Abdou Elhendy

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Michigan, United States

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Publications (303)1375.25 Total impact

  • Revista Costarricense de Cardiología. 06/2013; 15(1):21-40.
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the accuracy of exercise methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation of the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with an earlier myocardial infarction. We studied 135 patients (mean age, 57+/-10 years; 115 men) at a mean of 4.1 years (median, 1 year) after myocardial infarction with symptom-limited bicycle exercise stress and rest MIBI SPECT imaging. Coronary angiography was performed within 3 months. Significant CAD was defined as a stenosis of 50% or larger in luminal diameter in 1 or more major coronary arteries. Myocardial perfusion defects (fixed, reversible, or both) were detected in 107 of the 113 patients with significant CAD and in 10 of the 22 patients without significant CAD (sensitivity, 95%; CI, 91 to 99; specificity, 55%; CI, 46 to 63, and accuracy, 88%; CI, 82 to 94). The specificity rate increased to 73% (CI, 65 to 80) by using only reversible perfusion defects as a means of predicting CAD. Reversible perfusion abnormalities were more frequent in patients with multivessel CAD than in patients with single-vessel CAD (51 of 64 [80%] vs. 27 of 49 [55%], P<.01). Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in 2 vascular regions, which is suggestive of multivessel CAD, were detected in 35 of the 64 patients with and in 9 of the 71 patients without multivessel CAD (sensitivity for detecting CAD in more than one vascular region, 55%; CI, 46 to 63, specificity, 87%; CI, 81 to 93, and accuracy, 72%; CI, 64 to 80). The sensitivity rates for the diagnosis of left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex, and right coronary artery based on any defect were 80%, 70%, and 63%, respectively. The corresponding specificity rates were 70%, 76%, and 73%, respectively. Exercise MIBI SPECT imaging is an accurate method for the diagnosis and localization of CAD in patients with an earlier myocardial infarction. The technique provides a high specificity and moderate sensitivity for the diagnosis of multivessel CAD on the basis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in more than 1 vascular region.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2012; 7(5):432-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Technetium-99m tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is increasingly used in conjunction with exercise and vasodilator stress test as a means of evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD). Dobutamine stress test is an alternative in patients with limited exercise capacity. This study assessed the accuracy of dobutamine-atropine stress tetrofosmin SPECT as a means of diagnosing and localizing CAD. We studied 124 patients (mean age, 57+/-12 years; 88 men) with limited exercise capacity and suspected CAD with dobutamine (as much as 40 microg/kg/min)-atropine (as much as 1 mg) Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT. Resting images were acquired 24 hours after the stress test. Significant CAD was defined as 50% or greater luminal diameter stenosis in 1 or more major coronary arteries. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities (fixed and/or reversible defects) were detected in 70 of 88 patients with CAD and in 10 of the 36 patients without CAD (sensitivity = 80%, CI, 72 to 87; specificity = 72%, CI, 64 to 80; accuracy = 77%, CI, 70 to 85). Sensitivity and accuracy rates were higher by using the criterion of any defect than by using the criterion of reversible defects only (80% vs 51%, P<.0001; 77% vs 60%, P<.01, respectively). The sensitivity rate was higher in patients with multivessel CAD than in patients with single-vessel CAD (88% vs 63%, P<.05). Patients with multivessel CAD had a larger stress perfusion defect score (4.5+/-3.1 vs. 2.7+/-2.5, P<.01) than patients with single-vessel CAD. Dobutamine stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT is a useful method for the diagnosis and localization of CAD in patients with limited exercise capacity. Optimal accuracy of the technique is achieved by using both fixed and reversible perfusion abnormalities for the diagnosis of CAD in patients without an earlier myocardial infarction.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2012; 7(6):649-54. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incremental prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) at 13-year follow-up (SD 3.2 years) for predicting mortality and cardiac events in diabetic patients. A total of 396 diabetic patients (mean age 61 ± 11 years; 252 men [64%]) with limited exercise capacity who underwent DSE for evaluation of ischemia were studied. End points were all causes of mortality, cardiac death, and hard cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). During a mean follow-up of 13 years, 230 patients (58%) died (121 cardiac deaths), and 30 patients had nonfatal myocardial infarction. Cumulative survival in patients with an abnormal DSE at 5, 10, and 15 years was 68, 49, and 41%, respectively. In patients with a normal DSE, these respective numbers were 74, 57, and 44%. Multivariate analyses showed that DSE provided incremental value over clinical characteristics and stress test parameters for prediction of mortality and cardiac events. Survival analysis showed that DSE provided optimal risk stratification up to 7 years after initial testing; after that period, the risk of adverse outcome increased comparably in both normal and abnormal DSE patients. DSE provided restricted predictive value of adverse outcome in patients with diabetes who were unable to perform an adequate exercise stress test. DSE provided optimal risk stratification up to 7 years after initial testing. Repeated DSE at that time might add to its prognostic value.
