Sally W Vernon

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (253)934.88 Total impact

  • William A. Calo · Sally W. Vernon · David R. Lairson · Stephen H. Linder ·

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The current study was conducted to determine the effect of continuing a centralized fecal occult blood test (FOBT) mailed program on screening adherence. Methods: A patient-level randomized controlled trial was conducted in 21 patient-centered medical home primary care clinics between January 2010 and November 2012. A total of 2208 patients ranging in age from 52 to 75 years in a substudy of the Systems of Support to Increase Colon Cancer Screening and Follow-Up (SOS) trial were randomized at year 3 to continued automated interventions (Continued group), which included mailed information regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening choices, and were mailed stool kit tests or to a group in which interventions were stopped (Stopped group). The main outcomes and measures were the completion of CRC screening in year 3 and by subgroup characteristics, respectively. Results: Adherence to CRC screening in year 3 was found to be significantly higher in patients in the Continued group compared with those in the Stopped group (53.3% vs 37.3%; adjusted net difference, 15.6% [P<.001]). This difference was entirely due to greater completion of FOBT (adjusted net difference, 18.0% [P<.001]). Year 3 CRC screening rates were highest in patients in the Continued group completing FOBT in both years 1 and 2 (77.2%), followed by patients completing only 1 FOBT in 1 of the 2 years (44.6%), with low rates of CRC testing reported among patients not completing any FOBT within the first 2 years (18.1%). Conclusions: A centralized mailed FOBT CRC screening program continued to be more effective than patient-centered medical home usual-care interventions, but only for those patients who had previously completed FOBT testing. Research is needed regarding how to engage patients not completing CRC testing after being mailed at least 2 rounds of FOBT tests. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/cncr.29734 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    DESCRIPTION: Validation of mammography self report from two data sources of women veterans in Project HOME
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    ABSTRACT: Relatives of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are at increased risk for the disease, yet screening rates still remain low. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, we examined the impact of a personalized, remote risk communication intervention on behavioral intention and colonoscopy uptake in relatives of CRC patients, assessing the original additive model and an alternative model in which each theoretical construct contributes uniquely. We collected intention-to-screen and medical record-verified colonoscopy information on 218 individuals who received the personalized intervention. Structural equation modeling showed poor main model fit (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.109; standardized root mean residual (SRMR) = 0.134; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.797; Akaike information criterion (AIC) = 11,601; Bayesian information criterion (BIC) = 11,884). However, the alternative model (RMSEA = 0.070; SRMR = 0.105; CFI = 0.918; AIC = 11,186; BIC = 11,498) showed good fit. Cancer susceptibility (B = 0.319, p < 0.001) and colonoscopy self-efficacy (B = 0.364, p < 0.001) perceptions predicted intention to screen, which was significantly associated with colonoscopy uptake (B = 0.539, p < 0.001). Our findings provide support of the utility of Extended Parallel Process Model for designing effective interventions to motivate CRC screening in persons at increased risk when individual elements of the model are considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 07/2015; 24(10). DOI:10.1002/pon.3899 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the efficacy of a remote tailored intervention (TeleCARE) compared to a mailed educational brochure for improving colonoscopy uptake among at-risk relatives of colorectal cancer patients and examined subgroup differences based on participant reported cost barriers. Family members of colorectal cancer patients who were not up-to-date with colonoscopy were randomly assigned as family units to TeleCARE (N=232) or an educational brochure (N=249). At the 9-month follow-up, a cost resource letter listing resources for free or reduced-cost colonoscopy was mailed to participants who had reported cost barriers and remained non-adherent. Rates of medically-verified colonoscopy at the 15-month follow-up were compared based on group assignment and within group stratification by cost barriers. In intent-to-treat analysis, 42.7% of participants in TeleCARE and 24.1% of participants in the educational brochure group had a medically-verified colonoscopy [OR = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 3.52]. Cost was identified as a barrier in both groups (TeleCARE = 62.5%; educational brochure = 57.0%). When cost was not a barrier, the TeleCARE group was almost four times as likely as the comparison to have a colonoscopy (OR = 3.66; 95% CI= 1.85 to 7.24). The intervention was efficacious among those who reported cost barriers; the TeleCARE group was nearly twice as likely to have a colonoscopy (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.12 to 3.52). TeleCARE increased colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers. Remote interventions may bolster screening colonoscopy regardless of cost barriers and be more efficacious when cost barriers are absent. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 06/2015; 24(9). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0150 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cancer diagnosis may provide a 'teachable moment' in cancer recovery. To better understand factors influencing lifestyle choices following diagnosis, we examined associations between time since diagnosis and symptom burden with recommended dietary (e.g., five or more fruit/vegetable servings/day), physical activity (e.g., >150 active min, 3-5 times/week), and smoking behaviors (i.e., eliminate tobacco use) in cancer survivors. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from breast (n = 528), colorectal (n = 106), and prostate (n = 419) cancer survivors following active treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Four regression models were tested for behaviors of interest. Additionally, we assessed symptom burden as a potential moderator and/or mediator between time since diagnosis and behaviors. Respondents were mostly female (55%) and non-Hispanic White (68%) with a mean age of 62.8 ± 11.4 years and mean time since diagnosis of 4.6 ± 3.1 years. In regression models, greater time since diagnosis predicted lower fruit and vegetable consumption (B = -0.05, p = 0.02) and more cigarette smoking (B = 0.06, p = 0.105). Greater symptom burden was a significant negative predictor for physical activity (B = -0.08, p < .001). We did not find evidence that symptom burden moderated or mediated the association between time since diagnosis and health behaviors. We assessed the prevalence of recommended behaviors in the context of other challenges that survivors face, including time since diagnosis and symptom burden. Our results provide indirect evidence that proximity to a cancer diagnosis may provide a teachable moment to improve dietary and smoking behaviors and that symptom burden may impede physical activity following diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 06/2015; 24(10). DOI:10.1002/pon.3857 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent colorectal cancer screening studies focus on optimizing adherence. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of interventions using electronic health records (EHRs); automated mailings; and stepped support increases to improve 2-year colorectal cancer screening adherence. Analyses were based on a parallel-design, randomized trial in which three stepped interventions (EHR-linked mailings ["automated"]; automated plus telephone assistance ["assisted"]; or automated and assisted plus nurse navigation to testing completion or refusal [navigated"]) were compared to usual care. Data were from August 2008 to November 2011, with analyses performed during 2012-2013. Implementation resources were micro-costed; research and registry development costs were excluded. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were based on number of participants current for screening per guidelines over 2 years. Bootstrapping examined robustness of results. Intervention delivery cost per participant current for screening ranged from $21 (automated) to $27 (navigated). Inclusion of induced testing costs (e.g., screening colonoscopy) lowered expenditures for automated (ICER=-$159) and assisted (ICER=-$36) relative to usual care over 2 years. Savings arose from increased fecal occult blood testing, substituting for more expensive colonoscopies in usual care. Results were broadly consistent across demographic subgroups. More intensive interventions were consistently likely to be cost effective relative to less intensive interventions, with willingness to pay values of $600-$1,200 for an additional person current for screening yielding ≥80% probability of cost effectiveness. Two-year cost effectiveness of a stepped approach to colorectal cancer screening promotion based on EHR data is indicated, but longer-term cost effectiveness requires further study. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American journal of preventive medicine 06/2015; 48(6):714-21. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.12.016 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about validity of self-reported mammography surveillance among breast cancer survivors. Most studies have focused on accuracy among healthy, average-risk populations and none have assessed validity by electronic medical record (EMR) extraction method. To assess validity of survivor-reported mammography post-active treatment care, we surveyed all survivors diagnosed 2004-2009 in an academic hospital cancer registry (n = 1441). We used electronic query and manual review to extract EMR data. Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and report-to-records ratio were calculated by comparing survivors' self-reports to data from each extraction method. We also assessed average difference in months between mammography dates by source and correlates of concordance. Agreement between the two EMR extraction methods was high (concordance 0.90; kappa 0.70), with electronic query identifying more mammograms. Sensitivity was excellent (0.99) regardless of extraction method; concordance and positive predictive value were good; however, specificity was poor (manual review 0.20, electronic query 0.31). Report-to-records ratios were both over 1 suggesting over-reporting. We observed slight forward telescoping for survivors reporting mammograms 7-12 months prior to survey date. Higher educational attainment and less time since mammogram receipt were associated with greater concordance. Accuracy of survivors' self-reported mammograms was generally high with slight forward telescoping among those recalling their mammograms between 7 and 12 months prior to the survey date. Results are encouraging for clinicians and practitioners relying on survivor reports for surveillance care delivery and as a screening tool for inclusion in interventions promoting adherence to surveillance guidelines.