Zivar Salehi

University of Guilan, Resht, Gīlān, Iran

Are you Zivar Salehi?

Claim your profile

Publications (44)74.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. Recent studies have shown that the oxidative stress causes irreparable damage, which leads to oxidative enzymopathies. Catalase gene encodes an antioxidant enzyme, detoxifying hydrogen peroxide to H2O and O2. The aim of this study was to determine whether the polymorphism at position -262 in the promoter region of catalase gene (C-262T), which alters the expression and enzyme blood levels, could have an impact on the risk of endometriosis. Extracted DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes was genotyped using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). The χ(2)-test was used for statistical analyses. In endometriosis subjects, the frequencies of the CAT CC/CT/TT were 67.5%, 32.5% and 0%, respectively, while in healthy women, they were 12%, 68% and 20%, respectively. Significant differences in allele and genotype distribution among controls and patients were found (OR, 178.76 95% CI, 10.11-3159.1202; p = 0.0004). This study indicates that catalase C-262T polymorphism is associated with the endometriosis. Randomised multicentre trials with greater sample sizes are still needed to clarify our results.
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of early pregnancy. Genetic factors have been hypothesised to play a role in spontaneous abortion. Since it is possible that the balance of oxidants and antioxidants can be affected by different genetic variants, gene polymorphisms have been proposed as a susceptibility factor that increases the chance of abortion. Manganese superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme encoded by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene. The aim of this experiment was to assess whether Val16Ala polymorphism of MnSOD gene is associated with abortion in north of Iran. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for genotyping. Statistical analyses were conducted using the χ(2)-test. The genetic distributions did not differ significantly between cases and controls, however slightly more Val/Val genotypes were found among the patients compared with control subjects (p = 0.059). No correlation was observed between susceptibility to abortion and MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism. Larger population-based studies are needed for clarifying the relationship between abortion and MnSOD genotypes.
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract About 10%-15% of conceptions are lost spontaneously prior to 20 weeks. Apart from the clinical problems, genetic variations have also been proposed as a susceptibility factor to miscarriage. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and catalase (CAT) encode two antioxidant enzymes that detoxify H2O2 and protect the cells from oxidative damage. A functional polymorphism at codon 198 of the GPX1 gene causes a C/T substitution in exon 2, which encodes for either proline or leucine (Pro198Leu). The CAT gene has a polymorphic site in the promoter region at position -262 (C-262T) which alters the expression and enzyme blood levels, leading to some pathological clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the association of these two polymorphisms with the risk of spontaneous abortion. Genomic DNA from 105 cases with spontaneous abortion and 90 healthy women were genotyped using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The genetic distributions for GPX1 did not differ significantly between cases and controls (p = 0.680). However, C-262T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of the disease (OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 1.43-21.09; p = 0.012). In conclusion, this study indicates that CAT -262T/T genotype confers less susceptibility to spontaneous abortion, while GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism may not be correlated with the disease.
    Systems biology in reproductive medicine. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Implantation failure is a major limiting step for in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). Embryo implantation is the result of the interaction of the embryo with the endometrium. Oxidative stress (OS) can cause defective embryo development and retardation. Genetic polymorphisms of detoxicating enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), may play an important role in the outcome of embryo implantation. GSTM1 and GSTT1 are known to be highly polymorphic. The aim of this study was to examine the association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with IVF-ET outcome in a population in northern Iran. Blood samples were collected from 120 infertile women who underwent an IVF cycle, and 108 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leucocytes. Genotype frequencies were determined in patients and healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 25.8% of the infertile women and 0% of the controls had the GSTM1 null genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 76.37; 95% CI = 4.6-1,265.7; p = 0.0025). On the other hand, 5% of the cases and 0% of the controls had the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 12.3, 95% CI = 0.68-221/3, p = 0.088). These results suggest that GSTM1 null type might be associated with IVF outcome in a population in northern Iran.