    Diabetes care 03/2012; 35(3):634-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether resting ST-T wave abnormalities (ST-Ta) provide incremental prognostic information in patients with no history of coronary artery disease undergoing dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). We evaluated 1308 consecutive patients without previous myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization who underwent DSE. Ischemia was defined as new or worsening wall motion abnormalities. End points during follow-up were all-cause death and cardiac death/nonfatal MI. ST-Ta were detected in 162 (12%) patients. The incidence of ischemia was higher in patients with baseline ST-Ta than patients without [74 (46%) vs. 327 (28%), P=0.00001]. During a follow-up of 4.6 ± 3 years, cardiac death/nonfatal MI occurred in 42 (26%) patients with resting ST-Ta and in 157 (14%) patients without resting ST-Ta (P<0.001). Patients with ST-Ta had a higher annual cardiac death/nonfatal MI rate compared with patients without, both in the presence of normal DSE (3.2 vs. 1.4%, P=0.01) as well as abnormal DSE (5.3 vs. 3%, P<0.001). In a Cox proportional modeling, resting ST-Ta added incremental value over clinical and stress echocardiographic data for the prediction of death (global χ 125, 140, 150, respectively; P<0.05) and cardiac death/nonfatal MI (global χ 79, 100, 111, respectively; P<0.05). Baseline ST-Ta are associated with an increased risk of cardiac death/nonfatal MI and all-cause mortality, incremental to clinical data and DSE results. The associated risk is persistent among patients with normal DSE.
    Coronary artery disease 09/2011; 22(8):559-64. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of heart failure symptoms on postoperative outcome is well acknowledged in perioperative guidelines. The prognostic value of asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remains unknown. This study evaluated the prognostic implications of asymptomatic LV dysfunction in vascular surgery patients assessed with routine echocardiography. Echocardiography was performed preoperatively in 1,005 consecutive vascular surgery patients. Systolic LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction less than 50%. Ratio of mitral-peak velocity during early and late filling, pulmonary vein flow, and deceleration time was used to diagnose diastolic LV dysfunction. Troponin-T measurements and electrocardiograms were performed routinely perioperatively. Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the relation between LV function and the study endpoints, 30-day cardiovascular events, and long-term cardiovascular mortality. Left ventricular dysfunction was diagnosed in 506 (50%) patients of which 80% were asymptomatic. In open vascular surgery (n = 649), both asymptomatic systolic and isolated diastolic LV dysfunctions were associated with 30-day cardiovascular events (odds ratios 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.6 and 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9, respectively) and long-term cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios 4.6, 95% CI 2.4-8.5 and 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-6.0, respectively). In endovascular surgery (n = 356), only symptomatic heart failure was associated with 30-day cardiovascular events (odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9) and long-term cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 10.3, 95% CI 5.4-19.3). This study demonstrated that asymptomatic LV dysfunction is predictive for 30-day and long-term cardiovascular outcome in open vascular surgery patients. These data suggest that preoperative risk stratification should include not only solely heart failure symptoms but also routine preoperative echocardiography to risk stratify open vascular surgery patients.
