[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repetitive Ag encounter, coupled with dynamic changes in Ag density and inflammation, imparts phenotypic and functional heterogeneity to memory virus-specific CD8 T cells in persistently infected hosts. For herpesvirus infections, which cycle between latency and reactivation, recent studies demonstrate that virus-specific T cell memory is predominantly derived from naive precursors recruited during acute infection. Whether functional memory T cells to viruses that persist in a nonlatent, low-level infectious state (smoldering infection) originate from acute infection-recruited naive T cells is not known. Using mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) infection, we previously showed that virus-specific CD8 T cells in persistently infected mice are stably maintained and functionally competent; however, a sizeable fraction of these memory T cells are short-lived. Further, we found that naive anti-MPyV CD8 T cells are primed de novo during persistent infection and contribute to maintenance of the virus-specific CD8 T cell population and its phenotypic heterogeneity. Using a new MPyV-specific TCR-transgenic system, we now demonstrate that virus-specific CD8 T cells recruited during persistent infection possess multicytokine effector function, have strong replication potential, express a phenotype profile indicative of authentic memory capability, and are stably maintained. In contrast, CD8 T cells recruited early in MPyV infection express phenotypic and functional attributes of clonal exhaustion, including attrition from the memory pool. These findings indicate that naive virus-specific CD8 T cells recruited during persistent infection contribute to preservation of functional memory against a smoldering viral infection.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(9):4340-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy of established solid tumors is rarely achieved, and the mechanisms leading to success remain to be elucidated. We previously showed that extended control of advanced-stage autochthonous brain tumors is achieved following adoptive transfer of naive C57BL/6 splenocytes into sublethally irradiated line SV11 mice expressing the SV40 T Ag (T Ag) oncoprotein, and was associated with in vivo priming of CD8(+) T cells (T(CD8)) specific for the dominant epitope IV (T Ag residues 404-411). Using donor lymphocytes derived from mice that are tolerant to epitope IV or a newly characterized transgenic mouse line expressing an epitope IV-specific TCR, we show that epitope IV-specific T(CD8) are a necessary component of the donor pool and that purified naive epitope IV-specific T(CD8) are sufficient to promote complete and rapid regression of established tumors. While transfer of naive TCR-IV cells alone induced some initial tumor regression, increased survival of tumor-bearing mice required prior conditioning of the host with a sublethal dose of gamma irradiation and was associated with complete tumor eradication. Regression of established tumors was associated with rapid accumulation of TCR-IV T cells within the brain following initial priming against the endogenous T Ag in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Additionally, persistence of functional TCR-IV cells in both the brain and peripheral lymphoid organs was associated with long-term tumor-free survival. Finally, we show that production of IFN-gamma, but not perforin or TNF-alpha, by the donor lymphocytes is critical for control of autochthonous brain tumors.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(6):4406-17. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analogous to the clinical use of recombinant high-affinity Abs, transfer of TCR genes may be used to create a T cell compartment specific for self-Ags to which the endogenous T cell repertoire is immune tolerant. In this study, we show in a spontaneous prostate carcinoma model that the combination of vaccination with adoptive transfer of small numbers of T cells that are genetically modified with a tumor-specific TCR results in a marked suppression of tumor development, even though both treatments are by themselves without effect. These results demonstrate the value of TCR gene transfer to target otherwise nonimmunogenic tumor-associated self-Ags provided that adoptive transfer occurs under conditions that allow in vivo expansion of the TCR-modified T cells.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2008; 181(4):2563-71. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD8+ T cell responses directed toward the VP1 antigens of human polyomaviruses JC and BK recently were shown to be cross-reactive. Two HLA-A0201-restricted determinants from each virus have been defined and include JCp100-108 (ILMWEAVTL) and BKp108-116 (LLMWEAVTV) as well as JCp36-44 (SITEVECFL) and BKp44-52 (AITEVECFL). We asked whether VP1 from the related SV40 contains similar HLA-A0201-restricted determinants. In this study, we demonstrate that CD8+ T cells specific for SV40 VP1 p110-118 (ILMWEAVTV), but not p46-54 (SFTEVECFL), can be induced in HLA-A0201-transgenic mice and that these CD8+ T cells cross-react with the corresponding determinants from JC and BK virus. The SV40 p110 determinant was found to be processed and presented in SV40-infected cells. These results indicate that the JCp36/BKp44 determinants are distinctive for the human polyomaviruses while the JCp100/BKp108/SVp110 determinants are shared by all three viruses, providing a target for CD8+ T cell cross-reactivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously established a model to study CD8(+) T cell (T(CD8))-based adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using line SV11 mice that develop choroid plexus tumors in the brain due to transgenic expression of Simian Virus 40 large T antigen (Tag). These mice are tolerant to the three dominant T(CD8)-recognized Tag epitopes I, II/III and IV. However, adoptive transfer of spleen cells from naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice prolongs SV11 survival following T(CD8) priming against the endogenous Tag epitope IV. In addition, survival of SV11 mice is dramatically increased following transfer of lymphocytes from Tag-immune B6 mice. In the current study, we compared the kinetics and magnitude of Tag-specific T(CD8) accumulation at the tumor site following adoptive transfer with a high dose of either Tag-immune or naïve donor cells or decreasing doses of Tag-immune lymphocytes. Following adoptive transfer of Tag-immune cells, epitope I- and IV-specific T(CD8) accumulated to high levels in the brain of SV11 mice, peaking at 5-7 days, while epitope IV-specific T(CD8 )derived from naïve donors required three weeks to achieve peak levels. A similar delay in the peak of epitope IV-specific T(CD8) accumulation was observed when tenfold fewer Tag-immune donor cells were administered, reducing control of tumor progression. These results suggest that efficient and prolonged control of established autochthonous tumors is associated with high-level early accumulation of adoptively transferred T cells. We also provide evidence that although multiple specificities are represented in the Tag immune donor lymphocytes, epitope IV-specific donor T(CD8) play a predominant role in control of tumor growth.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 07/2008; 57(6):883-95. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simian virus 40 (SV40) infects monkeys and persists in the latent form in the kidneys of this natural host. However, in nonpermissive
hosts, such as rodents, the virus induces neoplasia and the outcome is controlled by the immune response of the host (1,2). Virus-neutralizing antibodies are responsible for limiting the amount of circulating virus in the natural host, leading
to the establishment of latency. In contrast, the nonpermissive host undergoing tumorigenesis develops antibodies specific
for the large tumor antigen, or T antigen (T-ag) encoded by SV40. In addition, the T-ag in transformed or tumor cells also
serves as the target for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that are capable of controlling tumor development (2). CTL responses directed against SV40 virion proteins have not been described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid loss of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells (T(CD8)) following Ag recognition in the periphery and their limited accumulation within the tumor stroma reduces the effectiveness of T cell-based immunotherapy. To better understand the role of T(CD8) in the control of autochthonous tumors, we have used mice of the RIP1-Tag4 lineage that develop pancreatic beta cell tumors due to expression of the SV40 large T Ag from the rat insulin promoter. We previously showed that the kinetics of functional T(CD8) tolerance varies toward two distinct epitopes derived from T Ag. Epitope I ((206)SAINNYAQKL(215))-specific T(CD8) are rapidly deleted whereas T(CD8) targeting epitope IV ((404)VVYDFLKC(411)) persist over the lifetime of tumor-bearing animals. In this report, we show that the conditioning of tumor-bearing RIP1-Tag4 mice with agonistic anti-CD40 Ab induces extensive expansion of naive epitope I-specific TCR transgenic (TCR-I) T cells in this tolerogenic environment and delays their loss from the host. In addition, functional TCR-I T cells intensively infiltrate pancreatic tumors, resulting in increased survival of RIP1-Tag4 mice. These results suggest that a similar approach could effectively enhance T cell-based immunotherapies to cancer when targeting other highly tolerogenic epitopes.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2007; 179(10):6686-95. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the relationship between epitope variation and tumor escape from immune surveillance, SV40 T antigen-transformed B6/K-0 cells were subjected to selection with individual CTL clones specific for the SV40 T antigen H-2D(b)-restricted epitopes I or V. CTL-resistant populations were isolated from a majority of the selection cultures and substituted epitope sequences were identified within most of the resistant populations. Tag sequences deleted of all or portions of the selection-targeted epitope were identified, but in lower numbers compared to epitope sequences bearing single residue substitutions. Relatively few flanking residue substitutions were identified, and only in epitope I-targeted selections. The diversity (numbers and epitope residue locations) of substituted epitope residue positions varied between selections. These findings suggest that the scope of spontaneously occurring mutations that could allow for escape from individual CD8+ T cell clones is large.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to recruit the host's CD8+ T lymphocytes (T(CD8)) against cancer is often limited by the development of peripheral tolerance toward the dominant tumor-associated Ags. Because multiple epitopes derived from a given tumor Ag (T Ag) can be targeted by T(CD8), vaccine approaches should be directed toward those T(CD8) that are more likely to survive under conditions of persistent Ag expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripheral tolerance on the endogenous T(CD8) response toward two epitopes, designated epitopes I and IV, from the SV40 large T Ag. Using rat insulin promoter (RIP) 1-Tag4 transgenic mice that express T Ag from the RIP and develop pancreatic insulinomas, we demonstrate that epitope IV- but not epitope I-specific T(CD8) are maintained long term in tumor-bearing RIP1-Tag4 mice. Even large numbers of TCR-transgenic T cells specific for epitope I were rapidly eliminated from RIP1-Tag4 mice after adoptive transfer and recognition of the endogenous T Ag. Importantly, immunization of RIP1-Tag4 mice at 5 wk of age against epitope IV resulted in complete protection from tumor progression over a 2-year period despite continued expression of T Ag in the pancreas. This extensive control of tumor progression was associated with the persistence of functional epitope IV-specific T(CD8) within the pancreas for the lifetime of the mice without the development of diabetes. This study indicates that an equilibrium is reached in which immune surveillance for spontaneous cancer can be achieved for the lifespan of the host while maintaining normal organ function.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(5):3089-99. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T lymphocytes (T(CD8)) responding to subdominant epitopes provide alternate targets for the immunotherapy of cancer, particularly when self-tolerance limits the response to immunodominant epitopes. However, the mechanisms that promote T(CD8) subdominance to tumor Ags remain obscure. We investigated the basis for the lack of priming against a subdominant tumor epitope following immunization of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with SV40 large tumor Ag (T Ag)-transformed cells. Immunization of B6 mice with wild-type T Ag-transformed cells primes T(CD8) specific for three immunodominant T Ag epitopes (epitopes I, II/III, and IV) but fails to induce T(CD8) specific for the subdominant T Ag epitope V. Using adoptively transferred T(CD8) from epitope V-specific TCR transgenic mice and immunization with T Ag-transformed cells, we demonstrate that the subdominant epitope V is weakly cross-presented relative to immunodominant epitopes derived from the same protein Ag. Priming of naive epitope V-specific TCR transgenic T(CD8) in B6 mice required cross-presentation by host APC. However, robust expansion of these T(CD8) required additional direct presentation of the subdominant epitope by T Ag-transformed cells and was only significant following immunization with T Ag-expressing cells lacking the immunodominant epitopes. These results indicate that limited cross-presentation coupled with competition by immunodominant epitope-specific T(CD8) contributes to the subdominant nature of a tumor-specific epitope. This finding has implications for vaccination strategies targeting T(CD8) responses to cancer.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 175(2):700-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein complexes of the 28-kDa proteasome activator (PA28) family activate the proteasome and may alter proteasome cleavage specificity. Initial investigations have demonstrated a role for the IFN-gamma-inducible PA28alpha/beta complex in Ag processing. Although the noninducible and predominantly nuclear PA28gamma complex has been implicated in affecting proteasome-dependent signaling pathways, such as control of the mitotic cell cycle, there is no previous evidence demonstrating a role for this structure in Ag processing. We therefore generated PA28gamma-deficient mice and investigated their immune function. PA28gamma(-/-) mice display a slight reduction in CD8+ T cell numbers and do not effectively clear a pulmonary fungal infection. However, T cell responses in two viral infection models appear normal in both magnitude and the hierarchy of antigenic epitopes recognized. We conclude that PA28gamma(-/-) mice, like PA28alpha(-/-)/beta(-/-) mice, are deficient in the processing of only specific Ags.