Kristie A Blum

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (75)698.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ibrutinib is an orally administered inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase that antagonizes B-cell receptor, chemokine, and integrin-mediated signaling. In early-phase studies, ibrutinib demonstrated high response rates and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in CLL. The durable responses observed with ibrutinib relate in part to a modest toxicity profile that allows the majority of patients to receive continuous therapy for an extended period. We report on median 3-year follow-up of 132 patients with symptomatic treatment-naïve and relapsed/refractory CLL or SLL. Longer treatment with ibrutinib was associated with improvement in response quality over time and durable remissions. Toxicity with longer follow-up diminished with respect to occurrence of grade 3 or greater cytopenias, fatigue, and infections. Progression remains uncommon, occurring primarily in some patients with relapsed del(17)(p13.1) and/or del(11)(q22.3) disease. Treatment-related lymphocytosis remains largely asymptomatic even when persisting >1 year and does not appear to alter longer-term PFS and overall survival compared to patients with partial response or better. Collectively, these data provide evidence that ibrutinib controls CLL disease manifestations and is well tolerated for an extended period; this information can help direct potential treatment options for different subgroups to diminish the long-term risk of relapse. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 02/2015; DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-10-606038 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavopiridol and lenalidomide have activity in refractory CLL without immunosuppression or opportunistic infections seen with other therapies. We hypothesized that flavopiridol treatment could adequately de-bulk disease prior to lenalidomide therapy, decreasing the incidence of tumor flare with higher doses of lenalidomide. In this Phase I study, the maximum tolerated dose was not reached with treatment consisting of flavopiridol 30mg/m2 intravenous bolus (IVB) + 30mg/m2 continuous intravenous infusion (CIVI) cycle (C) 1 day (D) 1 and 30mg/m2 IVB + 50mg/m2 CIVI C1 D8,15 and C2-8 D3,10,17 with lenalidomide 15mg orally daily C2-8 D1-21. There was no unexpected toxicity seen, including no increased tumor lysis, tumor flare (even at higher doses of lenalidomide) or opportunistic infection. Significant clinical activity was demonstrated, with a 51% response rate in this group of heavily pretreated patients. Biomarker testing confirmed association of mitochondrial priming of the BH3 only peptide Puma with response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Hematology 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajh.23946 · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Kami Maddocks, Kristie A Blum
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    ABSTRACT: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) defined by the translocation t(11;14). MCL combines characteristics of both indolent and aggressive lymphomas, and it is incurable with conventional chemoimmunotherapy but has a more aggressive disease course. Minimal data exist on treatment of patients diagnosed with early-stage disease (stage I-II non-bulky), as this represents only a small portion of the patients diagnosed with MCL, but therapeutic options evaluated in retrospective studies include radiation or combination radiation and chemotherapy. There is a subset of patients with newly diagnosed MCL that can be observed without treatment, but the majority of patients will require treatment at diagnosis. Treatment is often based on age (≤65-70 years of age), comorbidities, and risk factors for disease. The majority of patients who are younger and without significant comorbidities are treated with intensive induction using combination chemoimmunotherapy regimens, many which include consolidation with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Several regimens have been studied that show improved median progression-free survival (PFS) to 3-6 years in this population of patients. The majority of older patients (≥65-70 years of age) are treated with combination chemoimmunotherapy regimens with consideration of rituximab maintenance, with enrollment on a clinical trial encouraged. Therapy for relapsed disease is dependent on prior treatment, age, comorbidities, and toxicities but includes targeted therapies such as the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, combination chemoimmunotherapy, ASCT, and allogeneic stem cell transplant in selected cases. Several novel agents and targeted therapies alone or in combination are currently being studied and developed in both the upfront and relapsed setting.