    Anesthesiology 06/2010; 112(6):1316-24. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of QRS duration in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for noninvasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia by dobutamine stress echocardiography. QRS duration is a prognostic marker in patients with previous myocardial infarction and/or heart failure. The relation between QRS duration and outcome of patients without known heart disease has not been evaluated. A total of 1,227 patients (707 men, mean age 61 +/- 14 years) with suspected CAD underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography for evaluation of myocardial ischemia. Patients were followed to determine predictors of cardiac events and to assess the incremental significance of QRS duration compared to clinical and dobutamine stress echocardiographic data. During a mean follow-up of 4.2 +/- 2.4 years, 280 patients (23%) died (129 cardiac deaths), and 60 (5%) had a nonfatal infarction. Annualized cardiac death rates were 2.0% in patients with QRS duration <120 ms and 4.4% in patients with QRS duration >or=120 ms, respectively (p <0.0001). Annualized event rates for cardiac death/nonfatal infarction were 2.8% in patients with QRS duration <120 ms and 4.8% in patients with QRS duration >or=120 ms (p = 0.0001). Multivariate models identified age, male gender, smoking, QRS duration >or=120 ms, and an abnormal dobutamine stress echocardiogram as independent predictors of cardiac death and the combined end point cardiac death/nonfatal infarction. In conclusion, QRS duration is an independent predictor of cardiac death and cardiac death/nonfatal infarction in patients with suspected CAD. This risk is persistent after adjustment for clinical variables, left ventricular function, and myocardial ischemia.
    The American journal of cardiology 12/2009; 104(11):1490-3. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between (cardiac) mortality and spatial QRS-T angle in patients undergoing dobutamine - atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) for evaluation of known or suspected coronary disease. Between 1990 and 2003, 2347 patients underwent DSE for evaluation of coronary disease at the Erasmus Medical Center. Echocardiographic images were analyzed offline using a 16-segment, 5-point scoring model for regional function. Twelve-lead resting ECGs were analyzed and patients were grouped in three categories according to their spatial QRS-T angle: normal (0-105 degrees), borderline (105-135 degrees), and abnormal (135-180 degrees). Mean age was 61+/-13 years, 66% were male, 32% had hypertension, 26% had hypercholesterolemia, 28% were smokers, and 12% were diabetic. During a mean follow-up of 7+/-3.4 years, 26.5% (623) of the patients died; 15.3% (359) died due to a cardiac cause. Abnormal QRS-T angle (135-180 degrees ) was present in 21% of the patients. Abnormal QRS-T angle was a predictor of cardiac death [hazard ratio: 3.2 (2.6-4.1)] and all-cause mortality [hazard ratio: 2.2 (1.8-2.6)]. After multivariate analysis abnormal and borderline QRS-T angle, peak wall motion score, age, male sex, history of diabetes, history of heart failure, smoking, and hypertension were independent predictors of (cardiac) death. Abnormal QRS-T angle is an independent predictor of (cardiac) death in patients undergoing DSE. Abnormal QRS-T angle should be considered as a risk factor in stable patients evaluated for coronary disease.
    Coronary artery disease 12/2009; 21(1):26-32. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left atrial volume indexed (LAVI) has been reported as a predictor of cardiovascular events. We sought to determine the prognostic value of LAVI for predicting the outcome of patients who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) for known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). From January 2000 to July 2005, we studied 981 patients who underwent DSE and off-line measurements of LAVI. The value of DSE over clinical and LAVI data was examined using a stepwise log-rank test. During a median follow-up of 24 months, 56 (6%) events occurred. By univariate analysis, predictors of events were male sex, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial diameter indexed, LAVI, and abnormal DSE. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors were LVEF (relative risk [RR] = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00), LAVI (RR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), and abnormal DSE (RR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.28-5.69). In an incremental multivariate model, LAVI was additional to clinical data for predicting events (chi(2) 36.8, P < .001). The addition of DSE to clinical and LAVI yielded incremental information (chi(2) 55.3, P < .001). The 3-year event-free survival in patients with normal DSE and LAVI < or =33 mL/m(2) was 96%; with abnormal DSE and LAVI < or =33 mL/m(2), 91%; with normal DSE and LAVI >34 mL/m(2), 83%; and with abnormal DSE and LAVI >34 mL/m(2), 51%. Left atrial volume indexed provides independent prognostic information in patients who underwent DSE for known or suspected CAD. Among patients with normal DSE, those with larger LAVI had worse outcome, and among patients with abnormal DSE, LAVI was still predictive.
