[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All mechanically ventilated patients must be weaned from the ventilator at some stage. According to an International Consensus Conference the criteria for "prolonged weaning" are fulfilled if patients fail at least 3 weaning attempts (i. e. spontaneous breathing trial, SBT) or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first SBT. This occurs in about 15 - 20 % of patients.Because of the growing number of patients requiring prolonged weaning a German guideline on prolonged weaning has been developed. It is an initiative of the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V., DGP) in cooperation with other societies (see acknowledgement) engaged in the field chaired by the Association of Scientific and Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF).This guideline deals with the definition, epidemiology, weaning categories, underlying pathophysiology, therapeutic strategies, the weaning unit, transition to out-of-hospital ventilation and therapeutic recommendations for end of life care. This short version summarises recommendations on prolonged weaning from the German guideline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are usually treated in the intensive care unit. Monitoring of these patients is challenging for all members of the medical staff. Understanding the aetiology of respiratory failure as well as the pathophysiological principles is essential for appropriate monitoring and treatment. Besides observation of clinical signs, different monitoring methods have become available including invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tools. Furthermore, knowledge about oxygen supply and oxygen consumption as well as respiratory muscle capacities and workload is important. The current article presents an overview of these issues and evaluates different diagnostic tools to monitor ventilator-dependent patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As intensive care medicine has progressed and advanced in terms of technology, dia-gnostics and therapeutics, the demand for intensive care medicine has increased con-tinuously, resulting in pressures on resources and healthcare budgets. For these reasons, there is a need to create adequate legal and administrative structures, plus an increasing requirement for qualified specialised person-nel and internationally standardised, mutually recognised training programmes . This is especially relevant considering the multidis-ciplinary nature of intensive care medicine. Bearing this in mind, a way forward for intensive care medicine is to involve more respiratory physicians because they can be significant providers of care to critically ill respiratory patients . Intermediate care units providing noninvasive monitoring and noninvasive ventilation allow a more efficient and cost-effective approach without decreas-ing the quality of care or adversely affecting outcome . They make it possible for patients with respiratory diseases of inter-mediate severity to be cared for in specialised units headed by respiratory physicians . The development of weaning centres and long-term care facilities, including home ventilation, provide important economic advantages that decrease the burden on regular intensive care units (ICUs) by redu-cing admissions and facilitating discharge to step-down areas . The respiratory physician can provide advantages to patients in these critical care settings, adapting relatively easily to the needs of the patient . Historically in Europe, respiratory physi-cians have not usually been in the forefront of caring for the critically ill respiratory patient. This is in contrast with the situation in the USA, where pulmonologists are among the first specialists to participate in the treatment of ICU patients . There is however a growing interest in Europe for the role of the respiratory physician, reflected by a trend towards collaboration between intensive care specialists and respiratory medicine specia-lists. This is manifested by joint consensus papers and employment of respiratory physi-cians in ICUs . In response to this trend and the growing importance of the role of the respiratory physician, the Respiratory Intensive Care Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the ERS Education Com-mittee have supported the creation of a Respiratory Critical Care HERMES (Harmo-nised Education in Respiratory Medicine for European Specialists) Task Force. The ultimate aim of the Respiratory Critical Care HERMES Task Force is to ensure that the best quality of care is delivered through harmonised educational standards in the context of these evolving medical and economic demands. It also aims to address Statement of Interest
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential part of modern intensive care medicine. MV is performed in patients with severe respiratory failure caused by insufficiency of the respiratory muscles and/or lung parenchymal disease when/after other treatments, i. e. oxygen, body position, secretion management, medication or non invasive ventilation have failed.In the majority of ICU patients weaning is routine and does not present any problems. Nevertheless 40-50 % of the time during mechanical ventilation is spent on weaning. About 20 % of patients need continued MV despite resolution of the conditions which originally precipitated the need for MV.There maybe a combination of reasons; chronic lung disease, comorbidities, age and conditions acquired in ICU (critical care neuromyopathy, psychological problems). According to an International Consensus Conference the criteria for "prolonged weaning" are fulfilled if patients fail at least three weaning attempts or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first spontaneous breathing trial. Prolonged weaning is a challenge. An inter- and multi-disciplinary approach is essential for weaning success. Complex, difficult to wean patients who fulfill the criteria for "prolonged weaning" can still be successfully weaned in specialised weaning units in about 50% of cases.In patients with unsuccessful weaning, invasive mechanical ventilation has to be arranged either at home or in a long term care facility.This S2-guideline was developed because of the growing number of patients requiring prolonged weaning. It is an initiative of the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V., DGP) in cooperation with other societies engaged in the field.The guideline is based on a systematic literature review of other guidelines, the Cochrane Library and PubMed.The consensus project was chaired by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF) based on a formal interdisciplinary process applying the Delphi-concept. The guideline covers the following topics: Definitions, epidemiology, weaning categories, pathophysiology, the spectrum of treatment strategies, the weaning unit, discharge from hospital on MV and recommendations for end of life decisions. Special issues relating to paediatric patients were considered at the end of each chapter.The target audience for this guideline are intensivists, pneumologists, anesthesiologists, internists, cardiologists, surgeons, neurologists, pediatricians, geriatricians, palliative care clinicians, nurses, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, ventilator manufacturers.The aim of the guideline is to disseminate current knowledge about prolonged weaning to all interested parties. Because there is a lack of clinical research data in this field the guideline is mainly based on expert opinion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Regional weaning centers play a more and more important role in the weaning process of long-term ventilated patients. The medical center Kloster Grafschaft is one of the oldest and largest centers in Germany. There is very little published data from larger weaning centers in Europe.