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    ABSTRACT: Pretreatment cytogenetics are not routinely used to predict patient outcomes in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Based on the prognostic utility of cytogenetics in other diseases, we reviewed the effect of a complex karyotype (CK) in MCL. We included patients evaluated between November, 2002, and May, 2011. Those with ≥ 3 chromosomal abnormalities on a pre-treatment cytogenetic evaluation were defined as CK. Demographic, clinical, and survival differences between patients with CK and non-CK (NCK) were assessed. Of 80 patients, 32 (40%) had CK, which was associated with high-risk clinical risk factors. Therapy did not differ between the groups, nor did rate of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) estimates were 70% and 48% for patients with NCK and CK, respectively (P = .02). Two-year overall survival (OS) estimates were also greater in those with NCK versus CK (85% vs. 58%; P = .02). When controlling for high-risk Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) score (P = .006), bulky disease (P = .01), and ASCT in first remission (P = .01), CK was not significantly associated with PFS (P = .18). CK is associated with shortened PFS and OS in MCL but has not been demonstrated to be prognostic independent of other variables in this series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.clml.2014.12.012 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ibrutinib has single agent activity of 22-68% in relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib combined with rituximab (R) and bendamustine. Patients received R 375 mg/m(2) day 1, bendamustine 90 mg/m(2) days 1 and 2, and ibrutinib (280 or 560 mg) days 1-28 every 28 days for 6 cycles followed by ibrutinib alone until progression. Forty-eight patients enrolled, including 12 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), 16 with diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), and 17 with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). No dose limiting toxicities were observed. Patients received a median of 8 cycles, with 26 completing 6 cycles and continuing ibrutinib alone in cycles 7-34. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72%, with 52% complete responses (CR). By histology, the ORR was 94% (76% CR) in MCL, 37% (31% CR) in DLCL, and 90% (50% CR) in FL. Grade 3-4 toxicities included lymphopenia (77%), neutropenia (33%), thrombocytopenia (19%), and rash (25%). Median progression-free survival has not been reached (95% CI, 8.7 months - not reached). The recommended phase 2 dose of ibrutinib in combination with R-bendamustine in patients with NHL is 560 mg. The combination has promising efficacy, particularly in MCL and FL.
    Blood 10/2014; 125(2). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-08-597914 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords:Hodgkin lymphoma;monoclonal antibodies;clinical trials;therapy;immunotherapy
    British Journal of Haematology 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/bjh.13152 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Only a minority of patients with high risk lymphoma will be cured with autologous transplant, so maintenance with Vorinostat, an oral agent with activity in relapsed lymphoma, was studied starting day +60 for 21 consecutive days followed by a week off for up to 11 cycles. Twenty-three lymphoma patients were treated. Ten patients completed the full 11 cycle treatment plan per protocol, 4 patients were removed due to progressive disease, 7 withdrew or were removed from the study due to toxicities. Despite Prevnar vaccine administration every 2 months for 3 injections, the mean antibody concentration never reached protective levels (>0.35 mcg/mL). Fatigue and functional well-being measured by BFI and FACT-G improved significantly from cycle 1 to cycle 7, but the depression scores from the CES-D did not change. Given the toxicities observed, this broad spectrum deacetylase inhibitor at this schedule is not optimal for prolonged maintenance therapy.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 09/2014; DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.963073 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with double hit lymphoma (DHL), which is characterized by rearrangements of MYC and either BCL2 or BCL6, face poor prognoses. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of the impact of baseline clinical factors, induction therapy, and stem cell transplant (SCT), on outcomes of 311 patients with previously-untreated DHL. At median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among all patients were 10.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Forty percent of patients remain disease-free and 49% remain alive at two years. Intensive induction was associated with improved PFS, but not OS, and SCT was not associated with improved OS among patients achieving first complete remission (p=0.14). By multivariate analysis, advanced stage, central nervous system involvement, leukocytosis, and LDH> three times upper limit of normal, were associated with higher risk of death. Correcting for these, intensive induction was associated with improved OS. We developed a novel risk score for DHL, which divides patients into high, intermediate, and low risk groups. In conclusion, a subset of DHL patients may be cured, and some patients may benefit from intensive induction. Further investigations into the roles of SCT and novel agents are needed.