    American heart journal 01/2009; 156(6):1110-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) can occur in patients with previously normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). It is not known whether the prognosis of these patients differ from those with MI who had an abnormal MPI on an earlier testing. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of patients who sustained a MI during follow-up after stress MPI based on the presence or absence of perfusion abnormalities on the earlier test. We studied 109 patients (age 62 +/- 11 years, 73 men) who developed MI 2.1 +/- 2.7 years after exercise or dobutamine stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin MPI. Subsequently, a follow-up was done for the occurrence of death during or after the acute event. Myocardial perfusion was normal in 31 patients and was abnormal in 78 (45 had reversible defects). During a mean follow-up of 3.1 +/- 2.4 years after MI, death occurred in 35 (32%) patients. The death rate was 19% in patients with previously normal versus 33% in patients with abnormal perfusion (P < 0.01). In a Cox model, independent predictors of death were age (risk ratio (RR) 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10), heart failure (RR 2.7, CI: 1.3-5.5), and abnormal MPI (RR 2.5, CI: 1.3-4.5). Patients with a previously normal stress MPI are less likely to die after acute MI than patients who had an abnormal MPI.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 01/2009; 33(12):852-5. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical utility of stress testing in patients without angina pectoris after revascularization has been questioned. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is an established technique for detection of myocardial ischemia and cardiac risk stratification. We studied the prognostic value of DSE in 393 patients without typical angina pectoris after coronary revascularization. Ischemia was incremental to clinical data in predicting all-cause death (hazard ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 6.7) and cardiac death (hazard ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 9.8). In conclusion, myocardial ischemia during DSE is independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiac death in these patients after adjustment for clinical data.
    The American journal of cardiology 12/2008; 102(9):1156-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients undergoing exercise testing a hypotensive response is associated with a poor prognosis. There is limited information regarding the prognostic significance of hypotension during dobutamine stress test. This study investigates the association between a severe hypotensive response during DSE and long-term prognosis. Patients (3381) underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Blood pressure was measured automatically at rest and at the end of every dose-step. Wall motion was scored using a 16-segement, 5-point score. Ischemia was defined by the presence of new wall motion abnormalities. Hypotensive response during DSE was defined as mild (MHR) when systolic blood pressure (SBP) dropped <20 mmHg between rest and peak stress, and severe (SHR) when SBP dropped <20 mmHg. During follow-up all cause mortality and MACE (cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction) were noted. MHR and SHR occurred in 936 (28%) and 521 (15%) patients, respectively. Independent predictors of SHR were older age, new or worsening wall motion abnormalities and history of hypertension. During follow-up of 4.5 (+/-3.3) years, 920 patients died, of which 555 due to cardiac causes, and 713 patients experienced a MACE. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and DSE results SHR during DSE was independently associated with increased long-term cardiac death (HR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03-1.6) and MACE (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), while MHR was not associated with a worse outcome. Severe hypotensive response during DSE independently predicts cardiac death and MACE in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2008; 125(3):358-63. · 7.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac morbidity and mortality is high in patients undergoing high-risk surgery. This study investigated whether impaired glucose regulation and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels are associated with increased cardiac ischaemic events in vascular surgery patients. Baseline glucose and HbA(1c) were measured in 401 vascular surgery patients. Glucose < 5.6 mmol/l was defined as normal. Fasting glucose 5.6-7.0 mmol/l or random glucose 5.6-11.1 mmol/l was defined as impaired glucose regulation. Fasting glucose > or = 7.0 or random glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l was defined as diabetes. Perioperative ischaemia was identified by 72-h Holter monitoring. Troponin T was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 and before discharge. Cardiac death or Q-wave myocardial infarction was noted at 30-day and longer-term follow-up (mean 2.5 years). Mean (+/- sd) level for glucose was 6.3 +/- 2.3 mmol/l and for HbA(1c) 6.2 +/- 1.3%. Ischaemia, troponin release, 30-day and long-term cardiac events occurred in 27, 22, 6 and 17%, respectively. Using subjects with normal glucose levels as the reference category, multivariate analysis revealed that patients with impaired glucose regulation and diabetes were at 2.2- and 2.6-fold increased risk of ischaemia, 3.8- and 3.9-fold for troponin release, 4.3- and 4.8-fold for 30-day cardiac events and 1.9- and 3.1-fold for long-term cardiac events. Patients with HbA(1c) > 7.0% (n = 63, 16%) were at 2.8-fold, 2.1-fold, 5.3-fold and 5.6-fold increased risk for ischaemia, troponin release, 30-day and long-term cardiac events, respectively. Impaired glucose regulation and elevated HbA(1c) are risk factors for cardiac ischaemic events in vascular surgery patients.