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2004; 172(6):3948-54. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Va14Ja18 natural T (iNKT) cells rapidly elicit a robust effector response to different glycolipid Ags, with distinct functional outcomes. Biochemical parameters controlling iNKT cell function are partly defined. However, the impact of iNKT cell receptor beta-chain repertoire and how alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) analogues induce distinct functional responses have remained elusive. Using altered glycolipid ligands, we discovered that the Vb repertoire of iNKT cells impacts recognition and Ag avidity, and that stimulation with suboptimal avidity Ag results in preferential expansion of high-affinity iNKT cells. iNKT cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, which correlate with iNKT cell receptor down-regulation, are induced within narrow biochemical thresholds. Multimers of CD1d1-alphaGalCer- and alphaGalCer analogue-loaded complexes demonstrate cooperative engagement of the Va14Ja18 iNKT cell receptor whose structure and/or organization appear distinct from conventional alphabeta TCR. Our findings demonstrate that iNKT cell functions are controlled by affinity thresholds for glycolipid Ags and reveal a novel property of their Ag receptor apparatus that may have an important role in iNKT cell activation.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2003; 171(9):4539-51. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to initiate and sustain CD8(+) T cell responses to tumors in vivo is hindered by the development of peripheral T cell tolerance against tumor-associated Ags. Approaches that counter the onset of T cell tolerance may preserve a pool of potentially tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Administration of agonist Ab to the CD40 molecule, expressed on APCs, can enhance immunization approaches targeting T lymphocytes in an otherwise tolerance-prone environment. In this report, the effects of anti-CD40 administration on priming of naive CD8(+) T cells against an endogenous tumor Ag were investigated. Line 501 mice express the SV40 large T Ag oncoprotein as a transgene from the alpha-amylase promoter, resulting in the development of peripheral CD8(+) T cell tolerance to the H-2-D(b)-restricted immunodominant epitope I of T Ag by 6 mo of age, before the appearance of osteosarcomas. We demonstrate that naive epitope I-specific TCR transgenic (TCR-I) T cells undergo peripheral tolerance following adoptive transfer into 6-mo-old 501 mice. In contrast, administration of agonistic anti-CD40 Ab led to increased expansion of TCR-I T cells in 501 mice, the acquisition of effector function by TCR-I T cells and the establishment of T cell memory. Importantly, this enhanced priming effect of anti-CD40 administration did not require immunization and was effective even if administered after naive TCR-I T cells had encountered the endogenous T Ag. Thus, anti-CD40 administration can block the onset of peripheral tolerance and enhance the recruitment of functionally competent effector T cells toward an endogenous tumor Ag.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2003; 171(2):697-707. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional MHC class I molecules are expressed on the cell surface in the absence of beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) light chain that can interact with CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Whether their assembly requires peptide binding and whether their recognition by CD8(+) T lymphocytes involves the presentation of peptide epitopes remains unknown. We show that beta(2)m-free H-2D(b) assembles with short peptides that are approximately 9 amino acid residues in length, akin to ligands associated with completely assembled beta(2)m(+) H-2D(b). Remarkably, a subset of the peptides associated with the beta(2)m-free H-2D(b) has an altered anchor motif. However, they also include peptides that contain a beta(2)m(+)H-2D(b) binding anchor motif. Further, the H-2K(b)- and H-2D(b)-restricted peptide epitopes derived from SV-40 T antigen also assemble with H-2(b) class I in beta(2)m-deficient cells and are recognized by epitope-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together our data reveal that functional MHC class I molecules assemble in the absence of beta(2)m with peptides and form CD8(+) T lymphocyte epitopes.
