Kristie A Blum

The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

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Publications (66)633.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT CALGB designed a phase II trial of lenalidomide+bortezomib for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Induction therapy was lenalidomide (days 1-14) plus bortezomib (days 1/4/8/11), every 21 days for eight cycles. Complete and partial responders (CR, PR) received maintenance lenalidomide (days 1-14) and bortezomib (days 1/8), every 21 days. Primary endpoint was overall response rate; secondary endpoints were CR rate, progression-free- (PFS), event-free- (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Fifty-three eligible patients, median age 67 years, were accrued. Median number of cycles received was 4 (range, 1-82). Median follow-up is 46 (range, 12-67) months. Best response was CR (n=8, 15%), PR (n=13, 25%). 5/8 CR and 4/13 PR patients received maintenance therapy. Of responders, 6 CR/1 PR patients remain in remission at a median of 3.2 years. Thirty-three (62%) patients have died. One-year PFS, EFS, OS are 40%, 25%, and 68%, respectively. This combination will not be pursued further at this dose/schedule.
    Leukemia & lymphoma. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and is effective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Resistance to irreversible kinase inhibitors and resistance associated with BTK inhibition have not been characterized. Although only a small proportion of patients have had a relapse during ibrutinib therapy, an understanding of resistance mechanisms is important. We evaluated patients with relapsed disease to identify mutations that may mediate ibrutinib resistance. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing at baseline and the time of relapse on samples from six patients with acquired resistance to ibrutinib therapy. We then performed functional analysis of identified mutations. In addition, we performed Ion Torrent sequencing for identified resistance mutations on samples from nine patients with prolonged lymphocytosis. Results We identified a cysteine-to-serine mutation in BTK at the binding site of ibrutinib in five patients and identified three distinct mutations in PLCγ2 in two patients. Functional analysis showed that the C481S mutation of BTK results in a protein that is only reversibly inhibited by ibrutinib. The R665W and L845F mutations in PLCγ2 are both potentially gain-of-function mutations that lead to autonomous B-cell-receptor activity. These mutations were not found in any of the patients with prolonged lymphocytosis who were taking ibrutinib. Conclusions Resistance to the irreversible BTK inhibitor ibrutinib often involves mutation of a cysteine residue where ibrutinib binding occurs. This finding, combined with two additional mutations in PLCγ2 that are immediately downstream of BTK, underscores the importance of the B-cell-receptor pathway in the mechanism of action of ibrutinib in CLL. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2014; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myc-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with or without a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) rearrangement is associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, the authors reviewed the outcomes of patients with myc-positive and double-hit NHL at The Ohio State University. All patients who had non-Burkitt, aggressive B-cell NHL from 2008 to 2011 were assessed for the t(14;18) translocation and for v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (CMYC) rearrangements at diagnosis, and all myc-positive patients were included in the current analysis. Associations with clinical characteristics were described, and univariable and multivariable models were used to assess correlations between clinical variables and outcomes. Of 49 myc-positive patients, 29 patients also had BCL2 rearrangements (double-hit NHL). No patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission. For all myc-positive patients, the median PFS was 16.6 months, and the median OS was 37.7 months. For patients who had double-hit NHL, the median PFS was 8 months, and the median OS was 12.5 months; whereas the median PFS and OS were not reached for myc-positive patients. A complete response (CR) after front-line therapy, the presence of t(14;18), International Prognostic Index (IPI) group, and age were associated with PFS; whereas only the achievement of a CR and age >60 years were associated with OS in the multivariable setting. The median PFS was 3.3 months, and the median and OS was 7.0 months for patients who did not attain a CR; and the medians were not reached for patients who achieved a CR (P < .00001). The achievement of a CR with front-line therapy is associated with a prolonged PFS and OS in patients with myc-positive NHL, even after adjusting for type of initial therapy, histology, age, IPI, or the presence of a concurrent BCL2 translocation. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Kami Maddocks, Kristie A Blum
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    ABSTRACT: The standard frontline therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) includes the use of chemoimmunotherapy and/or radiation therapy. When patients with these diseases relapse or are refractory to therapy, their diseases are considered incurable outside of the setting of an autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant, which many patients are not candidates for due to age or comorbidities. The oral Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, targets the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway that is critical in the survival of these malignancies. It has shown promising activity in certain subtypes of DLBCL, in relapsed or refractory FL, and in relapsed or refractory MCL for which it has recently received FDA approval and should be considered for use in patients in first relapse. Ibrutinib is an oral therapy taken daily that has been well tolerated by patients. Given the high response rates, tolerability, and acceptable toxicities of ibrutinib therapy, it is now being evaluated in combination therapy both in relapsed B-cell malignancies and frontline studies in DLBCL and MCL. Several other promising agents targeting different kinases in the BCR signaling pathway also are currently under investigation.