    Diabetic Medicine 03/2008; 25(3):314-9. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is an increasing number of studies showing the value of perfusion imaging with real-time contrast echocardiography (RTCE) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), no data exist regarding the value of this technique for detecting CAD and predicting outcome in the elderly. We examined the outcome of 399 patients > or =70 years old who underwent dobutamine stress RTCE for known or suspected CAD. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) was performed using low mechanical index pulse sequence schemes following intravenous small bolus injections of ultrasound contrast. Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was performed within 1 month of the stress test in 60 patients. Events were defined as cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Sensitivity of MPI for detecting CAD by QCA was 94% [confidence interval (CI) 91-99], specificity was 67% (CI 36-74), and accuracy was 90% (CI 82-95). During a median follow-up of 21 months, 46 events occurred (31 cardiac deaths, 15 non-fatal MI). Univariate predictors of outcome were diuretic use (P = 0.03), abnormal stress wall motion (P < 0.0001), and abnormal stress MPI (P < 0.0001). Abnormal stress MPI, however, was the most significant predictor of outcome (chi(2) 7.5; P = 0.006). Myocardial perfusion analysis during dobutamine stress RTCE provides incremental predictive value in determining the outcome of elderly patients being evaluated for the presence of CAD.
    European Heart Journal 02/2008; 29(3):377-85. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is used for risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the prognostic value of DSE among the entire strata of renal function has yet to be determined. We assessed the prognostic value of renal function relative to DSE findings. We studied 2292 patients, divided into 729 (32%) patients with normal renal function [creatinine clearance (CrCl) >90 ml/min] and 1563 (68%) with renal dysfunction, classified as mild (CrCl: 60-90 ml/min) in 933, moderate (CrCl: 30-60 ml/min) in 502 and severe (CrCl < 30 ml/min) in 128 patients. All patients underwent DSE for the evaluation of known or suspected CAD and were followed for a mean of 8 years. New wall motion abnormalities during DSE and mildly, moderately and severely abnormal CrCl were powerful independent predictors for all-cause mortality, cardiac death and hard cardiac events (cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with normal DSE and renal dysfunction have greater probability for cardiac death and hard cardiac events compared to those with normal renal function. The warranty of a normal DSE in the presence of moderate renal dysfunction was 15 and 36 months for 10 and 20% risk for cardiac death and hard cardiac events, respectively. The presence and severity of renal dysfunction has additional independent prognostic value over DSE findings. The low-risk warranty period after a normal DSE is determined by the severity of renal dysfunction.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2008; 23(2):601-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It remains unclear whether mild renal dysfunction is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome. We investigated whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was associated with mortality and cardiac death among 6447 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease over a mean follow-up of 7 yr. Cumulative 5- and 10-yr survival rates decreased in a graded fashion from 88% and 70%, respectively, for those with normal renal function to 43% and 33% for those with eGFR <30 ml/min. Compared with patients with normal renal function, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment were 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.48), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.44-1.93), and 3.38 (95% CI, 2.73-4.19), respectively. Similar relationships between cardiac death and decreasing renal function were found. In conclusion, renal function is a graded and independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Intense treatment and close surveillance of these patients is encouraged.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2008; 19(1):158-63. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognostic information in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may provide the basis for optimal management strategies at an early stage. This study aimed to develop a prognostic risk index for long-term mortality in patients with PAD. In a single-center observational cohort study, 2642 patients with an ankle-brachial index of 0.90 or lower were randomly divided into derivation (n = 1332) and validation (n = 1310) cohorts. Cox regression analysis with stepwise backward elimination identified predictors of 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year mortality in the derivation cohort. Weighted points were assigned to each predictor. Index discrimination was determined in both the derivation and validation cohorts. During 10 years of follow-up, 42.2% and 40.4% of patients died in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The risk index for 10-year mortality (+ points) included renal dysfunction (+12), heart failure (+7), ST-segment changes (+5), age greater than 65 years (+5), hypercholesterolemia (+5), ankle-brachial index lower than 0.60 (+4), Q-waves (+4), diabetes (+3), cerebrovascular disease (+3), and pulmonary disease (+3). Statins (-6), aspirin (-4), and beta-blockers (-4) were associated with reduced 10-year mortality. Patients were stratified into low (<0 points), low-intermediate (0-5 points), high-intermediate (6-9 points), and high (>9 points) risk categories, according to risk score. Ten-year mortality rates were 22.1%, 32.2%, 45.8%, and 70.4%, respectively (P < .001) and comparable to mortality in the validation cohort. C statistics demonstrated good discrimination in both the derivation (0.72) and validation cohorts (0.73). A prognostic risk index for long-term mortality stratified patients with PAD into different risk categories. This may be useful for risk stratification, patient counseling, and medical decision making.