    Blood 08/2014; 124(15). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-05-578963 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT CALGB designed a phase II trial of lenalidomide+bortezomib for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Induction therapy was lenalidomide (days 1-14) plus bortezomib (days 1/4/8/11), every 21 days for eight cycles. Complete and partial responders (CR, PR) received maintenance lenalidomide (days 1-14) and bortezomib (days 1/8), every 21 days. Primary endpoint was overall response rate; secondary endpoints were CR rate, progression-free- (PFS), event-free- (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Fifty-three eligible patients, median age 67 years, were accrued. Median number of cycles received was 4 (range, 1-82). Median follow-up is 46 (range, 12-67) months. Best response was CR (n=8, 15%), PR (n=13, 25%). 5/8 CR and 4/13 PR patients received maintenance therapy. Of responders, 6 CR/1 PR patients remain in remission at a median of 3.2 years. Thirty-three (62%) patients have died. One-year PFS, EFS, OS are 40%, 25%, and 68%, respectively. This combination will not be pursued further at this dose/schedule.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 07/2014; DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.938333 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and is effective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Resistance to irreversible kinase inhibitors and resistance associated with BTK inhibition have not been characterized. Although only a small proportion of patients have had a relapse during ibrutinib therapy, an understanding of resistance mechanisms is important. We evaluated patients with relapsed disease to identify mutations that may mediate ibrutinib resistance. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing at baseline and the time of relapse on samples from six patients with acquired resistance to ibrutinib therapy. We then performed functional analysis of identified mutations. In addition, we performed Ion Torrent sequencing for identified resistance mutations on samples from nine patients with prolonged lymphocytosis. Results We identified a cysteine-to-serine mutation in BTK at the binding site of ibrutinib in five patients and identified three distinct mutations in PLCγ2 in two patients. Functional analysis showed that the C481S mutation of BTK results in a protein that is only reversibly inhibited by ibrutinib. The R665W and L845F mutations in PLCγ2 are both potentially gain-of-function mutations that lead to autonomous B-cell-receptor activity. These mutations were not found in any of the patients with prolonged lymphocytosis who were taking ibrutinib. Conclusions Resistance to the irreversible BTK inhibitor ibrutinib often involves mutation of a cysteine residue where ibrutinib binding occurs. This finding, combined with two additional mutations in PLCγ2 that are immediately downstream of BTK, underscores the importance of the B-cell-receptor pathway in the mechanism of action of ibrutinib in CLL. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2014; 370(24). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1400029 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve long-term outcomes for Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL) or aggressive lymphomas in adults, we assessed the benefit of adding rituximab and filgrastim support to a dose-dense modified chemotherapy regimen from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9251 trial. One hundred and five patients (aged 19–79 years) were enrolled; 27% were >60 years old; 47% had high or high-intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI) criteria. Common severe toxicities included stomatitis/upper gastrointestinal toxicity (69%), renal insufficiency (10%), neurological events (25%) and pulmonary events (18%). Seven died from treatment-related causes (one central nervous system bleed, four infections, two respiratory failure); five were >60 years old. Results in this adult population are encouraging as complete response (CR) was observed in 83% and 4-year event-free (EFS) and overall survivals (OS) were 74% and 78%, respectively. Results compare favourably to our prior chemotherapy alone study (CALGB 9251) but despite this, high-risk patients still had worse outcomes. In conclusion, short duration, intensive chemo-immunotherapy is feasible and should be considered in adults with BL as it results in high remission rates and durable remissions.
    British Journal of Haematology 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/bjh.12736 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myc-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with or without a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) rearrangement is associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, the authors reviewed the outcomes of patients with myc-positive and double-hit NHL at The Ohio State University. All patients who had non-Burkitt, aggressive B-cell NHL from 2008 to 2011 were assessed for the t(14;18) translocation and for v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (CMYC) rearrangements at diagnosis, and all myc-positive patients were included in the current analysis. Associations with clinical characteristics were described, and univariable and multivariable models were used to assess correlations between clinical variables and outcomes. Of 49 myc-positive patients, 29 patients also had BCL2 rearrangements (double-hit NHL). No patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission. For all myc-positive patients, the median PFS was 16.6 months, and the median OS was 37.7 months. For patients who had double-hit NHL, the median PFS was 8 months, and the median OS was 12.5 months; whereas the median PFS and OS were not reached for myc-positive patients. A complete response (CR) after front-line therapy, the presence of t(14;18), International Prognostic Index (IPI) group, and age were associated with PFS; whereas only the achievement of a CR and age >60 years were associated with OS in the multivariable setting. The median PFS was 3.3 months, and the median and OS was 7.0 months for patients who did not attain a CR; and the medians were not reached for patients who achieved a CR (P < .00001). The achievement of a CR with front-line therapy is associated with a prolonged PFS and OS in patients with myc-positive NHL, even after adjusting for type of initial therapy, histology, age, IPI, or the presence of a concurrent BCL2 translocation. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2014; 120(11). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28642 · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Kami Maddocks, Kristie A Blum
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    ABSTRACT: The standard frontline therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) includes the use of chemoimmunotherapy and/or radiation therapy. When patients with these diseases relapse or are refractory to therapy, their diseases are considered incurable outside of the setting of an autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant, which many patients are not candidates for due to age or comorbidities. The oral Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, targets the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway that is critical in the survival of these malignancies. It has shown promising activity in certain subtypes of DLBCL, in relapsed or refractory FL, and in relapsed or refractory MCL for which it has recently received FDA approval and should be considered for use in patients in first relapse. Ibrutinib is an oral therapy taken daily that has been well tolerated by patients. Given the high response rates, tolerability, and acceptable toxicities of ibrutinib therapy, it is now being evaluated in combination therapy both in relapsed B-cell malignancies and frontline studies in DLBCL and MCL. Several other promising agents targeting different kinases in the BCR signaling pathway also are currently under investigation.