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infertility is the failure of a couple to engender after endeavouring at least one full year of unprotected intercourse. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species contributed to pathogenesis of various disease. To inactivate ROS cells biosynthesise several antioxidant enzymes, one of them is catalase which contributes H2 O2 to H2 O and O2 . This study set out to delineate the association of catalase C-262T polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. The study included 195 men with idiopathic infertility and 190 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and controls using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). The prevalence of genotype frequencies of the CAT CC/CT/TT was 31.79%, 65.12% and 3.07%, respectively, in infertile subjects, as against 24.73%, 55.26% and 20%, respectively, in healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis has emerged significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P < 0.05). Taking into accounts of results, the catalase C-262T polymorphism indicates that CAT-262T/T genotype confers less susceptibility to male infertility. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required for further evaluation and confirmation of our finding.
    Andrologia 01/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of gastric cancer (GC) is a multistep process that requires alterations in the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, occurring over several decades. The p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair. One of the most important regulators of p53 is MDM2, which acts as a negative regulator in the p53 pathway. Based on the key role of p53 and MDM2 in tumor suppression, polymorphisms that cause change in their function might affect cancer risk. We therefore elevated associations of the polymorphisms of p53 (R72P) and MDM2 (SNP309) with GC in Iran.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(17):7413-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor, and its receptor c-Met have been shown to be implicated in endometriosis. HGF acts as a mitogen, motogen, and morphogen on endometrial epithelial cells. The expression of c-Met on human endometrial cells has been reported. Many proteins are proteolytically released from the surface by a process known as ectodomain shedding. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of soluble c-Met (s-cMet) in the peritoneal fluid (PF) and serum samples of patients with different stages of endometriosis. 39 PF and serum samples from normal healthy and 130 samples from different stages of patients with endometriosis (33 cases of stage I, 38 stage II, 30 stage III and 29 stage IV) were included in this study. Total protein concentration (TPC) and the level of s-cMet in the PF and serum were determined by Bio-Rad protein assay based on the Bradford dye procedure and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. No significant change in the TPC was seen in the serum and PF of patients with endometriosis when compared with normal controls. Results obtained demonstrated that all PF and serum samples presented s-cMet expression, whereas, starting from stages I to IV endometriosis, a significant increase of s-cMet expression was observed as compared to controls. The results of this study show that a high expression of s-cMet is correlated with advanced stages of endometriosis. It is also concluded that the detection of serum and PF s-cMet may be useful in classifying endometriosis.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2013; · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53, and has also been implicated in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to define the causal association of Helicobacter pylori infection and the MDM2 SNP309 among northern Iranian patients with gastric cancer (GC). Two hundred and eight patients with GC and 200 cancer-free controls were genotyped for MDM2 SNP309 using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The ureC (glmM) gene was used for detection of H. pylori in this study. Results: The G allele was found more frequently among patients with GC (55%) than among controls (37%). The risk of GC for MDM2 309G/G genotypes was considerably increased when compared with TT genotypes (odds ratio [OR]=15.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]=4.17-60.84). Among H. pylori-infected subjects, a significantly increased risk of GC associated with the GG genotype was quite clear (OR=14.66, 95% CI=3.54-60). Conclusions: The GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. We also found that there is a joint effect of MDM2 SNP309G/G genotype and H. pylori infection for the development of gastric carcinoma. However, the findings need to be verified in large population-based prospective studies for more rigorous analyses of subgroups and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 09/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a minor component of the myelin sheath, but is an important autoantigen linked to the pathogenesis of MS. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to enhance the generation, maturation, and survival of oligodendrocytes in culture medium. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of CNTF on MOG expression in the cerebral cortex of Cuprizone-induced MS mice. The mice were treated by Cuprizone for five weeks in order to induce MS. The mice were then divided into 3 groups. The first group was injected subcutaneously (SC) by CNTF in the amount of 250 μg/kg BW per day. The second group (SHAM) was injected SC by normal saline and the third group was left without injection as the control group. After four weeks the mice were killed and the cerebral cortex was harvested and the expression of MOG was studied by Western blotting. The data from this study show that the MOG expression was significantly increased in the CNTF-injected group as compared to the other groups. It is concluded that CNTF increases the MOG expression and may be important in the pathophysiology of MS. It is also concluded that CNTF may play a role in the process of remyelination by inducing the MOG expression.