    Current Treatment Options in Oncology 02/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) mediates B-cell receptor signaling and microenvironmental support signals that promote the growth and survival of malignant B lymphocytes. In a phase 1 study, idelalisib, an orally active selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, showed antitumor activity in patients with previously treated indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods In this single-group, open-label, phase 2 study, 125 patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas who had not had a response to rituximab and an alkylating agent or had had a relapse within 6 months after receipt of those therapies were administered idelalisib, 150 mg twice daily, until the disease progressed or the patient withdrew from the study. The primary end point was the overall rate of response; secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. Results The median age of the patients was 64 years (range, 33 to 87); patients had received a median of four prior therapies (range, 2 to 12). Subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma included follicular lymphoma (72 patients), small lymphocytic lymphoma (28), marginal-zone lymphoma (15), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with or without Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (10). The response rate was 57% (71 of 125 patients), with 6% meeting the criteria for a complete response. The median time to a response was 1.9 months, the median duration of response was 12.5 months, and the median progression-free survival was 11 months. Similar response rates were observed across all subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, though the numbers were small for some categories. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (in 27% of the patients), elevations in aminotransferase levels (in 13%), diarrhea (in 13%), and pneumonia (in 7%). Conclusions In this single-group study, idelalisib showed antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had received extensive prior treatment. (Funded by Gilead Sciences and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01282424 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve long-term outcomes for Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL) or aggressive lymphomas in adults, we assessed the benefit of adding rituximab and filgrastim support to a dose-dense modified chemotherapy regimen from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9251 trial. One hundred and five patients (aged 19–79 years) were enrolled; 27% were >60 years old; 47% had high or high-intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI) criteria. Common severe toxicities included stomatitis/upper gastrointestinal toxicity (69%), renal insufficiency (10%), neurological events (25%) and pulmonary events (18%). Seven died from treatment-related causes (one central nervous system bleed, four infections, two respiratory failure); five were >60 years old. Results in this adult population are encouraging as complete response (CR) was observed in 83% and 4-year event-free (EFS) and overall survivals (OS) were 74% and 78%, respectively. Results compare favourably to our prior chemotherapy alone study (CALGB 9251) but despite this, high-risk patients still had worse outcomes. In conclusion, short duration, intensive chemo-immunotherapy is feasible and should be considered in adults with BL as it results in high remission rates and durable remissions.
    British Journal of Haematology 01/2014; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia. After a median follow-up of 22·1 months (IQR 18·4-23·2), 22 (71%) of 31 patients achieved an objective response (95% CI 52·0-85·8); four patients (13%) had a complete response, one patient (3%) had a nodular partial response, and 17 (55%) patients had a partial response. The safety and activity of ibrutinib in elderly, previously untreated patients with symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, or small lymphocytic lymphoma is encouraging, and merits further investigation in phase 3 trials. Pharmacyclics, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, D Warren Brown Foundation, Mr and Mrs Michael Thomas, Harry Mangurian Foundation, P50 CA140158 to Prof J C Byrd MD.
