Chong-Zhi Wang

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (117)305.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Natural products play an important role in cancer therapeutics, and lately more attentions have been paid to the prevention of major lethal malignancies, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). After oral ingestion, botanicals' parent compounds can be converted to their metabolites by the enteric microbiome, and these metabolites may have different bioactivities and variable bioavailability. In this study, we used an active ginseng metabolite, protopanaxadiol (PPD), as an example to assess its colon cancer preventive effect by comparing its effect with the treatment effect of fluorouracil (5-FU). A xenograft tumor nude mouse model with human colon cancer cell inoculation was used. After preventive PPD or treatment 5-FU administration with the same dose (30 mg/kg), tumor growth inhibition was evaluated by both a Xenogen bioluminescence imaging technique and manual tumor size measurement. Our data showed that preventive PPD very significantly inhibited the tumor growth compared to 5-FU (p < 0.01). Our data suggest that the PPD is a promising cancer prevention agent. More studies are needed to explore the chemopreventive actions of PPD and its potential clinical utility.
    The American journal of Chinese medicine. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To study the chemical constituents from the leaves of Oplopanax horridus.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 gel columns, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR were applied for the identification of chemical structure.ResultsTen compounds were isolated and identified as dammara-20,24-dien-3β-ol acetate (1), phytol (2), 16Z,19Z-pentacosadienoic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), (3S,8S-falcarindiol (5), maltol (6), acankoreagenin (7), daucosterol (8), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), and acankoreoside A (10).Conclusion Compounds 1–3, 6, and 10 are isolated from this plant for the first time. Compounds 1–3 and 6 are isolated from the plants in genus Oplopanax Miq. for the first time. Moreover, Compounds 1, 3, and 6 are isolated from the plants in the family of Araliaceae for the first time.
    Chinese Herbal Medicines. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of the total alkaloids (TA) from Mahonia bealei in treating pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Animals were sacrificed after 19h of the ligation. Gastric acid, peptic activities, mucin levels, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities and the gastrin level were analyzed. To improve the accuracy of the observations, IPP 6.0 software was introduced to measure the area of ulcer. TA (18.56mg/kg/day, i.g.) showed an antiulcer effect by significantly decreasing the gastric ulcer areas (11.28mm(2)) compared with model group (26.36mm(2)). The TA ulcer inhibition ratio was 57.2%, compared with the effect of the positive control, omeprazole (62.96%). The results also showed that TA had a significant effect in inhibiting the release of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, reducing the content of gastrin and decreasing gastric acidity on experimental animals. However, the TA had no significant effects on gastric mucus secretion and pepsin activity. Data indicated that TA had gastric ulcer protective effects by modulating the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and gastrin level. TA has a potential to be developed as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of gastric ulcers.
    Phytomedicine. 09/2014; 21(11):1356–1363.
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    ABSTRACT: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was developed to identify the species. Subsequently, an HPLC-linear discriminant analysis was established to discriminate cultivation regions of American ginseng. This method was successfully applied to identify the sources of 6 commercial American ginseng samples. Two of them were identified as Asian ginseng, while 4 others were identified as American ginseng, which were cultivated in the USA (3) and China (1). Our newly developed method can be used to identify American ginseng with different cultivation regions.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 07/2014; 99C:8-15.
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques indluding silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and pre-HPLC and identified by their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Sixteen phenolic compounds had been isolated and n-butanol extracts which were fractionated from the ethanol extract of Oplopanax horridus roots bark. Their structures were identified as below, including 7 phenylpropanoid compounds, ferulic acid (1), 3-acetylcaffeic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), homovanillyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Three coumarins, scopoletin (8), esculetin (9) and 3'-angeloyl-4'-acetyl-cis-knellactone (10). And 6 lignan compounds, (+)-isolaricires-inol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3, 3'-dimethoxy-4, 9, 9'-trihydroxy-4', 7-epoxy-5', 8-lignan-4, 9-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), (-)-5,5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), (-)-pinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), and (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16). All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant All the constituents except compounds 4, 6, 12 and 13 were obtained for the first time from the genus Oplopanax.