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2015; 151(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3387-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline survey about Pap test attitudes subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to be screened for cervical cancer. At 6 months postbaseline, cervical cancer screening behavior was assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theory. Model fit statistics indicated good model fit: χ(2)(48) = 54.32, p = .246; comparative fit index = .992; root mean square error of approximation = .015; weighted root mean square residual = .687. Subjective norms (p = .005) and perceived behavioral control (p < .0001) were positively associated with intention to be screened for cervical cancer, and the intention to be screened predicted actual cervical cancer screening (p < .0001). The proportion of variance (R(2)) in intention accounted for by the predictors was .276 and the R(2) in cervical cancer screening accounted for was .130. This study provides support for the use of the theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among Latinas. This knowledge can be used to inform the development of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas and reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer in this group of women. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
    Health Education & Behavior 02/2015; 42(5). DOI:10.1177/1090198115571364 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Jane Wardle · Kathryn Robb · Sally Vernon · Jo Waller ·
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    ABSTRACT: The poor outcomes for cancers diagnosed at an advanced stage have been the driver behind research into techniques to detect disease before symptoms are manifest. For cervical and colorectal cancer, detection and treatment of "precancers" can prevent the development of cancer, a form of primary prevention. For other cancers-breast, prostate, lung, and ovarian-screening is a form of secondary prevention, aiming to improve outcomes through earlier diagnosis. International and national expert organizations regularly assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening technologies, issuing clinical guidelines for population-wide implementation. Psychological research has made important contributions to this process, assessing the psychological costs and benefits of possible screening outcomes (e.g., the impact of false positive results) and public tolerance of overdiagnosis. Cervical, colorectal, and breast screening are currently recommended, and prostate, lung, and ovarian screening are under active review. Once technologies and guidelines are in place, delivery of screening is implemented according to the health care system of the country, with invitation systems and provider recommendations playing a key role. Behavioral scientists can then investigate how individuals make screening decisions, assessing the impact of knowledge, perceived cancer risk, worry, and normative beliefs about screening, and this information can be used to develop strategies to promote screening uptake. This article describes current cancer screening options, discusses behavioral research designed to reduce underscreening and minimize inequalities, and considers the issues that are being raised by informed decision making and the development of risk-stratified approaches to screening. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    American Psychologist 02/2015; 70(2):119-133. DOI:10.1037/a0037357 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research has shown that recent post-treatment breast cancer survivors face significant challenges around physical activity as they transition to recovery. This review examined randomized controlled trials targeting physical activity behavior change in breast cancer survivors <5 years post-treatment and described (1) characteristics of interventions for breast cancer survivors as well as (2) effect size estimates for these studies. A systematic search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines with Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. Data were abstracted for primary intervention strategies and other details (e.g., setting, duration, theory use). A subgroup analysis was conducted to assess intensity of exercise supervision/monitoring and intervention effectiveness. The search produced 14 unique behavior intervention trials from the US and abroad published 2005-2013. The mean sample size was 153 participants per study. All interventions included moderate-intensity activities plus various behavioral change strategies. Most interventions were partially or entirely home based. The overall standardized mean difference was 0.47 (0.23, 0.67) with p < 0.001. Most interventions were effective in producing short-term behavior changes in physical activity, but varied greatly relative to intervention strategies and intensity of supervision/monitoring. Highly structured interventions tended to produce larger behavior change effects overall, but many larger effect sizes came from interventions supported by phone counseling or e-mail. We observed that 'more' may not be better in terms of direct supervision/monitoring in physical activity behavior interventions. This may be important in exploring less resource-intensive options for effective behavior change strategies for recent post-treatment survivors.