    The Lancet Oncology 12/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoma is the fourth most frequent cancer in pregnancy; however, current clinical practice is based largely on small series and case reports. In a multicenter retrospective analysis, we examined treatment, complications, and outcomes for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occurring during pregnancy. Among 90 patients (NHL, n = 50; HL, n = 40), median age was 30 years (range, 18 to 44 years) and median diagnosis occurred at 24 weeks gestation. Of patients with NHL, 52% had advanced-stage versus 25% of patients with HL (P = .01). Pregnancy was terminated in six patients. Among the other 84 patients, 28 (33%) had therapy deferred to postpartum; these patients were diagnosed at a median 30 weeks gestation. This compared with 56 patients (67%) who received antenatal therapy with median lymphoma diagnosis at 21 weeks (P < .001); 89% of these patients received combination chemotherapy. The most common preterm complication was induction of labor (33%). Gestation went to full term in 56% of patients with delivery occurring at a median of 37 weeks. There were no differences in maternal complications, perinatal events, or median infant birth weight based on deferred versus antenatal therapy. At 41 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for NHL were 53% and 82%, respectively, and 85% and 97%, respectively, for HL. On univariate analysis for NHL, radiotherapy predicted inferior PFS, and increased lactate dehydrogenase and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) portended worse OS. For HL patients, nulliparous status and "B" symptoms predicted inferior PFS. Standard (non-antimetabolite) combination chemotherapy administered past the first trimester, as early as 13 weeks gestation, was associated with few complications and expected maternal survival with lymphoma occurring during pregnancy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavopiridol is a broad cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) that induces apoptosis of malignant lymphocytes in vitro and in murine lymphoma models. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for single-agent flavopiridol administered on a pharmacokinetically derived hybrid dosing schedule to patients with relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Dose was escalated independently in one of four cohorts: indolent B-cell (cohort 1), mantle cell (cohort 2), intermediate grade B-cell including transformed lymphoma (cohort 3), and T-/NK-cell excluding primary cutaneous disease (cohort 4). Forty-six patients were accrued. Grade 3 or 4 leukopenia was observed in the majority of patients (60%), but infection was infrequent. Common non-hematologic toxicties included diarrhea and fatigue. Biochemical tumor lysis was observed in only 2 patients, and no patients required hemodialysis for its management. Dose escalation was completed in two cohorts (indolent and aggressive B-cell). Dose-limiting toxicities were not observed, and the MTD was not reached in either cohort at the highest dose tested (50 mg/m(2) bolus + 50 mg/m(2) continuous infusion weekly for 4 consecutive weeks of a 6 week cycle). Clinical benefit was observed in 26% of 43 patients evaluable for response, including 14% with partial responses (2 mantle cell, 3 indolent B-cell, and 1 diffuse large B-cell). The single-agent activity of this first-generation CDKI suggests that other agents in this class merit further study in lymphoid malignancies, both alone and in combination.
    American Journal of Hematology 08/2013; · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. Methods We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Results Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Conclusions Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a mediator of the B-cell-receptor signaling pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell cancers. In a phase 1 study, ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, showed antitumor activity in several types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including mantle-cell lymphoma. Methods In this phase 2 study, we investigated oral ibrutinib, at a daily dose of 560 mg, in 111 patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients were enrolled into two groups: those who had previously received at least 2 cycles of bortezomib therapy and those who had received less than 2 complete cycles of bortezomib or had received no prior bortezomib therapy. The primary end point was the overall response rate. Secondary end points were duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Results The median age was 68 years, and 86% of patients had intermediate-risk or high-risk mantle-cell lymphoma according to clinical prognostic factors. Patients had received a median of three prior therapies. The most common treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate diarrhea, fatigue, and nausea. Grade 3 or higher hematologic events were infrequent and included neutropenia (in 16% of patients), thrombocytopenia (in 11%), and anemia (in 10%). A response rate of 68% (75 patients) was observed, with a complete response rate of 21% and a partial response rate of 47%; prior treatment with bortezomib had no effect on the response rate. With an estimated median follow-up of 15.3 months, the estimated median response duration was 17.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.8 to not reached), the estimated median progression-free survival was 13.9 months (95% CI, 7.0 to not reached), and the median overall survival was not reached. The estimated rate of overall survival was 58% at 18 months. Conclusions Ibrutinib shows durable single-agent efficacy in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01236391 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-positive findings before autologous SCT (auto-SCT) are associated with inferior PFS and OS in patients with relapsed Hodgkin's and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We classified pre-transplant PET/CT performed before auto-SCT as positive or negative to evaluate the impact of pre-transplant PET/CT in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). In 29 patients, 17 were PET/CT(-) and 12 were PET/CT(+). PET/CT(+) patients were younger (P=0.04), had lower MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI, P=0.04) scores, but increased bulky adenopathy >5 cm (45% vs 13%, P=0.09). With a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 5-55 months), 7 patients relapsed (4 in the PET/CT(-) group and 3 in the PET/CT(+) group) with 2 deaths in the PET/CT(+) group without a documented relapse. The estimated 2-year PFS was 64% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.85) vs 87% (95% CI: 0.57-0.97) in PET/CT(+) and PET/CT(-) patients, respectively (P=0.054). OS was significantly decreased in PET/CT(+) patients (P=0.007), with 2-year estimates of 60% (95% CI: 0.23-0.84) vs 100% in PET/CT(-) patients. A positive pre-transplant PET/CT is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with MCL. Additional factors may impact the prognostic value of PET/CT, as several PET/CT(+) patients remain in remission.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 15 April 2013; doi:10.1038/bmt.2013.46.
    Bone marrow transplantation 04/2013; · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Flavopiridol, the first clinically evaluated cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, demonstrates activity in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but prevalent and unpredictable tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) presents a major barrier to its broad clinical use. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between pretreatment risk factors, drug pharmacokinetics, and TLS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model linking drug exposure and TLS was developed. Plasma data of flavopiridol and its glucuronide metabolite (flavo-G) were obtained from 111 patients treated in early phase trials with frequent sampling following initial and/or escalated doses. TLS grading was modeled with logistic regression as a pharmacodynamic endpoint. Demographics, baseline disease status, and blood chemistry variables were evaluated as covariates. RESULTS: Gender was the most significant pharmacokinetic covariate, with females displaying higher flavo-G exposure than males. Glucuronide metabolite exposure was predictive of TLS occurrence, and bulky lymphadenopathy was identified as a significant covariate on TLS probability. The estimated probability of TLS occurrence in patients with baseline bulky lymphadenopathy < 10 cm or > 10 cm during the first two treatments was 0.111 (SE% 13.0%) and 0.265, (SE% 17.9%) respectively, when flavo-G area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve was at its median value in whole patient group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of TLS. Further work is needed to explore potential mechanisms and to determine if the associations between TLS, gender and glucuronide metabolites are relevant in CLL patients treated with other cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a central mediator of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling essential for normal B-cell development. Ibrutinib is an oral BTK inhibitor that induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and adhesion of malignant B-cells. Updated results of this international, multicenter, phase 2 study of single agent ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory MCL will be presented. Ibrutinib 560 mg PO QD was administered continuously until disease progression. Tumor response was assessed every 2 cycles (one cycle = 28 days). The study enrolled 115 patients (65 bortezomib-naïve, 50 bortezomib-exposed); 111 patients were treated; 110 were evaluable for response. Baseline characteristics included: median age 68 years, time since diagnosis 42 months, number of prior treatments 3; bulky disease (>10 cm) 13%, prior stem cell transplant 10%, high risk MIPI 49%. Median time on treatment was 9.2 months; 53% of patients remain on therapy. Median PFS was 13.9 months and DOR has not yet been reached. Responses increased with longer treatment: comparing to previous data described at ASH 2011, the CR rate increased from 16% to 39%, and the ORR increased from 69% to 75%.
