[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but pathway inhibition has variable efficacy. Identification of predictive biomarkers and mechanisms of resistance would allow selection of patients most likely to respond and novel therapeutic combinations. The purpose of this study was to extend recent discoveries regarding the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in HNSCC by more broadly examining potential biomarkers of response, by examining pathway inhibitors with a diverse range of targets, and by defining mechanisms of resistance and potential combination therapies. We used reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) to simultaneously evaluate expression of 195 proteins; single-nucleotide polymorphism array to estimate gene copy number; and mass array to identify mutations. We examined altered signaling at baseline and after pathway inhibition. Likewise, we examined the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in HNSCC tumors by RPPA. Cell lines with PIK3CA mutations were sensitive to pathway inhibitors, whereas amplification status did not predict sensitivity. While we identified a set of individual candidate biomarkers of response to pathway inhibitors, proteomic pathway scores did not correlate with amplification or mutation and did not predict response. Several receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR and ERK, were activated following PI3K inhibition in resistant cells; dual pathway inhibition of PI3K and EGFR or MEK demonstrated synergy. Combined MEK and PI3K inhibition was markedly synergistic in HRAS-mutant cell lines. Our findings indicate that clinical trials of single-agent PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in selected populations and of PI3K-EGFR or PI3K-MEK inhibitor combinations are warranted; we plan to conduct such trials.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 09/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeting oncogenic drivers (genomic alterations critical to cancer development and maintenance) has transformed the care of patients with lung adenocarcinomas. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to perform multiplexed assays testing adenocarcinomas of the lung for drivers in 10 genes to enable clinicians to select targeted treatments and enroll patients into clinical trials.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2014; 311(19):1998-2006. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite decades of research, the role of induction chemotherapy (ICT) in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains controversial. When nonsurgical approaches are preferred, chemoradiation (CRT) is the standard of care. However, ICT continues to be investigated, as it can cytoreduce tumors, improve radiotherapy feasibility and tolerability, select patients for organ preservation with radiation, and decrease the risk of distant metastasis.
Herein, we review the recent randomized trials that investigated the role of taxanes in ICT, compared with surgery or CRT alone. A metaanalysis of older trials comparing taxane-containing ICT to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil is discussed. In addition, long-term results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 91-11, a three-arm trial of larynx preservation approaches, are discussed, as well as a recent trial of sequential CRT for larynx preservation. As in previous randomized trials, no survival benefit for ICT was demonstrated. However, two studies showed a reduced risk of distant metastasis in advanced nodal stage patients. As regards larynx preservation, ICT followed by radiation alone in responders to chemotherapy remains an effective option.
ICT is still controversial and in general, should remain investigational. An exception may be its use in a larynx preservation approach, albeit with a lower crude larynx preservation rate compared with CRT. The results of recent trials provide rationale and support hypothesis generation for future research, which should focus on subsets of patients most likely to benefit, for example, high nodal stage. It will be critical to study human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharynx cancer separately or, at least, stratify by HPV status given its influence on prognosis and attendant implications for statistical design.
Current opinion in oncology 03/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Determine the antitumor activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor gefitinib in patients with recurrent/metastatic salivary gland cancer. Methods: Phase II study in adenoid cystic (ACC) and non-adenoid cystic (non-ACC) carcinomas. Gefitinib was administered 250mg orally daily. Primary endpoint was tumor response. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and disease control rates (DCR). EGFR and HER2 expression were evaluated and correlated with outcomes. Results: Thirty-seven patients were enrolled, and 36 were evaluable (18 with ACC and 18 with non-ACC). No responses were observed. Median PFS was 4.3 months and 2.1 months, and median OS was 25.9 months and 16 months for patients with ACC and non-ACC respectively. DCR at 8 weeks was higher in ACC patients. No unexpected toxicities occurred. EGFR and HER2 overexpression did not correlate with outcomes. Conclusions: We did not observe significant clinical activity of gefitinib in advanced salivary gland cancer. NCT00509002. Head Neck, 2014.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several phase II/III trials of anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown limited efficacy. The mechanisms of resistance to IGF-1R mAb-based therapies and clinically applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance are still undefined.
