Jason S Shapiro

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (41)70.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For over 25 years, emergency medicine researchers have examined 72-hour return visits as a marker for high-risk patient visits and as a surrogate measure for quality of care. Individual emergency departments (EDs) frequently use 72-hour returns as a screening tool to identify deficits in care, although comprehensive departmental reviews of this nature may consume considerable resources. We discuss the lack of published data supporting the use of 72-hour return frequency as an overall performance measure and examine why this is not a valid use, describe a conceptual framework for reviewing 72-hour return cases as a screening tool, and call for future studies to test various models for conducting such QA reviews of patients who return to the ED within 72 hours.
    American Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Hospital crossover occurs when people seek care at multiple hospitals, creating information gaps for physicians at the time of care. Health information exchange (HIE) is technology that fills these gaps, by allowing otherwise unaffiliated physicians to share electronic medical information. However, the potential value of HIE is understudied, particularly for chronic neurologic conditions like epilepsy. We describe the prevalence and associated factors of hospital crossover among people with epilepsy, in order to understand the epidemiology of who may benefit from HIE. Methods We used a cross-sectional study design to examine the bivariate and multivariable association of demographics, comorbidity, and health service utilization variables with hospital crossover, among people with epilepsy. We identified 8,074 people with epilepsy from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, obtained from an HIE that linked seven hospitals in Manhattan, New York. We defined hospital crossover as care from more than one hospital in any setting (inpatient, outpatient, emergency, or radiology) over 2 years. ResultsOf 8,074 people with epilepsy, 1,770 (22%) engaged in hospital crossover over 2 years. Crossover was associated with younger age (children compared with adults, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–1.7), living near the hospitals (Manhattan vs. other boroughs of New York City, adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4–1.8), more visits in the emergency, radiology, inpatient, and outpatient settings (p < 0.001 for each), and more head computerized tomography (CT) scans (p < 0.01). The diagnosis of “encephalopathy” was consistently associated with crossover in bivariate and multivariable analyses (adjusted OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.14–3.29), whereas the relationship between other comorbidities and crossover was less clear. SignificanceHospital crossover is common among people with epilepsy, particularly among children, frequent users of medical services, and people living near the study hospitals. HIE should focus on these populations. Further research should investigate why hospital crossover occurs, how it affects care, and how HIE can most effectively mitigate the resultant fragmentation of medical records.A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.
    Epilepsia 02/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that using communitywide data from a health information exchange (HIE) could improve the ability to identify frequent emergency department (ED) users-those with four or more ED visits in thirty days-by allowing ED use to be measured across unaffiliated hospitals. When we analyzed HIE-wide data instead of site-specific data, we identified 20.3 percent more frequent ED users (5,756 versus 4,785) and 16.0 percent more visits by them to the ED (53,031 versus 45,771). Additionally, we found that 28.8 percent of frequent ED users visited multiple EDs during the twelve-month study period, versus 3.0 percent of all ED users. All three differences were significant ($$p ). An improved ability to identify frequent ED users allows better targeting of case management and other services that can improve frequent ED users' health and reduce their use of costly emergency medical services.
    Health Affairs 12/2013; 32(12):2193-8. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services "meaningful use" incentive programs, in tandem with the boundless additional requirements for detailed reporting of quality metrics, have galvanized hospital efforts to implement hospital-based electronic health records. As such, emergency department information systems (EDISs) are an important and unique component of most hospitals' electronic health records. System functionality varies greatly and affects physician decisionmaking, clinician workflow, communication, and, ultimately, the overall quality of care and patient safety. This article is a joint effort by members of the Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Section and the Informatics Section of the American College of Emergency Physicians. The aim of this effort is to examine the benefits and potential threats to quality and patient safety that could result from the choice of a particular EDIS, its implementation and optimization, and the hospital's or physician group's approach to continuous improvement of the EDIS. Specifically, we explored the following areas of potential EDIS safety concerns: communication failure, wrong order-wrong patient errors, poor data display, and alert fatigue. Case studies are presented that illustrate the potential harm that could befall patients from an inferior EDIS product or suboptimal execution of such a product in the clinical environment. The authors have developed 7 recommendations to improve patient safety with respect to the deployment of EDISs. These include ensuring that emergency providers actively participate in selection of the EDIS product, in the design of processes related to EDIS implementation and optimization, and in the monitoring of the system's ongoing success or failure. Our recommendations apply to emergency departments using any type of EDIS: custom-developed systems, best-of-breed vendor systems, or enterprise systems.