    Acta haematologica Polonica 01/2013; 44(3):314–318.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose limiting toxicities (DLT) of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in combination with bortezomib, and to provide pharmacokinetic data in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Eleven patients were enrolled. The MTD was 17-AAG 150mg/m(2) and bortezomib 0.7mg/m(2). Hepatic toxicity and cardiac toxicity were dose limiting. Co-administration on day 4 led to a decrease in clearance (p=0.005) and increase in AUC (p=.032) of 17-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AG) not observed when 17-AAG was administered alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters of patients who developed toxicities and those who did not were not different. The combination of 17-AAG and bortezomib led to toxicity without measurable response in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. Pharmacokinetic data provide insight for studies of related agents in AML; next generation HSP90 inhibitors are appealing for further development in this area.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 12/2012; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAlthough ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) has been established as the standard of care in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, newer regimens have been investigated, which have appeared superior in early phase II studies. Our aim was to determine if failure-free survival was superior in patients treated with the Stanford V regimen compared with ABVD. PATIENTS AND METHODS The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, along with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, the Southwest Oncology Group, and the Canadian NCIC Clinical Trials Group, conducted this randomized phase III trial in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma. Stratification factors included extent of disease (localized v extensive) and International Prognostic Factors Project Score (0 to 2 v 3 to 7). The primary end point was failure-free survival (FFS), defined as the time from random assignment to progression, relapse, or death, whichever occurred first. Overall survival, a secondary end point, was measured from random assignment to death as a result of any cause. This design provided 87% power to detect a 33% reduction in FFS hazard rate, or a difference in 5-year FFS of 64% versus 74% at two-sided .05 significance level. RESULTS: 74% for ABVD and 71% for Stanford V at 5 years (P = .32). CONCLUSIONABVD remains the standard of care for patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as flavopiridol, demonstrate significant single-agent activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but the mechanism of action in these nonproliferating cells is unclear. Here we demonstrate that CLL cells undergo autophagy after treatment with therapeutic agents, including fludarabine, CAL-101, and flavopiridol as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agent thapsigargin. The addition of chloroquine or siRNA against autophagy components enhanced the cytotoxic effects of flavopiridol and thapsigargin, but not the other agents. Similar to thapsigargin, flavopiridol robustly induces a distinct pattern of ER stress in CLL cells that contributes to cell death through IRE1-mediated activation of ASK1 and possibly downstream caspases. Both autophagy and ER stress were documented in tumor cells from CLL patients receiving flavopiridol. Thus, CLL cells undergo autophagy after multiple stimuli, including therapeutic agents, but only with ER stress mediators and CDK inhibitors is autophagy a mechanism of resistance to cell death. These findings collectively demonstrate, for the first time, a novel mechanism of action (ER stress) and drug resistance (autophagy) for CDK inhibitors, such as flavopiridol in CLL, and provide avenues for new therapeutic combination approaches in this disease.
    Blood 06/2012; 120(6):1262-73. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) include the clinical management of classical HL and lymphocyte-predominant HL (LPHL). Major changes have been incorporated into these guidelines since their inception. In the 2012 NCCN Guidelines for HL, PET scans are not recommended for interim restaging of patients with stage I to II favorable disease. After reevaluating the available evidence on the use of interim PET imaging, the panel recommends the use of diagnostic CT scan of involved sites for interim restaging after completion of chemotherapy for this group of patients. Maintenance rituximab for 2 years is included as an option for patients with stage IB to IIB or stage III to IV LPHL treated with rituximab alone in the first-line setting. Brentuximab vedotin is included as an option for patients with progressive disease or relapsed disease after second-line chemotherapy or high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
    Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN 05/2012; 10(5):589-97. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Older chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients have poor outcomes with standard treatments and are underrepresented in clinical trials. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes of refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in two age categories (≥70 and <70 years) treated with single-agent flavopiridol, a drug active in genomically high-risk patients, during two trials. No significant difference between older and younger patients was observed in response rates (43 vs. 47%) or progression-free survival (median 8.7 vs. 9.9 months, P>0.80). Although overall survival was worse in older patients (median 2.1 vs. 2.4 years, P=0.02); when adjusted for other factors this difference was no longer significant (P≥0.10). With the exception of infections (older 29% vs. younger 62%) no significant association with toxicity was observed. These data demonstrate that flavopiridol administration to older chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients is feasible, tolerable, and may have similar efficacy to that in younger patients. Development of treatment approaches including flavopiridol should be considered for these older patients.
    Haematologica 03/2012; 97(3):423-7. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2012; 26(6):1442-4. · 10.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
633.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2012
    • The Ohio State University
      • Division of Hematology
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of Oncology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center
      San Luis, Missouri, United States