IGF-1R mAb cixutumumab efficacy, alone or in combination with Src inhibitors, was evaluated in 10 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and six non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro in two- or three-dimensional culture systems and in vivo in cell line- or patient-derived xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice (n = 6-9 per group). Cixutumumab-induced changes in cell signaling and IGF-1 binding to integrin β3 were determined by Western or ligand blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and cell adhesion analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by the two-sided Student t test or one-way analysis of variance.
Integrin β3-Src signaling cascade was activated by IGF-1 in HNSCC and NSCLC cells, when IGF-1 binding to IGF-1R was hampered by cixutumumab, resulting in Akt activation and cixutumumab resistance. Targeting integrin β3 or Src enhanced antitumor activity of cixutumumab in multiple cixutumumab-resistant cell lines and patient-derived tumors in vitro and in vivo. Mean tumor volume of mice cotreated with cixutumumab and integrin β3 siRNA was 133.7mm(3) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.6 to 209.8mm(3)) compared with those treated with cixutumumab (1472.5mm(3); 95% CI = 1150.7 to 1794.3mm(3); P < .001) or integrin β3 siRNA (903.2mm(3); 95% CI = 636.1 to 1170.3mm(3); P < .001) alone.
Increased Src activation through integrin ανβ3 confers considerable resistance against anti-IGF-1R mAb-based therapies in HNSCC and NSCLC cells. Dual targeting of the IGF-1R pathway and collateral integrin β3-Src signaling module may override this resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We performed this study to assess outcomes of patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with modern therapy approaches. METHODS: Demographics, treatments and outcomes of patients diagnosed with Stage 3- 4B squamous carcinoma of the oropharynx, between 2000 -- 2007 were tabulated and analyzed. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 1046 patients. The 5- year actuarial overall survival, recurrence-free survival and local-regional control rates for the entire cohort were 78%, 77% and 87% respectively. More advanced disease, increasing T-stage and smoking were associated with higher rates of local-regional recurrence and poorer survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer have a relatively high survival rate. Patients' demographics and primary tumor volume were very influential on these favorable outcomes. In particular, patients with small primary tumors did very well even when treatment was not intensified with the addition of chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo report the long-term results of the Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 91-11 study evaluating the contribution of chemotherapy added to radiation therapy (RT) for larynx preservation. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients with stage III or IV glottic or supraglottic squamous cell cancer were randomly assigned to induction cisplatin/fluorouracil (PF) followed by RT (control arm), concomitant cisplatin/RT, or RT alone. The composite end point of laryngectomy-free survival (LFS) was the primary end point. RESULTS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95; P = .02; concomitant chemotherapy v RT alone: HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.98; P = .03). Overall survival did not differ significantly, although there was a possibility of worse outcome with concomitant relative to induction chemotherapy (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.61; P = .08). Concomitant cisplatin/RT significantly improved the larynx preservation rate over induction PF followed by RT (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.89; P = .0050) and over RT alone (P < .001), whereas induction PF followed by RT was not better than treatment with RT alone (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.82; P = .35). No difference in late effects was detected, but deaths not attributed to larynx cancer or treatment were higher with concomitant chemotherapy (30.8% v 20.8% with induction chemotherapy and 16.9% with RT alone). CONCLUSION
These 10-year results show that induction PF followed by RT and concomitant cisplatin/RT show similar efficacy for the composite end point of LFS. Locoregional control and larynx preservation were significantly improved with concomitant cisplatin/RT compared with the induction arm or RT alone. New strategies that improve organ preservation and function with less morbidity are needed.