    Current Treatment Options in Oncology 02/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1007/s11864-014-0274-8 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) mediates B-cell receptor signaling and microenvironmental support signals that promote the growth and survival of malignant B lymphocytes. In a phase 1 study, idelalisib, an orally active selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, showed antitumor activity in patients with previously treated indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods In this single-group, open-label, phase 2 study, 125 patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas who had not had a response to rituximab and an alkylating agent or had had a relapse within 6 months after receipt of those therapies were administered idelalisib, 150 mg twice daily, until the disease progressed or the patient withdrew from the study. The primary end point was the overall rate of response; secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. Results The median age of the patients was 64 years (range, 33 to 87); patients had received a median of four prior therapies (range, 2 to 12). Subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma included follicular lymphoma (72 patients), small lymphocytic lymphoma (28), marginal-zone lymphoma (15), and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with or without Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (10). The response rate was 57% (71 of 125 patients), with 6% meeting the criteria for a complete response. The median time to a response was 1.9 months, the median duration of response was 12.5 months, and the median progression-free survival was 11 months. Similar response rates were observed across all subtypes of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, though the numbers were small for some categories. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (in 27% of the patients), elevations in aminotransferase levels (in 13%), diarrhea (in 13%), and pneumonia (in 7%). Conclusions In this single-group study, idelalisib showed antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had received extensive prior treatment. (Funded by Gilead Sciences and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01282424 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1314583 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavopiridol is a broad cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) that induces apoptosis of malignant lymphocytes in vitro and in murine lymphoma models. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for single-agent flavopiridol administered on a pharmacokinetically derived hybrid dosing schedule to patients with relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Dose was escalated independently in one of four cohorts: indolent B-cell (cohort 1), mantle cell (cohort 2), intermediate grade B-cell including transformed lymphoma (cohort 3), and T-/NK-cell excluding primary cutaneous disease (cohort 4). Forty-six patients were accrued. Grade 3 or 4 leukopenia was observed in the majority of patients (60%), but infection was infrequent. Common non-hematologic toxicties included diarrhea and fatigue. Biochemical tumor lysis was observed in only 2 patients, and no patients required hemodialysis for its management. Dose escalation was completed in two cohorts (indolent and aggressive B-cell). Dose-limiting toxicities were not observed, and the MTD was not reached in either cohort at the highest dose tested (50 mg/m(2) bolus + 50 mg/m(2) continuous infusion weekly for 4 consecutive weeks of a 6 week cycle). Clinical benefit was observed in 26% of 43 patients evaluable for response, including 14% with partial responses (2 mantle cell, 3 indolent B-cell, and 1 diffuse large B-cell). The single-agent activity of this first-generation CDKI suggests that other agents in this class merit further study in lymphoid malignancies, both alone and in combination.
    American Journal of Hematology 01/2014; 89(1). DOI:10.1002/ajh.23568 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemoimmunotherapy has led to improved numbers of patients achieving disease response, and longer overall survival in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; however, its application in elderly patients has been restricted by substantial myelosuppression and infection. We aimed to assess safety and activity of ibrutinib, an orally administered covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), in treatment-naive patients aged 65 years and older with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In our open-label phase 1b/2 trial, we enrolled previously untreated patients at clinical sites in the USA. Eligible patients were aged at least 65 years, and had symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma requiring therapy. Patients received 28 day cycles of once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg or ibrutinib 840 mg. The 840 mg dose was discontinued after enrolment had begun because comparable activity of the doses has been shown. The primary endpoint was the safety of the dose-fixed regimen in terms of frequency and severity of adverse events for all patients who received treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01105247. Between May 20, 2010, and Dec 18, 2012, we enrolled 29 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and two patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Median age was 71 years (range 65-84), and 23 (74%) patients were at least 70 years old. Toxicity was mainly of mild-to-moderate severity (grade 1-2). 21 (68%) patients had diarrhoea (grade 1 in 14 [45%] patients, grade 2 in three [10%] patients, and grade 3 in four [13%] patients). 15 (48%) patients developed nausea (grade 1 in 12 [39%] patients and grade 2 in three [10%] patients). Ten (32%) patients developed fatigue (grade 1 in five [16%] patients, grade 2 in four [13%] patients, and grade 3 in one [3%] patient). Three (10%) patients developed grade 3 infections, although no grade 4 or 5 infections occurred. One patient developed grade 3 neutropenia, and one developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia. After a median follow-up of 22·1 months (IQR 18·4-23·2), 22 (71%) of 31 patients achieved an objective response (95% CI 52·0-85·8); four patients (13%) had a complete response, one patient (3%) had a nodular partial response, and 17 (55%) patients had a partial response. The safety and activity of ibrutinib in elderly, previously untreated patients with symptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, or small lymphocytic lymphoma is encouraging, and merits further investigation in phase 3 trials. Pharmacyclics, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, D Warren Brown Foundation, Mr and Mrs Michael Thomas, Harry Mangurian Foundation, P50 CA140158 to Prof J C Byrd MD.