    Annals of emergency medicine 06/2013; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To quantify the percentage of records with matching identifiers as an indicator for duplicate or potentially duplicate patient records in electronic health records in five different healthcare organisations, describe the patient safety issues that may arise, and present solutions for managing duplicate records or records with matching identifiers. METHODS: For each institution, we retrieved deidentified counts of records with an exact match of patient first and last names and dates of birth and determined the number of patient records existing for the top 250 most frequently occurring first and last name pairs. We also identified methods for managing duplicate records or records with matching identifiers, reporting the adoption rate of each across institutions. RESULTS: The occurrence of matching first and last name in two or more individuals ranged from 16.49% to 40.66% of records; inclusion of date of birth reduced the rates to range from 0.16% to 15.47%. The number of records existing for the most frequently occurring name at each site ranged from 41 to 2552. Institutions varied widely in the methods they implemented for preventing, detecting and removing duplicate records, and mitigating resulting errors. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of records having matching patient identifiers is high in several organisations, indicating that the rate of duplicate records or records may also be high. Further efforts are necessary to improve management of duplicate records or records with matching identifiers and minimise the risk for patient harm.
    BMJ quality & safety 01/2013; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the performance of LOINC® and RadLex standard terminologies for covering CT test names from three sites in a health information exchange (HIE) with the eventual goal of building an HIE-based clinical decision support system to alert providers of prior duplicate CTs. Given the goal, the most important parameter to assess was coverage for high frequency exams that were most likely to be repeated. We showed that both LOINC® and RadLex provided sufficient coverage for our use case through calculations of (a) high coverage of 90% and 94%, respectively for the subset of CTs accounting for 99% of exams performed and (b) high concept token coverage (total percentage of exams performed that map to terminologies) of 92% and 95%, respectively. With trends toward greater interoperability, this work may provide a framework for those wishing to map radiology site codes to a standard nomenclature for purposes of tracking resource utilization.
    AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 01/2013; 2013:94-102.
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    ABSTRACT: For people with epilepsy, the potential value of health information exchange (HIE) is unknown. We reviewed two years of clinical encounters for 8055 people with epilepsy from seven Manhattan hospitals. We created network graphs illustrating crossover among these hospitals for multiple encounter types, and calculated a novel metric of care fragmentation: "encounters at risk for missing clinical data." Given two hospitals, a median of 109 [range 46 - 588] patients with epilepsy had visited both. Due to this crossover, recent, relevant clinical data may be missing at the time of care frequently (44.8% of ED encounters, 34.5% inpatient, 24.9% outpatient, and 23.2% radiology). Though a smaller percentage of outpatient encounters were at risk for missing data than ED encounters, the absolute number of outpatient encounters at risk was three times higher (14,579 vs. 5041). People with epilepsy may benefit from HIE. Future HIE initiatives should prioritize outpatient access.
    AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 01/2013; 2013:527-36.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: For a health information exchange (HIE) organization to succeed in any given region, it is important to understand the optimal catchment area for the patient population it is serving. The objective of this analysis was to understand the geographical distribution of the patients being served by one HIE organization in New York City (NYC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient demographic data were obtained from the New York Clinical Information Exchange (NYCLIX), a regional health information organization (RHIO) representing most of the major medical centers in the borough of Manhattan in NYC. Patients' home address zip codes were used to create a research dataset with aggregate counts of patients by US county and international standards organization country. Times Square was designated as the geographical center point of the RHIO for distance calculations. RESULTS: Most patients (87.7%) live within a 30 mile radius from Times Square and there was a precipitous drop off of patients visiting RHIO-affiliated facilities at distances greater than 100 miles. 43.6% of patients visiting NYCLIX facilities were from the other NYC boroughs rather than from Manhattan itself (31.9%). DISCUSSION: Most patients who seek care at members of NYCLIX live within a well-defined area and a clear decrease in patients visiting NYCLIX sites with distance was identified. Understanding the geographical distribution of patients visiting the large medical centers in the RHIO can inform the RHIO's planning as it looks to add new participant organizations in the surrounding geographical area.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 10/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to understand home healthcare nurses' current experiences in obtaining outside clinical information at the point of care and the type of clinical information they most desire in their patients' health information exchange profile. A Web-based survey was deployed to home health workers in New York to learn about their experiences retrieving outside clinical data prior to having access to health information exchange, preferred data elements and sources in their patients' health information exchange profiles, and how availability of outside clinical data may affect emergency department referrals. Of the 2383 participants, 566 responded for a 23.8% overall response rate, and 469 of these respondents were RNs. Most RNs, 96.7%, agreed that easier and quicker access to outside information would benefit delivery of care, and 72.6% said the number of emergency department referrals would decrease. When asked about pre-health information exchange access to patient data, 96.3% said it was problematic. Inpatient discharge summaries were chosen most often by the RNs as a top five desired data element 81.5% of the time. Obtaining outside clinical information has been a challenge without health information exchange, but improved access to this information may lead to improved care. Further study is required to assess experiences with the use of health information exchange.
    Computers, informatics, nursing: CIN 05/2012; 30(9):503-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The trend towards hospitalist medicine can lead to disjointed patient care. Outpatient clinicians may be unaware of patients' encounters with a disparate healthcare system. Electronic notifications to outpatient clinicians of patients' emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions and discharges using health information exchange can inform outpatient clinicians of patients' hospital-based events. Objective Assess outpatient clinicians' impressions of a new, secure messaging-based, patient event notification system. Methods Twenty outpatient clinicians receiving notifications of hospital-based events were recruited and 14 agreed to participate. Using a semi-structured interview, clinicians were asked about their use of notifications and the impact on their practices. Results Nine of 14 interviewed clinicians (64%) thought that without notifications, they would have heard about fewer than 10% of ED visits before the patient's next visit. Nine clinicians (64%) thought that without notifications, they would have heard about fewer than 25% of inpatient admissions and discharges before the patient's next visit. Six clinicians (43%) reported that they call the inpatient team more often because of notifications. Eight users (57%) thought that notifications improved patient safety by increasing their awareness of the patients' clinical events and their medication changes. Key themes identified were the importance of workflow integration and a desire for more clinical information in notifications. Conclusions The notification system is perceived by clinicians to be of value. These findings should instigate further message-oriented use of health information exchange and point to refinements that can lead to even greater benefits.
    Informatics in primary care 01/2012; 20(4):249-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Notifying ambulatory providers when their patients visit the hospital is a simple concept but potentially a powerful tool for improving care coordination. A health information exchange (HIE) can provide automatic notifications to its members by building services on top of their existing infrastructure. NYCLIX, Inc., a functioning HIE in New York City, has developed a system that detects hospital admissions, discharges and emergency department visits and notifies their providers. The system has been in use since November 2010. Out of 63,305 patients enrolled 6,913 (11%) had one or more events in the study period and on average there were 238 events per day. While event notifications have a clinical value, their use also involves non-clinical care coordination; new workflows should be designed to incorporate a broader care team in their use. This paper describes the user requirements for the notification system, system design, current status, lessons learned and future directions.
    AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 01/2012; 2012:635-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Employing new health information technologies while concurrently providing quality patient care and reducing risk is a major challenge in all health care sectors. In this study, we investigated the usability gaps in the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) as ten nurses differentiated by two experience levels, namely six expert nurses and four novice nurses, completed two lists of nine scenario-based tasks. Standard usability tests using video analysis, including four sets of performance measures, a task completion survey, the system usability scale (SUS), and sub-task analysis were conducted in order to analyze usability gaps between the two nurse groups. A varying degree of usability gaps were observed between the expert and novice nurse groups, as novice nurses completed the tasks both less efficiently, and expressed less satisfaction with the EDIS. The most interesting finding in this study was the result of 'percent task success rate,' the clearest performance measure, with no substantial difference observed between the two nurse groups. Geometric mean values between expert and novice nurse groups for this measure were 60% vs. 62% in scenario 1 and 66% vs. 55% in scenario 2 respectively, while there were some marginal to substantial gaps observed in other performance measures. In addition to performance measures and the SUS, sub-task analysis highlighted navigation pattern differences between users, regardless of experience level. This study will serve as a baseline study for a future comparative usability evaluation of EDIS in other institutions with similar clinical settings.
    Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2012; 3(1):135-53. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The financial effects of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchange (HIE) are largely unknown, despite unprecedented federal incentives for their use. We sought to understand which components of EHRs and HIE are most likely to drive financial savings in the ambulatory, inpatient, and emergency department settings. Framework development and a national expert panel. We searched the literature to identify functionalities enabled by EHRs and HIE across the 3 healthcare settings. We rated each of 233 functionality-setting combinations on their likelihood of having a positive financial effect. We validated the top-scoring functionalities with a panel of 28 national experts, and we compared the high-scoring functionalities with Stage 1 meaningful use criteria. We identified 54 high-scoring functionality- setting combinations, 27 for EHRs and 27 for HIE. Examples of high-scoring functionalities included providing alerts for expensive medications, providing alerts for redundant lab orders, sending and receiving imaging reports, and enabling structured medication reconciliation. Of the 54 high-scoring functionalities, 25 (46%) are represented in Stage 1 meaningful use. Many of the functionalities not yet represented in meaningful use correspond with functionalities that focus directly on healthcare utilization and costs rather than on healthcare quality per se. This work can inform the development and selection of future meaningful use measures; inform implementation efforts, as clinicians and hospitals choose from among a "menu" of measures for meaningful use; and inform evaluation efforts, as investigators seek to measure the actual financial impact of EHRs and HIE.
    The American journal of managed care 01/2012; 18(8):438-45. · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • A. Onyile, J. S. Shapiro, G. Kuperman
    Annals of Emergency Medicine 10/2011; 58(4). · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine potential predictors of sustainability among community-based organizations that are implementing health information technology (HIT) with health information exchange, in a state with significant funding of such organizations. A longitudinal cohort study of community-based organizations funded through the first phase of the $440 million Healthcare Efficiency and Affordability Law for New Yorkers program. We administered a baseline telephone survey in January and February 2007, using a novel instrument with open-ended questions, and collected follow-up data from the New York State Department of Health regarding subsequent funding awarded in March 2008. We used logistic regression to determine associations between 18 organizational characteristics and subsequent funding. All 26 organizations (100%) responded. Having the alliance led by a health information organization (odds ratio [OR] 11.4, P = .01) and having performed a community-based needs assessment (OR 5.1, P = .08) increased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. Having the intervention target the long-term care setting (OR 0.14, P = .03) decreased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. In the multivariate model, having the alliance led by a health information organization, rather than a healthcare organization, increased the odds of subsequent funding (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% confidence interval 0.8, 52.6; P = .08). Results from this longitudinal study suggest that both health information organizations and healthcare organizations are needed for sustainable HIT transformation.
    The American journal of managed care 04/2011; 17(4):290-5. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Public health relies on data reported by health care partners, and information technology makes such reporting easier than ever. However, data are often structured according to a variety of different terminologies and formats, making data interfaces complex and costly. As one strategy to address these challenges, health information organizations (HIOs) have been established to allow secure, integrated sharing of clinical information among numerous stakeholders, including clinical partners and public health, through health information exchange (HIE). We give detailed descriptions of 11 typical cases in which HIOs can be used for public health purposes. We believe that HIOs, and HIE in general, can improve the efficiency and quality of public health reporting, facilitate public health investigation, improve emergency response, and enable public health to communicate information to the clinical community.
    American Journal of Public Health 02/2011; 101(4):616-23. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    N Genes, J Shapiro, S Vaidya, G Kuperman
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency physicians are trained to make decisions quickly and with limited patient information. Health Information Exchange (HIE) has the potential to improve emergency care by bringing relevant patient data from non-affiliated organizations to the bedside. NYCLIX (New York CLinical Information eXchange) offers HIE functionality among multiple New York metropolitan area provider organizations and has pilot users in several member emergency departments (EDs). We conducted semi-structured interviews at three participating EDs with emergency physicians trained to use NYCLIX. Among "users" with > 1 login, responses to questions regarding typical usage scenarios, successful retrieval of data, and areas for improving the interface were recorded. Among "non-users" with ≤1 login, questions about NYCLIX accessibility and utility were asked. Both groups were asked to recall items from prior training regarding data sources and availability. Eighteen NYCLIX pilot users, all board certified emergency physicians, were interviewed. Of the 14 physicians with more than one login ,half estimated successful retrieval of HIE data affecting patient care. Four non-users (one login or less) cited forgotten login information as a major reason for non-use. Though both groups made errors, users were more likely to recall true NYCLIX member sites and data elements than non-users. Improvements suggested as likely to facilitate usage included a single automated login to both the ED information system (EDIS) and HIE, and automatic notification of HIE data availability in the EDIS All respondents reported satisfaction with their training. Integrating HIE into existing ED workflows remains a challenge, though a substantial fraction of users report changes in management based on HIE data. Though interviewees believed their training was adequate, significant errors in their understanding of available NYCLIX data elements and participating sites persist.
    Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2011; 2(3):263-9. · 0.39 Impact Factor
  • Annals of Emergency Medicine - ANN EMERG MED. 01/2011; 58(4).

Publication Stats

181 Citations
70.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Manhattan, New York, United States
    • Los Robles Hospital and Medical Center
      Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • School of Biomedical Informatics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2011
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Miami, FL, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Informatics
      New York City, NY, United States