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 02/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of the cellular metabolism and have important roles in normal physiology of the cell. However, when ROS production exceeds the antioxidant capacity, a state known as oxidative stress, damage to cellular macromolecules emerges. A crucial role in counteracting ROS is played by the enzyme catalase. A common polymorphism in the catalase (CAT) promoter region (C-262T) alters the expression as well as blood catalase levels, and leads to a number of human diseases. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the large bowel which is known to be influenced by oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of CAT C-262T polymorphism on the risk of UC. METHODS: Samples were collected from 60 patients diagnosed with UC and 78 control subjects, and genotyped by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). RESULTS: We found that CAT C-262T genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (p=0.002). Individuals carrying the -262C/T genotype had a greater risk for UC compared to C/C genotype (OR, 4.88; 95% CI, 1.73-13.75, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that CAT C-262T polymorphism may be associated with UC and the -262C/T genotype may be a risk factor for the disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the results.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Varicocele is the abnormal inflexion and distension of veins of the pampiniform plexus within spermatic cord and is one of the amendable causes of male infertility. It can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in semen and cause oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to analyse spermatozoa mtDNA 4977-bp deletion in infertile men with varicocele. To detect 4977-bp deletion in spermatozoa mtDNA, semen samples of 60 infertile patients with clinical varicocele and 90 normal men from northern Iran were prepared. After extraction of spermatozoa total DNA, Gap polymerase chain reaction (Gap PCR) was performed. 4977-bp deletion was observed in 81.66% of patients with varicocele, while approximately 15.55% of controls had this deletion. As spermatozoa from patients with varicocele had a high frequency of occurrence of 4977-bp deletion in mtDNA [OR = 24.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.15-57.57, P < 0.0001], varicocele may induce mtDNA deletion in spermatozoa and cause infertility in north Iranian men. However, to determine the relation between sperm mtDNA 4977-bp deletion and varicocele-induced infertility, larger population-based studies are needed. It is concluded that there is an association between sperm mtDNA 4977-bp deletion and varicocele-induced infertility in the population studied.
    Andrologia 02/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hajar Saber, Zivar Salehi, Saiedeh Sadri
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, estrogen dependent disease that affects up to 10% of all women of fertile age. It is characterized by the presence and proliferation of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to assess whether intron 4 (TTTA)n repeat and TCT deletion/insertion polymorphisms of CYP19 gene are associated with endometriosis in northern Iran. This study involved 110 patients with endometriosis and 200 healthy controls, who were genotyped for (TTTA) repeats in the fourth intron of the CYP19 gene. Genomic DNA from patients and controls was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of eight alleles were observed in our study population, ranging from 7 repeats to 13 repeats. (TTTA) repeat lengths of ⩽9 were classified as short (S), and those ⩾10 were classified as long (L). Compared to women who possessed the S/S genotype, those who carried L/L (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 3.33–9.29) had significantly increased risk of endometriosis. There was a significant trend between L/L genotype and higher stage of endometriosis (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a significant association was identified between endometriosis and the CYP19 gene polymorphism, with endometriosis having longer CYP19 repeat lengths than control subjects. The strong association of CYP19 gene polymorphism with high-stage endometriosis suggests that CYP19 may have a prognostic implication.
    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 01/2013; 14(2):165–169.
  • Source
    Zivar Salehi, Mahvash Hadavi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The TP53 gene is one of the most important tumor suppressor genes controlling DNA transcription and cell regulation. Common polymorphisms in p53 gene may play a role in some cancers. Some studies have reported an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV infection are responsible for susceptibility to prostate cancer in Iranian men. The prostate biopsies were taken during surgery from 68 Iranian prostatic cancer patients, and 85 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. For genotyping of the p53 polymorphism at codon 72, PCRRFLP methods were used and the PCR products were digested with BstU1. An attempt was also made to detect HPV DNA in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens. Among cancer cases, the distribution of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes were 26.5%, 45.4%, and 19.1%, respectively. Among patients with benign prostate hyperplasia, the distribution of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro genotypes were 27%, 53%, and 20%, respectively. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia samples. Human papillomavirus was detected only in three patients (4.4%; P = 0.71). The results from this study suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV infection do not confer susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Iranian population. Larger population-based studies are needed to clarify the relation between prostate carcinoma and p53 polymorphism and HPV infection.
    Journal of Medical Virology 09/2012; 84(9):1423-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause ofnontraumatic neurological disability in Europe and North America. Growth factor expression could participate in the repair process of the demyelinating disease. Among growth factors, brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) has been demonstrated to play an important role in neuronal and axonal survival. In the central nervous system (CNS), neurons are the main source of BDNF. Another potential source are activated astrocytes, which are present in inflamed areas in the CNS as shown in MS. In this study, total protein concentration (TPC) and BDNF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the patients with MS (n = 48) and control subjects (n = 53) were measured using a Bio-Rad protein assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant change in the CSF TPC of patients with MS was seen as compared to normal CSF. The presence of BDNF in the CSF samples was shown by Western blot. Using ELISA, it was shown that the level of BDNF in the MS CSF is higher than in normal CSF. It is concluded that BDNF is a constant component of human CSF. Moreover, it could be implicated in the pathophysiology of MS.
    Acta medica (Hradec Králové) / Universitas Carolina, Facultas Medica Hradec Králové 01/2012; 55(2):83-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on DNA damage in biological systems are still a matter of dispute. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of electromagnetic field exposure on DNA fragmentation in cells (blastomers) of mouse blastocysts. Eighty female NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 groups of 40 animals each. The control group was left unexposed whereas the animals in the EMF-group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF at 0.5 mT 4 h per day, 6 days a week for a duration of 2 weeks. After the 8(th) day of exposure, the female mice in both groups were superovulated (with injections of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin) and then mated overnight. At approximately 4 days after mating (102 h after the human chorionic gonadotropin treatment), blastocysts were obtained by flushing the uterus horns. The mean numbers of pregnant mice, blastocysts after flushing, blastomers within the blastocysts, and the DNA fragmentation index following staining in both groups were compared using statistical methods (SPSS, the Chi-square test, the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.05). The results showed that the mean number of blastocysts after flushing was significantly decreased in the EMF-group compared to that of the control group (P < 0.03). The DNA fragmentation index was significantly increased in the EMF-group compared to control (10.53% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean numbers of blastomers and numbers of pregnant mice between the EMF-exposed and control group. Our findings indicate that the EMF exposure in preimplantation stage could have detrimental effects on female mouse fertility and embryo development by decreasing the number of blastocysts and increasing the blastocysts DNA fragmentation.
    Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 12/2011; 30(4):246-52. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In this study, we evaluated whether two polymorphisms -460T>C and +405G>C in VEGF are related with the susceptibility to endometriosis in northern Iran. Genomic DNA derived from patients with endometriosis and healthy women were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The total number of 1080 subjects (480 patients with endometriosis and 600 normal controls) was enrolled into the study. We used the Chi-square (χ(2)) test to evaluate each allele and genotype frequency of -460T>C and +405G>C polymorphisms among the cases and controls. The associations between the polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis were estimated by odds ratio and their 95% confidence intervals. There was no significant differences in the VEGF -460T>C genotypes and allele frequencies between control women and endometriosis patients (P = 0.63). In contrast, an increased frequency of the +405CC genotype was observed in the patients with endometriosis as compared with the controls. The +405C allele was associated with the presence of endometriosis. It is concluded that the +405G>C polymorphism in VEGF may be associated with higher risk of endometriosis in northern Iran.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 11/2011; 28(6):447-50. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Z Salehi, F Mashayekhi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma, a neuroectodermal tumor arising in the cerebellum, is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, accounting for 10-20% of primary CNS neoplasms and approximately 40% of all posterior fossa tumors. Medulloblastoma is heterogeneous, being characterized by molecular subgroups that demonstrate distinct gene expression profiles. The cellular and molecular events involved in the progression of medulloblastoma are largely unknown. Increased protein synthesis is necessary for the transition of cells from quiescence to proliferation. Translational control is critical for the proper regulation of the cell cycle, tissue induction and growth. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), an important regulator of translation, plays critical roles in neo-plastic transformation and tumor progression. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of eIF4E expression in the children with medulloblastoma. Tumor and normal adjacent tissue samples (as controls) were obtained from 28 children with medulloblastoma. eIF4E expression were determined by using Western blot analysis. In the medulloblastoma tissues, eIF4E level was elevated by a mean of 8.22 ± 1.41-fold when compared to normal adjacent tissues. eIF4E expression was higher in tumors compared to control tissues. The results from this study support the hypothesis that the overexpression of eIF4E can be involved in tumorigenesis and a possible role of eIF4E as a prognostic factor in medulloblastoma.
    Pediatric Research 11/2011; · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    F Mashayekhi, Z Salehi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is ubiquitously expressed growth factor that has profound effects on the survival, growth and differentiation of many cell types and tissues, including cells of the central nervous system (CNS). IGF-1 is found in many biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). IGF-1 has broad range neuroprotective effects and is a therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an abnormal build-up of CSF within the ventricles and/or subarachnoid spaces. Since CSF is in contact with the extracellular space of the brain, biochemical brain modifications could be reflected in the CSF. The aim of this study was to determine the level of CSF IGF-1 level in the children with non-communicating hydrocephalus. A total of 46 samples of CSF from normal and children with hydrocephalic were collected by lumbar puncture performed routinely on the basis of the clinical suspicion of neurological disease. Samples were aged matched between the two groups analyzed. A western blot analysis using anti-IGF-1 antibody as a probe confirmed the presence of IGF-1 in the samples. Quantification of Western blot gels showed that the amount of IGF-1 was increased in the hydrocephalus CSF when compared with normal controls. Using ELISA, it was shown that the concentration of CSF IGF-1 in the hydrocephalus was significantly higher than in controls. The data from this study indicate that IGF-1 is a constant component of human CSF. It is also concluded that high levels of CSF IGF-1 may be partly related to hydrocephalus pathophysiology.
    Pediatric Research 11/2011; · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enzymes belonging to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) families are involved in a 2-stage detoxification process of a wide range of environmental toxins and carcinogens. In order to investigate whether there is a genetic association of the biotransformation enzymes and idiopathic male fertility, we studied GSTT1, GSTM1, and CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms in 150 infertile men and 200 healthy men as controls from Northern Iran. Genotyping of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were performed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the CYP1A1 polymorphism was determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were present at frequencies of 0.61 and 0.34 in infertile cases, whereas in controls the frequencies were 0.33 and 0.17, respectively. Double-null genotype was found to be elevated among infertile men (odds ratio [OR] = 3.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.42-6.45; P < .0001). The frequency of TT, TC, and CC genotypes of CYP1A1 polymorphism in the controls were 42.5%, 45.5%, and 12%, respectively, while those in the infertile men were 38.7%, 48%, and 13.3%. The CYP1A1*2A did not display any association with male infertility. We observed an association between male infertility and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null deletion, but not with the CYP1A1 polymorphism in North Iranian men with idiopathic infertility.
    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 07/2011; 19(1):81-5. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Farhad Mashayekhi, Zivar Salehi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by infiltration of immune cells in the central nervous system, localized myelin destruction and loss of oligodendrocytes. Early detection of MS may be possible via blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests based on disease pathology. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a neurotrophic cytokine, has previously been shown to limit autoimmune demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in a murine model of MS. Given its potential role in neural cell death and survival, in the present study we measured expression of LIF in serum and CSF from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=46) and control subjects (n=42). We used western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), to study LIF expression. Western blot analysis revealed that LIF was present in all CSF samples, and densitometric analysis showed that relative expression was significantly higher in CSF from patients with MS than in controls (p<0.001). ELISA analysis showed that the concentrations of LIF in both the serum (87.5 ± 11.46 ng/mL) and CSF (56 ± 10.72 ng/mL) of MS patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (52 ± 8.23 ng/mL, 7.8 ± 3.76 ng/mL, respectively; p<0.0001 for both serum and CSF), despite there being no significant difference in total protein concentration between the two groups (p=0.52 for serum, p=0.2 for CSF). Our data suggest that serum and CSF concentrations of LIF may provide additional useful information during the differential diagnosis of MS. Our findings also indicate that LIF could be significantly involved in the pathophysiology of MS.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 07/2011; 18(7):951-4. · 1.25 Impact Factor