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2012; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling during radiation led to improvement of tumor control and survival, novel strategies are needed to further improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma. Because EGFR is known to interact with c-Src kinases, the present study investigated dasatinib (BMS-354825), an inhibitor of c-Src kinases, for its efficacy in enhancing radiosensitivity of human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in vitro and examined the underlying mechanisms for this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six HNSCC lines were exposed to dasatinib, radiation, or both, and assessed for c-Src and EGFR expression, cell survival and colony forming ability. Among these cell lines, HN-5 and FaDu lines were analyzed for induction of apoptosis, cell cycle re-distribution and for nuclear localization of EGFR, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 proteins. Immuno-precipitation and Western blots were performed to analyze the levels and binding of proteins involved in cell survival, apoptosis and DNA repair pathways. Suppression of c-Src by siRNA and subsequent clonogenic assay was performed in HN-5 cells. RESULTS: All six HNSCC lines that were examined expressed high levels of c-Src. Two (HN-5 and MDA-183) expressed higher levels of EGFR than other lines. Dasatinib suppressed cell survival of all cell lines tested independent of c-Src or EGFR levels but enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN-5 and MDA-183. HN-5 and FaDu were analyzed further. Dasatinib suppressed phosphorylation of c-Src in both cell lines, but decreased repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in HN-5 cells only as evidenced by suppression of c-Abl and Nbs-1 activity, inhibition of the association between c-Src and EGFR or Her-2, prolongation of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci and inhibition of EGFR nuclear localization and its association with DNA-PKcs. Finally, partial suppression of c-Src resulted in a small increase in HN-5 cell radiosensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that dasatinib induces apoptosis and blocks DNA repair in EGFR-expressing HNSCC cells and improves radiotherapy outcome. These findings warrant further investigation using in vivo tumor models for potential translation into clinical testing.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2012; · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To report mature results of a large cohort of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The database of patients irradiated at The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was searched for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer and treated with IMRT between 2000 and 2007. A retrospective review of outcome data was performed. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 776 patients. One hundred fifty-nine patients (21%) were current smokers, 279 (36%) former smokers, and 337 (43%) never smokers. T and N categories and American Joint Committee on Cancer group stages were distributed as follows: T1/x, 288 (37%); T2, 288 (37%); T3, 113 (15%); T4, 87 (11%); N0, 88(12%); N1/x, 140 (18%); N2a, 101 (13%); N2b, 269 (35%); N2c, 122 (16%); and N3, 56 (7%); stage I, 18(2%); stage II, 40(5%); stage III, 150(19%); and stage IV, 568(74%). Seventy-one patients (10%) presented with nodes in level IV. Median follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year overall survival, locoregional control, and overall recurrence-free survival rates were 84%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. Primary site recurrence developed in 7% of patients, and neck recurrence with primary site control in 3%. We could only identify 12 patients (2%) who had locoregional recurrence outside the high-dose target volumes. Poorer survival rates were observed in current smokers, patients with larger primary (T) tumors and lower neck disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with IMRT have excellent disease control. Locoregional recurrence was uncommon, and most often occurred in the high dose volumes. Parotid sparing was accomplished in nearly all patients without compromising tumor coverage.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy distinct from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in its metastatic potential and treatment response. Using an integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis, we investigated molecular differences contributing to the distinct clinical behavior of SCLCs and NSCLCs. SCLCs showed lower levels of several receptor tyrosine kinases and decreased activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) pathways but significantly increased levels of E2F1-regulated factors including enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), thymidylate synthase, apoptosis mediators, and DNA repair proteins. In addition, PARP1, a DNA repair protein and E2F1 co-activator, was highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in SCLCs. SCLC growth was inhibited by PARP1 and EZH2 knockdown. Furthermore, SCLC was significantly more sensitive to PARP inhibitors than were NSCLCs, and PARP inhibition downregulated key components of the DNA repair machinery and enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapy.
Cancer Discovery 09/2012; 2(9):798-811. · 10.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%).
Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m(2) IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control.
Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation.
The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2012; 83(4):e531-6. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are recruited to existing ones, is essential for tumor development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modulates bioavailability of IGF, has been studied for its potential role in angiogenesis during tissue regeneration and cancer development. In this study, we assessed the role of IGFBP-3 in tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using adenoviral (Ad-BP3) and recombinant (rBP3) IGFBP-3. Using an in vivo orthotopic tongue tumor model, we confirmed that both Ad-BP3 and rBP3 suppress the growth of UMSCC38 HNSCC cells in vivo. Ad-BP3 inhibited vascularization in tongue tumors and chorio-allantoic membrane, and suppressed angiogenesis-stimulating activities in UMSCC38 cells. In HUVECs, Ad-BP3 decreased migration, invasion, and tube formation. rBP3 also suppressed production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HUVECs and UMSCC38 cells. IGFBP-3-GGG, a mutant IGFBP-3 with loss of IGF binding capacity, suppressed VEGF production. In addition, we found that IGFBP-3 suppressed VEGF expression, even in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from an IGF-1R-null mouse. Finally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-3-GGG inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth to the same degree as wild-type IGFBP-3. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that IGFBP-3 has anti-angiogenic activity in HNSCC, at least in part due to IGF-independent suppression of VEGF production from vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells. (Cancer Sci, doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2012.02301.x, 2012).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the disease control rate and toxicity of treating patients with aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) with neoadjuvant gefitinib.
A prospective phase II clinical trial evaluating neoadjuvant gefitinib given prior to standard treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Patients with stable disease after one cycle received escalated doses. Patients who responded were given gefitinib during radiation therapy, as well as maintenance therapy after definitive treatment. We analyzed the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, mutation status, and gene copy number on available tissue samples and clinical response.
Twenty-three patients were accrued and 22 patients were evaluable for response prior to definitive local treatment; complete responses were attained by 18.2% of patients and partial responses by 27.3%. Grades 2 to 3 toxicities were observed in 59.1% of patients experiencing class-specific effects during induction therapy. After induction, 11.8% underwent surgery alone, 17.6% had definitive radiation, 11.8% were treated with radiation and concurrent gefitinib, and 47% had surgery with postoperative radiation and concurrent gefitinib. Median follow-up for the censored observations was 32 months. Two-year overall, disease-specific, and progression-free survival rates were 72.1%, 72.1%, and 63.6%, respectively. No EGFR-activating mutations were identified in tumor samples available from 10 patients. No associations between EGFR correlative studies and patient outcomes were identified.
Gefitinib, in the neoadjuvant setting, was active and well tolerated in patients with aggressive CSCC and did not interfere with definitive treatment. In view of the 18% complete response rate we observed, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be further explored in the treatment of aggressive CSCC.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2012; 18(5):1435-46. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site.
Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox's proportional hazard model.
Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients, of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p < 0.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological.
With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2012; 82(3):e367-74. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, preexisting resistance to IGFBP-3 could limit its antitumor activities. This study characterizes the efficacy and mechanism of the combination of recombinant IGFBP-3 (rIGFBP-3) and HDAC inhibitors to overcome IGFBP-3 resistance in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. The effects of the combination of rIGFBP-3 and a number of HDAC inhibitors on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in vitro and in vivo by using the MTT assay, a flow cytometry-based TUNEL assay, Western blot analyses and the NSCLC xenograft tumor model. Combined treatment with HDAC inhibitors and rIGFBP-3 had synergistic antiproliferative effects accompanied by increased apoptosis rates in a subset of NSCLC and HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Moreover, combined treatment with depsipeptide and rIGFBP-3 completely suppressed tumor growth and increased the apoptosis rate in vivo in H1299 NSCLC xenografts. Evidence suggests that HDAC inhibitors increased the half-life of rIGFBP-3 protein by blocking protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of rIGFBP-3. In addition, combined treatment of IGFBP-3 with an HDAC inhibitor facilitates apoptosis through upregulation of rIGFBP-3 stability and Akt signaling inhibition. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to decrease PKC activation may enhance apoptotic activities of rIGFBP-3 in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that combined treatment with HDAC inhibitor and rIGFBP-3 could be an effective treatment strategy for NSCLC and HNSCC with highly activated PKC.
International Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 131(10):2253-63. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have responded poorly to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The authors investigated the involvement of insulinlike growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling in primary resistance to EGFR TKIs and the molecular determinants of resistance to IGF-1R TKIs.
Phosphorylated IGF-1R/insulin receptor (pIGF-1R/IR) was immunohistochemically evaluated in an NSCLC tissue microarray. The authors analyzed the antitumor effects of an IGF-1R TKI (PQIP or OSI-906), either alone or in combination with a small-molecular inhibitor (PD98059 or U0126) or with siRNA targeting K-Ras or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK), in vitro and in vivo in NSCLC cells with variable histologic features and EGFR or K-Ras mutations.
pIGF-1R/IR expression in NSCLC specimens was associated with a history of tobacco smoking, squamous cell carcinoma histology, mutant K-Ras, and wild-type (WT) EGFR, all of which have been strongly associated with poor response to EGFR TKIs. IGF-1R TKIs exhibited significant antitumor activity in NSCLC cells with WT EGFR and WT K-Ras but not in those with mutations in these genes. Introduction of mutant K-Ras attenuated the effects of IGF-1R TKIs on NSCLC cells expressing WT K-Ras. Conversely, inactivation of MEK restored sensitivity to IGF-TKIs in cells carrying mutant K-Ras.
The mutation status of both EGFR and K-Ras could be a predictive marker of response to IGF-1R TKIs. Also, MEK antagonism can abrogate primary resistance of NSCLC cells to IGF-1R TKIs.
Cancer 02/2012; 118(16):3993-4003. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to improve the outcomes for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma by testing the feasibility and safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiotherapy.
We enrolled patients older than 18 years with stage IIB-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 19 centres in North America and Hong Kong. Treatment consisted of three cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) both given on days 1, 22, and 43 of radiation (70 Gy) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivered over 33 days on a daily basis, Monday through Friday. Patients then received three cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)), both given on days 64, 85, and 106 after radiation, and three cycles of fluorouracil (1000 mg/m(2) per day), given on days 64-67, 85-88, and 106-109 after radiation. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of treatment-related grade 4 haemorrhage or any grade 5 adverse event in the first year. Analyses were done with all eligible patients who started protocol treatment. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00408694.
From Dec 13, 2006, to Feb 5, 2009, we enrolled 46 patients, of whom 44 were eligible for analysis. We recorded no grade 3-4 haemorrhages or grade 5 adverse events; nine patients (20%) had a treatment-related grade 1-2 haemorrhage. Nine patients had one or more grade 4 blood or bone marrow-related complication (grade 4 leucopenia was noted in six patients, grade 4 lymphopenia in five, grade 4 neutrophils in five, and grade 4 anaemia in one). One patient had two grade 4 infections with grade 3-4 neutrophils. One patient reported grade 4 tinnitus, one patient reported grade 4 thrombosis, one reported grade 4 radiation mucositis, and two reported grade 4 pharyngolaryngeal pain. With a median follow-up of 2·5 years (IQR 2·1-2·9), the estimated 2 year locoregional progression-free interval was 83·7% (95% CI 72·6-94·9), the 2 year distant metastasis-free interval was 90·8% (82·2-99·5), the 2 year progression-free survival was 74·7% (61·8-87·6), and 2 year overall survival was 90·9% (82·3-99·4).
The addition of bevacizumab to standard chemoradiation treatment for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma is feasible, and might delay the progression of subclinical distant disease.
National Cancer Institute, USA.
The Lancet Oncology 12/2011; 13(2):172-80. · 25.12 Impact Factor