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 01/2008; 167(22):2482-9. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2008; 15(4). · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and prognosis of unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) and silent myocardial ischemia in vascular surgery patients. In a cohort of 1092 patients undergoing preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and noncardiac vascular surgery, unrecognized MI was determined by rest wall motion abnormalities in the absence of a history of MI. Silent myocardial ischemia was determined by stress-induced wall motion abnormalities in the absence of angina pectoris. Beta blockers and statins were noted at baseline. During follow-up (mean: 6+/-4 years), all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (cardiac death or nonfatal MI) were noted. The prevalence of unrecognized MI and silent myocardial ischemia was 23 and 28%, respectively. Both diabetes and heart failure were important predictors of unrecognized MI and silent myocardial ischemia. During follow-up, all-cause mortality occurred in 45% and major cardiac events in 23% of patients. In multivariate analysis, unrecognized MI and silent myocardial ischemia were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.53-2.25 and HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.46-2.06, respectively] and major cardiac events (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.59-2.92 and HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.43-2.41, respectively). In patients with unrecognized MI, beta-blockers and statins were significantly associated with improved survival. Statins improved survival in patients with silent myocardial ischemia. In patients undergoing major vascular surgery, unrecognized MI and silent myocardial ischemia are highly prevalent (23 and 28%) and associated with increased long-term mortality and major cardiac events.
    Coronary Artery Disease 12/2007; 18(7):571-6. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to examine whether higher statin doses and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are associated with improved cardiac outcome in vascular surgery patients. Statins may have cardioprotective effects during major vascular surgery. In a prospective study of 359 vascular surgery patients, statin dose and cholesterol levels were recorded preoperatively. Myocardial ischemia and heart rate variability were assessed by 72-h 12-lead electrocardiography starting 1 day before to 2 days after surgery. Troponin T was measured on postoperative day 1, 3, 7, and before discharge. Cardiac events included cardiac death or nonfatal Q-wave myocardial infarction at 30 days and follow-up (mean 2.3 years). Perioperative myocardial ischemia, troponin T release, 30-day events, and late cardiac events occurred in 29%, 23%, 4%, and 18%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, lower LDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dl) correlated with lower myocardial ischemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 0.95), troponin T release (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96), and 30-day (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.00) and late cardiac events (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.96). Higher statin doses (per 10% of maximum recommended dose) correlated with lower myocardial ischemia (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.93), troponin T release (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.93), and 30-day (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.96) and late cardiac events (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.89), even after adjusting for LDL cholesterol. Significantly higher perioperative heart rate variability was observed in patients with higher statin doses. Higher statin doses and lower LDL cholesterol correlate with lower perioperative myocardial ischemia, perioperative troponin T release, and 30-day and late cardiac events in major vascular surgery.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2007; 50(17):1649-56. · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,375.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2012
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Division of Cardiovascular Diseases
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
    • Sint Franciscus Gasthuis Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1996–2011
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000–2010
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2009
    • Marshfield Clinic
      • Division of Cardiology
      Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States
    • The Catholic University of America
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Omaha, NE, United States
  • 2007
    • Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1999–2007
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Omaha, NE, United States
  • 1997–2006
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Cardiology
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Health Science - DISS
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004–2005
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1999–2004
    • Cairo University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Cairo, Muhafazat al Qahirah, Egypt
  • 2001–2003
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Cardiovascular Diseases
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • Tanta University
      Ṭanṭa, Al Gharbīyah, Egypt
  • 1998–1999
    • Medisch Centrum Alkmaar
      • Department of Cardiology
      Alkmaar, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Sandro Pertini Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy