Takashi Oikawa

Tsurumi University, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken, Japan

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Publications (11)12.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This case report describes the significance of orthodontic treatment in reconstruction of a collapsed dental arch and a malocclusion associated with severe periodontitis. A Japanese man (age, 40 years 7 months) had an anterior crossbite, a collapsed occlusion, and severe periodontitis. Orthodontic treatment included the following steps: (1) correction of the anterior crossbite, labial movement of the maxillary incisors, and intrusion and retraction of the mandibular incisors; (2) correction of the posterior crossbite on the left side, buccal movement of the maxillary left canine and first premolars, and intrusion and retraction of the mandibular first premolar into the space of the mandibular left canine; (3) correction of the crowding of the mandibular right buccal segment and alignment of the teeth after extraction of the mandibular right first molar with a periapical lesion; and (4) improvement of the occlusion, with reconstruction of an acceptable occlusion. When combined with restorative and prosthodontic treatment, a fairly good occlusion was obtained. Reevaluation of the treatment after 11 years showed that the occlusion and periodontal condition were maintained well without deepening of the pockets and further bone loss. Orthodontic treatment with a systematic approach helped to recover the occlusion and prevented the recurrence of periodontitis by acquiring a good oral environment and motivating the patient to maintain oral health.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 05/2013; 143(5):704-12. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of active eruption of molars was examined in 36 male adolescent Wistar rats. Histological, histochemical [tetracycline (TC) labelling and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity], and immunohistochemical [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, -β2, and -β3] investigations were conducted of the rat molar areas. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA of TGF-β was performed on the periodontal ligament (PDL) dissected out by laser capture microdissection. TC labelling lines showed that a considerable amount of bone formation occurred in the alveolar crest region, apical region, and intraradicular septum, indicating that the maxillary molars had moved downward. However, the periodontal fibres revealed a regular arrangement (alveolar crest, horizontal and oblique fibres) during the experimental period. This suggests that new formation of alveolar crest fibres and rearrangement of the periodontal fibres occurred in the PDL. ALP activity was intense on the bone surface and in the PDL. TGF-β1 was also detected in osteoblasts and fibroblasts but less so in cementoblasts. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated significant expression of mRNA of TGF-β1 in the PDL, indicating that TGF-β1 was involved in active eruption. These results suggest that active eruption occurs in adolescent rats and can be managed by TGF-β1.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 06/2011; 33(3):221-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This case report describes the importance of eliminating transverse dental compensation during preoperative orthodontic treatment for a patient with severe facial asymmetry. The patient, a 17-year-old Japanese woman, had severe facial asymmetry involving the maxilla and the mandible, and extreme transverse dental compensation of the anterior and posterior teeth in both arches. Therefore, the main treatment objectives were elimination of the transverse dental compensation by orthodontic treatment and correction of the morphology of the maxilla and the mandible by orthognathic surgery. The preoperative orthodontic treatment resulted in sufficient elimination of the transverse dental compensation and movement of the teeth into their proper positions so that basal bone firmly supported them. LeFort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy were performed to correct the skeletal morphology. Facial asymmetry was dramatically improved, and a favorable occlusion was obtained. At 1 year 8 months after the surgical orthodontic treatment, the facial symmetry and occlusion remained favorable. The results suggest that sufficient elimination of transverse dental compensation in the maxillary and mandibular arches during preoperative orthodontic treatment is requisite for successful treatment of severe facial asymmetry.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 04/2010; 137(4):552-62. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to observe the time-lapse changes in the rat periodontal ligament (PDL) during function and tooth movement. Under Nembutal anaesthesia, time-lapse changes in the thickness of the PDL of the first molars were investigated in five 12-week-old adolescent rats with microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) images were reconstructed from the data. Histological observation was also performed, using undecalcified frozen sections of the maxillary first molar area. The PDL appeared as a radiolucent furrow on the 3D images. A slight change in the thickness of the PDL was observed 1 hour after initiation of orthodontic force loading, which became significant after 6 hours, with the appearance of pressure-tension zones during the tooth movement. These changes were more significant 3 days after orthodontic loading. Histological observation of the lingual cervical PDL (pressure zone) in nine 12- to 13-week-old rats demonstrated that the periodontal space had become narrow and the cellular elements appeared to be densely packed in the narrowed PDL 6 hours after orthodontic loading. Degeneration of tissues appeared 3 days after loading. Observation of the buccal cervical PDL (tension zone) demonstrated that the PDL was extended 6 hours after orthodontic force loading, and the extension continued for up to 3 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity was distributed in the PDL, except for the degenerating tissues in the pressure zone 3 days after loading. The results suggest that the periodontal reaction was initiated within 6 hours after orthodontic force loading, which was related to the structural changes of the PDL. The changes probably induced an early response in individual cells of the PDL.