    The Lancet Oncology 12/2013; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70513-8 · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoma is the fourth most frequent cancer in pregnancy; however, current clinical practice is based largely on small series and case reports. In a multicenter retrospective analysis, we examined treatment, complications, and outcomes for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occurring during pregnancy. Among 90 patients (NHL, n = 50; HL, n = 40), median age was 30 years (range, 18 to 44 years) and median diagnosis occurred at 24 weeks gestation. Of patients with NHL, 52% had advanced-stage versus 25% of patients with HL (P = .01). Pregnancy was terminated in six patients. Among the other 84 patients, 28 (33%) had therapy deferred to postpartum; these patients were diagnosed at a median 30 weeks gestation. This compared with 56 patients (67%) who received antenatal therapy with median lymphoma diagnosis at 21 weeks (P < .001); 89% of these patients received combination chemotherapy. The most common preterm complication was induction of labor (33%). Gestation went to full term in 56% of patients with delivery occurring at a median of 37 weeks. There were no differences in maternal complications, perinatal events, or median infant birth weight based on deferred versus antenatal therapy. At 41 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for NHL were 53% and 82%, respectively, and 85% and 97%, respectively, for HL. On univariate analysis for NHL, radiotherapy predicted inferior PFS, and increased lactate dehydrogenase and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) portended worse OS. For HL patients, nulliparous status and "B" symptoms predicted inferior PFS. Standard (non-antimetabolite) combination chemotherapy administered past the first trimester, as early as 13 weeks gestation, was associated with few complications and expected maternal survival with lymphoma occurring during pregnancy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; 31(32). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.49.8220 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a central mediator of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling essential for normal B-cell development. Ibrutinib is an oral BTK inhibitor that induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and adhesion of malignant B-cells. Updated results of this international, multicenter, phase 2 study of single agent ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory MCL will be presented. Ibrutinib 560 mg PO QD was administered continuously until disease progression. Tumor response was assessed every 2 cycles (one cycle = 28 days). The study enrolled 115 patients (65 bortezomib-naïve, 50 bortezomib-exposed); 111 patients were treated; 110 were evaluable for response. Baseline characteristics included: median age 68 years, time since diagnosis 42 months, number of prior treatments 3; bulky disease (>10 cm) 13%, prior stem cell transplant 10%, high risk MIPI 49%. Median time on treatment was 9.2 months; 53% of patients remain on therapy. Median PFS was 13.9 months and DOR has not yet been reached. Responses increased with longer treatment: comparing to previous data described at ASH 2011, the CR rate increased from 16% to 39%, and the ORR increased from 69% to 75%.
    Acta haematologica Polonica 07/2013; 44(3):314–318. DOI:10.1016/j.achaem.2013.07.013
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a mediator of the B-cell-receptor signaling pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell cancers. In a phase 1 study, ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, showed antitumor activity in several types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including mantle-cell lymphoma. Methods In this phase 2 study, we investigated oral ibrutinib, at a daily dose of 560 mg, in 111 patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients were enrolled into two groups: those who had previously received at least 2 cycles of bortezomib therapy and those who had received less than 2 complete cycles of bortezomib or had received no prior bortezomib therapy. The primary end point was the overall response rate. Secondary end points were duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Results The median age was 68 years, and 86% of patients had intermediate-risk or high-risk mantle-cell lymphoma according to clinical prognostic factors. Patients had received a median of three prior therapies. The most common treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate diarrhea, fatigue, and nausea. Grade 3 or higher hematologic events were infrequent and included neutropenia (in 16% of patients), thrombocytopenia (in 11%), and anemia (in 10%). A response rate of 68% (75 patients) was observed, with a complete response rate of 21% and a partial response rate of 47%; prior treatment with bortezomib had no effect on the response rate. With an estimated median follow-up of 15.3 months, the estimated median response duration was 17.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.8 to not reached), the estimated median progression-free survival was 13.9 months (95% CI, 7.0 to not reached), and the median overall survival was not reached. The estimated rate of overall survival was 58% at 18 months. Conclusions Ibrutinib shows durable single-agent efficacy in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01236391 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1306220 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. Methods We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Results Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Conclusions Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; 369(1). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1215637 · 54.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
698.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • The Ohio State University
      • • Division of Hematology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Division of Oncology
      • • Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Oncology
      Seattle, WA, United States