine informatics expert panel and used a Delphi consensus process to assess the feasibility of translating the current ACEP clinical policies into clinical decision support content. This resulting consensus document will serve to identify limitations to implementation of the existing ACEP Clinical Policies so that future clinical practice guideline development will consider implementation into clinical decision support at all stages of guideline development.
    Annals of emergency medicine 04/2010; 56(4):317-20. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fueled by a decade-long increase in emergency department (ED) visits with a concomitant decrease in hospital bed capacity and the number of hospital EDs, ED crowding has reached crisis proportions. Robust information systems and process redesign are two strategies to improve the safety and quality of emergency care. At the ED at the Mount Sinai Medical Center, an urban, tertiary care academic medical center in New York City, elements of departmental work flow were redesigned to streamline patient throughput before implementation of a fully integrated emergency department information system (EDIS) with patient tracking, computerized charting and order entry, and direct access to patient historical data from the hospital data repository. Pre- and postintervention data were analyzed to examine the impact on (ED) efficiency. The length of stay for all patients (arrival to time patient left ED) decreased by 1.94 hours, from 6.69 (n = 508) pre-intervention to 4.75 (n = 691) postintervention (p < .001); doctor-to-disposition time (first doctor-patient contact to disposition decision) decreased by 1.90 hours, from 3.64 (n = 508) to 1.74 (n = 691; p < .001); door-to-doctor time (triage to first doctor-patient contact) decreased by 0.54 hours, from 1.22 (n = 508) to 0.68 (n = 691; p < .001). X-ray turnaround time (TAT) decreased by 0.18 hours from 0.92 (n = 60) to 0.74 (n = 108; p = .179); computerized tomography (CT) scan TAT decreased by 1.56 hours, from 3.89 (n = 40) to 2.33 (n = 29; p < .001), lab TAT decreased by 0.59 hours, from 2.03 (n = 121) to 1.44 (n = 271; p = .006). Increasing the clinical information available at the bedside and improving departmental work flow through EDIS implementation and process redesign led to decreased patient throughput times and improved ED efficiency.
    Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources 04/2010; 36(4):179-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Novel H1N1 influenza spread rapidly around the world in spring 2009. Few places were as widely affected as the New York metropolitan area. Emergency departments (EDs) in the region experienced daily visit increases in 2 distinct temporal peaks, with means of 36.8% and 60.7% over baseline in April and May, respectively, and became, in a sense, the "canary in the coal mine" for the rest of the country as we braced ourselves for resurgent spread in the fall. Biosurveillance efforts by public health agencies can lead to earlier detection, potentially forestalling spread of outbreaks and leading to better situational awareness by frontline medical staff and public health workers as they respond to a crisis, but biosurveillance has traditionally relied on manual reporting by hospital administrators when they are least able: in the midst of a public health crisis. This article explores the use of health information exchange networks, which enable the secure flow of clinical data among otherwise unaffiliated providers across entire regions for the purposes of clinical care, as a tool for automated biosurveillance reporting. Additionally, this article uses a health information exchange to assess H1N1's effect on ED visit rates and discusses preparedness recommendations and lessons learned from the spring 2009 H1N1 experience across 11 geographically distinct EDs in New York City that participate in the health information exchange.
    Annals of emergency medicine 03/2010; 55(3):274-9. · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • A. V. Papa, N. Genes, J. S. Shapiro, G. Kuperman
    Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2010; 56(3).

Publication Stats

160 Citations
47.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Manhattan, New York, United States
    • Los Robles Hospital and Medical Center
      Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States
  • 2011
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Miami, FL, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Informatics
      New York City, NY, United States