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 07/2008; 30(3):320-6. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a connective tissue interposed between two hard tissues, viz., the root of a tooth and the alveolar bone, which makes it difficult to obtain directly. In the study reported here, PDL, subgingival connective tissue and pulp of rat molars were extracted directly by laser capture microdissection and the gene expression of TGF-beta1 on the microdissected PDL was examined. The maxillae of rats were dissected and rapidly immersed in isopentane cooled with liquid nitrogen. Serial frontal sections of the rat first molar area were used for immunohistochemistry and for laser capture microdissection to localize the TGF-beta1 gene. Gene expression and immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta1 also were examined in the pulp and subgingival connective tissues. TGF-beta1 was located immunohistochemically in the fibroblasts in the PDL. A considerable amount of RNA was obtained by laser capture microdissection of these three tissues for analysis of gene expression. The reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was amplified in all three tissues, and that TGF-beta1 was detected in the PDL. Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to analyze the gene expression of PDL and expression of TGF-beta1 in the PDL suggests that this gene could function in maintaining PDL.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 01/2008; 82(6):295-300. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since ideally effective tooth movement in orthodontics should occur without causing damage to the periodontal ligament (PDL), a new bracket with a ratchet-locking system, the 'Ratchet Bracket', was designed to produce tooth movement while maintaining blood circulation. To define the mechanism of the appliance, a histological study was carried out on four Beagle dogs (9 months old) and a clinical study on five female patients (11 years to 38 years 10 months of age). Five upper canines in the dogs were moved 1.82 mm per month. On light microscopic observations, vascular forms showed a round-oval shape, without undermining bone resorption. No root resorption was observed in the compressed PDL at days 1, 14, and 35 of the experimental period. On fluorescent images at day 46, distinctive bone formation was apparent at the tension side. In the clinical investigation, nine upper canines in the five female patients were moved 1.92 mm per month. A wide and long alveolar hard line was seen only on the tension side of the canines on dental radiographs, indicating bodily tooth movement, without obvious signs of root resorption in all subjects. Neither spontaneous pain nor pain during biting were reported. The findings indicate that use of the ratchet bracket could result in rapid and pain-free tooth movement with vascular clarity to maintain blood circulation in the PDL.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 07/2007; 29(3):225-31. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new orthodontic appliance with ratchet mechanism (ratchet bracket) was used in experimental animals and clinically, in order to assess tooth movement limited to periodontal ligament (PDL) width, using interrupted orthodontic force.After experimental tooth movement using two beagle dogs’ third incisors, active bone formation was seen at the tension region on fluorescent images, and blood vessels could be seen in the maximal compressed region. No obvious signs of root resorption were seen on the outline of the roots in micro-CT images.The average distal movement of 10 upper canines in six female patients was 1.9 mm (S.D. 0.21) in a month, and 5.5 mm in 102 days, which was the longest period. No patient complained of spontaneous pain during tooth movement or pain on biting. Dental radiography revealed long and thick lamina dura on the tension side of the canines, suggesting bodily tooth movement and a relatively dense bone formation. There was no obvious sign of root resorption in any canines.These results suggested that an interrupted orthodontic force controlled to a distance of 0.26 mm using ratchet mechanism may cause tooth movement without serious damage or pain.
    Orthodontic Waves. 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is anchored to the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer via phosphatidylinositol (PI) and ALP activity has been localized in the plasma membrane of numerous tissues. In the periodontal ligament ALP activity is found in the collagen fibers in addition to the plasma membrane of the osteoblasts and fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the distribution of ALP activity in the periodontal ligament of rat molars and also examined whether the bond between ALP and collagen fibers is dependent on PI by using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). ALP activity was distributed in the periodontal ligament. The activity mirrored the distribution of collagen fibers in the periodontal ligament. Cytochemical analysis also demonstrated that ALP activity was located not only in the plasma membrane of fibroblasts, but also in the collagen fiber bundles and fibrils in the periodontal ligament. After treatment with PI-PLC, the loss of ALP activity in the periodontal ligament was observed histochemically, and the loss of ALP activity in the fibroblasts as well as in the collagen fiber bundles and fibrils was observed cytochemically. These results strongly indicate that the bond between ALP and the collagen fibers is also dependent on PI.