From 2007 to 2011 all weaning patients were registered in a database. Additional information of the transferring hospitals was inquired. Prolonged weaning was defined by a period of at least 7 days of mechanical ventilation as well as three unsuccessful weaning trials.
Data from 867 of 916 registered patients could be analyzed. 71.1% could be successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. All patients were suffering from a hypercapnic insufficiency as well as a variety of secondary diagnoses, on average 15.1 per patient. The median of age was 70 years, 62 % were male. Prior to hospital transfer patients had been ventilated for a median of 41 days. Time to successful removal of the artificial airway was 8 days according to the DRG code directive and 13.4 days when non-invasive ventilation (NIV) time was included. Of the 616 patients who could be successfully weaned, 42 % were discharged on NIV. Out of the 251 patients who could not be weaned, 107 were discharged. The remaining 144 (16.7 %) patients died, 33 % due to the primary underlying disease or a complication. 66 % of the deceased patients received palliative care. Patients with successful and unsuccessful weaning did not differ by age, by duration of mechanical ventilation or time until tracheostomy. Postoperative patients could be weaned more often than medical patients (p < 0.05). Discrimination between patients with successful and unsuccessful weaning was not possible by the point in time of the first spontaneous breathing trial in regard to the duration of ventilation but only by the duration of this trial after transfer to our unit (150 vs. 60 min; p < 10-6). The TISS-28 and the SAPS-II-Score did not differ between the two groups. Patients with successful weaning had less agitation according to the RASS-Score (0.47 vs. 0.15; p < 0.005).
It becomes apparent that in a specialized weaning center the majority of difficult to wean patients can be liberated in short time from mechanical ventilation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the treatment effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and anticyclic servoventilation in patients with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea).
Randomized controlled trial.
Thirty patients who developed complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) during CPAP treatment.
NPPV or servoventilation.
Patients were randomized to NPPV or servo-ventilation. Full polysomnography (PSG) was performed after 6 weeks. On CPAP prior to randomization, patients in the NPPV and servoventilator arm had comparable apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI, 28.6 ± 6.5 versus 27.7 ± 9.7 events/h (mean ± standard deviation [SD])), apnea indices (AI,19 ± 5.6 versus 21.1 ± 8.6 events/h), central apnea indices (CAI, 16.7 ± 5.4 versus 18.2 ± 7.1 events/h), oxygen desaturation indices (ODI,17.5 ± 13.1 versus 24.3 ± 11.9 events/h). During initial titration NPPV and servoventilation significantly improved the AHI (9.1 ± 4.3 versus 9 ± 6.4 events/h), AI (2 ± 3.1 versus 3.5 ± 4.5 events/h) CAI (2 ± 3.1 versus 2.5 ± 3.9 events/h) and ODI (10.1 ± 4.5 versus 8.9 ± 8.4 events/h) when compared to CPAP treatment (all P < 0.05). After 6 weeks we observed the following differences: AHI (16.5 ± 8 versus 7.4 ± 4.2 events/h, P = 0.027), AI (10.4 ± 5.9 versus 1.7 ± 1.9 events/h, P = 0.001), CAI (10.2 ± 5.1 versus 1.5 ± 1.7 events/h, P < 0.0001)) and ODI (21.1 ± 9.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.4 events/h, P < 0.0001) for NPPV and servoventilation, respectively. Other sleep parameters were unaffected by any form of treatment.
After 6 weeks, servoventilation treated respiratory events more effectively than NPPV in patients with complex sleep apnea syndrome.
Dellweg D; Kerl J; Hoehn E; Wenzel M; Koehler D. Randomized controlled trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus servoventilation in patients with CPAP-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea). SLEEP 2013;36(8):1163-1171.