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2015; 149(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3255-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third leading cause of cancer death for Hispanic men and women, respectively. CRC can be prevented if precursors are detected early and removed and can be successfully treated if discovered early. While one-on-one interventions for increasing CRC screening (CRCS) are recommended, few studies specifically assess the effectiveness of lay health worker (LHW) approaches using different educational materials. Purpose To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of two LHW-delivered CRCS interventions known as Vale la Pena (VLP; “It’s Worth It!”) on increasing CRCS among Hispanics. Design The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial with two treatment arms. Setting/participants Six hundred and sixty five Hispanics 50 years and older were recruited from 24 colonias (neighborhoods) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of the Texas–Mexico border. Intervention The interventions were a small media print intervention (SMPI) (including DVD and flipchart), and a tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) delivered on tablet computers. A no intervention group served as the comparison group. Data were collected between 2007 and 2009 and analyzed between 2009 and 2013. Main outcome measures Measures assessed CRCS behavior, self-efficacy, knowledge, and other psychosocial constructs related to CRCS and targeted through VLP. Results Among participants reached for follow-up, 18.9 % in the SMPI group, 13.3 % in the TIMI group, and 11.9 % in the comparison group completed CRCS. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that 13.6 % in the SMPI group, 10.2 % in the TIMI group, and 10.8 % in the comparison group completed CRCS. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Results indicated that there are no significant differences in CRCS uptake between groups.
    Cancer Causes and Control 12/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0472-5 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to determine the effect of preference-based tailored navigation on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening adherence and related outcomes among African Americans (AAs). We conducted a randomized controlled trial that included 764 AA patients who were age 50 to 75 years, were eligible for CRC screening, and had received care through primary care practices in Philadelphia. Consented patients completed a baseline telephone survey and were randomized to either a Standard Intervention (SI) group (n = 380) or a Tailored Navigation Intervention (TNI) group (n = 384). The SI group received a mailed stool blood test kit plus colonoscopy instructions, and a reminder. The TNI group received tailored navigation (a mailed stool blood test kit or colonoscopy instructions based on preference, plus telephone navigation) and a reminder. A six-month survey and a 12-month medical records review were completed to assess screening adherence, change in overall screening preference, and perceptions about screening. Multivariable analyses were performed to assess intervention impact on outcomes. At six months, adherence in the TNI group was statistically significantly higher than in the SI group (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.9). Positive change in overall screening preference was also statistically significantly greater in the TNI group compared with the SI group (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). There were no statistically significant differences in perceptions about screening between the study groups. Tailored navigation in primary care is a promising approach for increasing CRC screening among AAs. Research is needed to determine how to maximize intervention effects and to test intervention impact on race-related disparities in mortality and survival. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 12/2014; 106(12). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju344 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Twenty-nine states and tribal organizations receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by (1) promoting CRC screening population-wide using evidence-based approaches (EBAs) and (2) providing CRC screening to the un/underinsured. This analysis examines the implementation of the Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) and includes a comparison group of unfunded organizations. Methods: An online survey was conducted in fall 2012 that asked the 29 CRCCP grantees about CRC screening activities in the 3rd year of the program (7/2011-6/2012). The comparison group included 24 Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program grantees that did not receive CRCCP funding; they were asked about CRC prevention and control activities funded by other sources. Results: CRCCP grantees were more likely than unfunded sites to use the following EBAs to promote CRC screening: small media - 97% of grantees versus 50% of unfunded sites; client reminders - 76% versus 21%; reducing structural barriers - 59% versus 25%; provider reminders - 38% versus 17%; provider assessment and feedback - 45% versus 12%. All grantees provided CRC screening but only 50% of the unfunded sites. The two groups also differed with respect to their partnerships for screening provision, use of patient navigators, recruitment of patients, professional development and other activities. Conclusions: CRCCP grantees implemented EBAs promoting CRC screening at a higher rate than unfunded sites. Both groups were equally likely to implement other CRC promotion approaches, suggesting that CRCCP funding and support was key to increasing EBA use.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Follow-up after a positive colorectal cancer screening test is necessary for screening to be effective. We hypothesized that nurse navigation would increase the completion of colonoscopy after a positive screening test. Methods: This study was conducted between 2008 and 2012 at 21 primary care medical centers in western Washington State. Participants in the Systems of Support to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening study who had a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or flexible sigmoidoscopy needing follow-up were randomized to usual care (UC) or a nurse navigator (navigation). UC included an electronic health record-based positive FOBT registry and physician reminder system. Navigation included UC plus care coordination and patient self-management support from a registered nurse who tracked and assisted patients until they completed or refused colonoscopy. The primary outcome was completion of colonoscopy within 6 months. After 6 months, both groups received navigation. Results: We randomized 147 participants with a positive FOBT or sigmoidoscopy. Completion of colonoscopy was higher in the intervention group at 6 months, but differences were not statistically significant (91.0% in navigation group vs 80.8% in UC group; adjusted difference, 10.1%; P = .10). Reasons for no or late colonoscopies included refusal, failure to schedule or missed appointments, concerns about risks or costs, and competing health concerns. Conclusions: Navigation did not lead to a statistically significant incremental benefit at 6 months. Impact: Follow-up rates after a positive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test are high in a health care system where UC included a registry and physician reminders. Because of high follow-up rates in a health care system where UC included a registry and physician reminders, and small sample size, we cannot rule out incremental benefits of nurse navigation.
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 11/2014; 27(6):789-795. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2014.06.140125 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment fidelity is associated with improvement in research outcomes and increased confidence in significant findings. However, few studies report on recommended areas of treatment fidelity (i.e., study design, training, treatment delivery, treatment receipt, and treatment enactment), leaving a dearth of information about implementation components that contributed to a study’s success. Without such information, it is difficult for researchers to correctly assess previous findings and for practitioners to correctly implement findings into practice. Thus, it is crucial that studies assess both treatment fidelity and applicability of treatment fidelity findings. We report measures of treatment fidelity in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention promoting colonoscopy in at-risk relatives of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We describe assessments related to both treatment delivery and treatment receipt. We conducted separate ANCOVAs to model the change in each of the treatment receipt variables, comparing the two intervention arms. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in CRC knowledge (f = 17.46, p < .0001), perceptions about susceptibility (f = 15.08, p = .0002), response efficacy (f = 7.46, p = .0076), self-efficacy (f = 8.16, p = .0053), and reduced decisional uncertainty (f = 19.59, p < .0001) from baseline to 1-month follow-up. Overall, our study adhered to most of the best-practice guidelines for behavioral intervention fidelity. This demonstrates that our intervention was delivered as intended and positively affected the cognitive processes that are purported to be predictive of adherent behavioral outcomes.
    SAGE Open 10/2014; October-December(4):1-13. DOI:10.1177/2158244014559021
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Since 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has awarded nearly $95 million to 29 states and tribes through the Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) to fund 2 program components: 1) providing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to uninsured and underinsured low-income adults and 2) promoting population-wide CRC screening through evidence-based interventions identified in the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). CRCCP is a new model for disseminating and promoting use of evidence-based interventions. If the program proves successful, CDC may adopt the model for future cancer control programs. The objective of our study was to compare the colorectal cancer screening practices of recipients of CRCCP funding (grantees) with those of nonrecipients (nongrantees). Methods We conducted parallel Web-based surveys in 2012 with CRCCP grantees (N = 29) and nongrantees (N = 24) to assess promotion and provision of CRC screening, including the use of evidence-based interventions. Results CRCCP grantees were significantly more likely than nongrantees to use Community Guide-recommended evidence-based interventions (mean, 3.14 interventions vs 1.25 interventions, P < .001) and to use patient navigation services (eg, transportion or language translation services) (72% vs 17%, P < .001) for promoting CRC screening. Both groups were equally likely to use other strategies. CRCCP grantees were significantly more likely to provide CRC screening than were nongrantees (100% versus 50%, P < .001). Conclusion Results suggest that CRCCP funding and support increases use of evidence-based interventions to promote CRC screening, indicating the program’s potential to increase population-wide CRC screening rates.
    Preventing chronic disease 10/2014; 11(10):E170. DOI:10.5888/pcd11.140183 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers affecting both men and women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) supports both direct clinical screening services (screening provision) and activities to promote screening at the population level (screening promotion). Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient navigation (PN) programs for screening provision and promotion for the first 1 to 2 years of program funding. Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 29 CRCCP grantees (25 states and 4 tribal organizations) and 14 in-depth interviews to assess program implementation. Main Outcome Measures: The survey and interview guide collected information on CRC screening provision and promotion activities and PN, including the structure of the PN program, characteristics of the navigators, funding mechanism, and navigators' activities. Results: Twenty-four of 28 CRCCP grantees of the survey used PN for screening provision whereas 18 grantees used navigation for screening promotion. Navigators were often trained in nursing or public health. Navigation activities were similar for both screening provision and promotion, and common tasks included assessing and responding to patient barriers to screening, providing patient education, and scheduling appointments. For screening provision, activities centered on making reminder calls, educating patients on bowel preparation for colonoscopies, and tracking patients for completion of the tests. Navigation may influence screening quality by improving patients' bowel preparation for colonoscopies. Conclusions: Our study provides insights into PN across a federally funded CRC program. Results suggest that PN activities may be instrumental in recruiting people into cancer screening and ensuring completed screening and follow-up.
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 08/2014; Publish Ahead of Print(5). DOI:10.1097/PHH.0000000000000132 · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Lara S Savas · Sally W Vernon · John S Atkinson · Maria E Fernández ·
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    ABSTRACT: Latinos have lower colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) and survival rates compared to other race/ethnic groups. This cross-sectional study examines relationships between acculturation, access to and utilization of healthcare services, and CRCS in low-income Latinos. Bilingual data collectors conducted structured interviews with 544 Latino men and women (>50 years) residing in the Texas-Mexico border area. Using a hierarchical logistic regression model, we examined the relationship between lifetime history of any CRCS test and indicators of acculturation, healthcare utilization and access to care, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Survey results revealed a 34 % prevalence of CRCS. Participants reporting a provider recommendation for screening, regular check-ups, higher acculturation level, and health insurance had significantly increased odds of CRCS. Findings indicate CRCS intervention research in Latinos should focus on (1) increasing physicians' recommendations for screening, (2) promoting regular check-ups, (3) and increasing CRC prevention efforts on less acculturated and uninsured groups.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 07/2014; 17(3). DOI:10.1007/s10903-014-0061-4 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Few studies use longitudinal data to identify predictors of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). We examined predictors of (1) initial CRCS during the first year of a randomized trial, and (2) repeat CRCS during the second year of the trial among those that completed FOBT in Year 1. Methods: The sample comprised 1247 participants of the Systems of Support to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (SOS) Trial (Group Health Cooperative, August 2008 to November 2011). Potential predictors of CRCS were identified with logistic regression and included sociodemographics, health history, and validated scales of psychosocial constructs. Results: Prior CRCS (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.99-3.52) and intervention group (Automated: OR 2.06 95% CI 1.43-2.95; Assisted: OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.69-6.03; Navigated: OR 5.64, 95% CI 3.74-8.49) were predictors of CRCS completion at Year 1. For repeat CRCS at Year 2, prior CRCS at baseline (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.25-3.11), intervention group (Automated: OR 9.27, 95% CI 4.56-18.82; Assisted: OR 11.17, 95% CI 5.44-22.94; Navigated: OR 13.10, 95% CI 6.33-27.08), and self-efficacy (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00-1.73) were significant predictors. Conclusion: Self-efficacy and prior CRCS are important predictors of future screening behavior. CRCS completion increased when access barriers were removed through interventions.
    Preventive Medicine 06/2014; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.013 · 3.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
934.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1984-2015
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1995-2014
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 1981-2008
    • University of Texas Medical School
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
  • 1997-2007
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006
    • Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2003-2006
    • Houston Graduate School of Theology
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Salt Lake City Community College
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Psychology
      College Station, TX, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Health Services
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1990-2003
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Behavioral Science
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Family & Community Medicine
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1994
    • Houston Zoo
      Houston, Texas, United States