    Histochemie 02/2004; 121(1):39-45. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcification of degenerating tissues in the periodontal ligament (PDL) during tooth movement was investigated longitudinally. Upper first molars of male Wistar rats were moved lingually for 1, 7 and 21 d, following which unfixed undecalcified sections of the lingual PDL (in the pressure zone) were examined histologically, histochemically (autoradiography and electron probe microanalysis). On d 1 of tooth movement, degenerating tissues, together with some calcified particles, were visible in the pressure zone of the lingual PDL. On d 7, substantial calcified aggregations were seen in the degenerating tissues, predominantly situated between the bone and root. This was confirmed by the 45Ca autoradiography. On d 21 of tooth movement, large calcified aggregations were still clearly evident between the bone and root. This calcification of the degenerating tissues is a self-defense response of the living body to prevent direct contact between alveolar bone and the tooth root during compression of the PDL, so preventing friction between them and the development of ankylosis.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 07/2003; 38(3):343-50. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate compensatory lingual alveolar bone formation during tooth movement in young and old rats, using the vital bone marker tetracycline. Wistar male rats were separated into the following groups: 13-week-old rats without appliances (13C: control, n = 5), 60-week-old rats without appliances (60C: control, n = 5), 13-week-old rats with appliances (13E: experimental, n = 10), and 60-week-old rats with appliances (60E: experimental, n = 10). The upper first molars of the 13E and 60E groups were moved lingually using fixed appliances. On the third day of tooth movement, tetracycline (TC) was intra-peritoneally injected in all animals including the controls. On the 21st day of tooth movement, the animals were killed and unfixed, and undecalcified, 5-microm frozen frontal sections of the rat first molar areas in both control and experimental groups were examined under light and fluorescent microscopes. In the 13C group without tooth movement, tetracycline labelling lines were obvious in the alveolar crest, apical areas, and interradicular septum, indicating vertical alveolar bone growth. However, in the 60C control group, tetracycline labelling was almost undetectable throughout the alveolar bone. Although the lingual alveolar crest was resorbed from the periodontal side after lingual tooth movement, the sharp, bright labelling lines were still present from the crest to the lingual periosteal alveolar bone in the 13E group. In the 60E group the lines appeared in the lingual periosteal alveolar bone containing the crest, indicating considerable new bone formation. The results indicate that compensatory bone formation occurs in the alveolar crest area and, consequently, alveolar bone height is maintained, even in aged rats.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 03/2003; 25(1):1-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The aim of this study was to observe the time-lapse changes in the rat periodontal ligament (PDL) during function and tooth movement. Under Nembutal anaesthesia, time-lapse changes in the thickness of the PDL of the fi rst molars were investigated in fi ve 12-week-old adolescent rats with microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) images were reconstructed from the data. Histological observation was also performed, using undecalcifi ed frozen sections of the maxillary fi rst molar area. The PDL appeared as a radiolucent furrow on the 3D images. A slight change in the thickness of the PDL was observed 1 hour after initiation of orthodontic force loading, which became signifi cant after 6 hours, with the appearance of pressure - tension zones during the tooth movement. These changes were more signifi cant 3 days after orthodontic loading. Histological observation of the lingual cervical PDL (pressure zone) in nine 12- to 13-week-old rats demonstrated that the periodontal space had become narrow and the cellular elements appeared to be densely packed in the narrowed PDL 6 hours after orthodontic loading. Degeneration of tissues appeared 3 days after loading. Observation of the buccal cervical PDL (tension zone) demonstrated that the PDL was extended 6 hours after orthodontic force loading, and the extension continued for up to 3 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity was distributed in the PDL, except for the degenerating tissues in the pressure zone 3 days after loading. The results suggest that the periodontal reaction was initiated within 6 hours after orthodontic force loading, which was related to the structural changes of the PDL. The changes probably induced an early response in individual cells of the PDL.