International Immunology 08/2002; 14(7):775-82. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections with the polyomaviruses JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) are widespread within the human population and are associated with distinct human diseases following activation of latent virus in immunosuppressed individuals. Despite this widespread prevalence, the nature of the BKV- and JCV-specific immune response which controls disease progression remains largely uncharacterized. In this chapter the current knowledge of the immune response to BKV, JCV and the related simian virus 40 (SV40) is summarized. For SV40 a great deal of information on the role of the immune response has been collected. Most attention is given to the immune response to the early region product called large tumor (T) antigen, a well-characterized oncoprotein. Finally, the effect of endogenous T antigen expression and subsequent tumor progression on the host immune response is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse models in which tumors arise spontaneously due to the transgenic expression of an oncoprotein provide an opportunity to test approaches that target the immune-mediated control of tumor progression. In this report we investigated the role of SV40 Tag-specific CD8(+) T cells in the control of advanced choroid plexus tumor progression using large tumor Ag (Tag) transgenic mice. Since mice of the SV11 line are tolerant to the immunodominant SV40 Tag-derived CTL epitopes, mice with advanced stage tumors were reconstituted with naive C57BL/6 spleen cells following a low dose of gamma-irradiation. This led to the priming of CTLs specific for the H2-K(b)-restricted epitope IV by the endogenous Tag and a significant increase in the life span of Tag transgenic mice. Epitope IV-specific CD8(+) T cells accumulated and persisted in the brains and tumors of SV11 mice, as determined by analysis with epitope-specific MHC class I tetramers. Brain-infiltrating epitope IV-specific T cells were capable of producing IFN-gamma as well as lysing syngeneic Tag-transformed cells in vitro. In addition, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from Tag-immune C57BL/6 mice resulted in a dramatic increase in the control of tumor progression in SV11 mice and was associated with the accumulation of CD8(+) T cells specific for multiple Tag epitopes in the brain. These results indicate that the control of advanced stage spontaneous choroid plexus tumors is associated with the induction of a strong and persistent CD8(+) T cell response to Tag.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2002; 167(12):6947-56. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent reports have documented the presence of SV40 large T antigen (T ag) sequences in a number of human tumors and raised the question of whether cellular immunity to T ag is elicited in such individuals. We used HLA-A2.1 transgenic C57BL/6 mice to identify an epitope from T ag recognized by CD8+ CTLs when presented by this human MHC class I molecule. Immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice with syngeneic T ag-transformed cells resulted in the induction of HLA-A2.1-restricted, T ag-specific CTLs. The target epitope, residues 281-289 (KCDDVLLLL) of T ag, was identified using both cell lines expressing T ag variants and synthetic T ag peptides. Peptide 281-289 bound stably to HLA-A2.1 molecules, effectively sensitized target cells for CTL lysis, and was efficiently processed from endogenous T ag in cells of both mouse and human origin. CTLs were not cross-reactive on the human BK or JC virus T ags. Thus, SV40 T ag 281-289 represents a potential specific CTL recognition epitope for humans.
Cancer Research 03/2001; 61(3):873-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent observations have indicated that viral persistence and tumor spreading could occur because of effector function-defective CD8(+) T cells. Although chronic exposure to Ag, lack of CD4 help, and epitope dominance are suggested to interfere with CTL differentiation, mechanisms underlying the defective effector function remain obscure. We demonstrate in this report that lymphotoxin alpha-deficient mice develop CD8(+) T cells at normal frequencies when infected with HSV or immunized with OVA Ag but show impaired cytotoxic and cytokine-mediated effector functions resulting in enhanced susceptibility to HSV-induced encephalitis. Although these cells display near normal levels of perforin and Fas ligand, they remain largely at a naive state as judged by high expression of CD62 ligand and failure to up-regulate activation or memory markers. In particular, these CD8(+) T cells revealed inadequate expression of the IL-12 receptor, thus establishing a link between CTL differentiation and LTalpha possibly through regulation of IL-12 receptor. Viruses and tumors could evade immunity by targeting the same pathway.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2001; 166(2):1066-74. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral oncogenes, mutated cellular oncogenes, or other adventitious agents that might contaminate vaccine preparations on inoculation of the host will encounter a T cell-mediated immune response which will play a determining role in the progression of neoplastic events or replication of contaminating viral agents. Using SV40 T antigen tumour systems as a model we discuss the regions of the oncoprotein that have an impact on tumourigenicity and the role of CD8 T lymphocyte immune responses in eliminating potential tumour cells. In addition, we discuss measures that counteract T cell immune responses to abrogate T cell-mediated immunosurveillance.
Developments in biologicals 02/2001; 106:109-21; discussion 143-60.