    05/2014; 39(10):1852-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Genkwa flos (Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc.), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been traditionally used for over two thousand years in China for inflammation related symptoms, including joint pain. To evaluate the antioxidative effects of flavonoid aglycones (FA) isolated from Genkwa flos on adjuvant arthritis in rats and to identify the relationship between antioxidant potential and whole blood viscosity (WBV). FA compounds were identified using LC-MS and the content was assayed by HPLC. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant in the footpad. The effects of FA on paw volumes, secondary arthritis scores, histopathology of joints, and body and organ weights were measured. The antioxidant effects of FA and WBV were determined. LC-MS analysis showed that the FA contained four major compounds: luteolin, apigenin, hydroxygenkwanin and genkwanin. FA significantly decreased paw edema, arthritis scores, and weight loss. These observations were consistent with the reduction of oxidative stress and the improvement of the WBV. FA significantly decreased arthritis in a rat model through antioxidant and hemorheological modulatory mechanisms. The Genkwa flos flavonoids may have clinical potential for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritic activity of four flavonoids from Daphne genkwa (FFD) in vivo and in vitro. Flavonoids of D. genkwa were extracted by refluxing with ethanol and purified by polyamide resin. An in vivo carrageenan-induced paw edema model, tampon-granuloma model and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis mouse model were used to evaluate the anti-rheumatoid arthritic activities of FFD. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) release and neutral red uptake (NRU) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In addition, antioxidant effect of FFD was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A high dose of FFD significantly reduced the degree of acute inflammatory paw edema in mice as a response to carrageenan administration (p<0.01). FFD displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of granuloma formation in mice (p<0.05). FFD also inhibited chronic inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats when administered orally at the dose of 50mg/kg/day (p<0.001). In addition, FFD suppressed the production of NO and exhibited immunoregulatory function in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-related manner. Simultaneously, FFD revealed conspicuous antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18.20μg/ml. FFD possesses significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, which could be a potential therapeutic agent for chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 02/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Chemistry & Biodiversity 02/2014; 11(2):181-96. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Living in a prediabetes state significantly increases a patient's risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Tianqi capsule, containing 10 Chinese herbal medicines, is used in China for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether Tianqi prevented T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) over the course of a 12-month treatment. Methods: Individuals with IGT were randomly allocated in a double-blind manner to receive Tianqi (n = 210) or a placebo (n = 210) for 12 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted every 3 months to assess the development of diabetes or restoration to normal glucose tolerance. All subjects received the same lifestyle education. The primary endpoint was the conversion of IGT to T2DM. Body weight and body mass index were observed. Adverse effects were monitored. Results: Of the 420 enrolled subjects with IGT, 389 completed the trial (198 in the Tianqi group and 191 in the placebo group). At the end of the 12-month trial, 36 subjects in the Tianqi group (18.18%) and 56 in the placebo group (29.32%) had developed diabetes (P = .01). There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose tolerance at the end of the study between the Tianqi and placebo groups (n = 125, 63.13%, and n = 89, 46.60%, respectively; P = .001). Cox's proportional hazards model analysis showed that Tianqi reduced the risk of diabetes by 32.1% compared with the placebo. No severe adverse events occurred in the trial. There were no statistical differences in body weight and body mass index changes between the Tianqi group and the placebo group during the 12-month trial. Conclusions: Treatment with a Tianqi capsule for 12 months significantly decreased the incidence of T2DM in subjects with IGT, and this herbal drug was safe to use.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2014; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A) is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01). Next, we characterized the compound's growth inhibitory effects in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. With OPT A treatment, these malignant cells were significantly inhibited in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner (both p < 0.01). The IC50 was approximately 5 µM for HCT-116 and 7 µM for SW-480 cells. OPT A significantly induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. From further mechanism explorations, our data showed that OPT A significantly upregulated the expression of a cluster of genes, especially the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and caspase family, suggesting that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotic pathway plays a key role in OPT A induced apoptosis.
    Nutrients 01/2014; 6(7):2668-2680. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Six polyynes OH-1~6, some of which are occur naturally in acetylated form, had been isolated and identified from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus (Devil's Club), a natural dietary supplement and medicinal plant in North America. During the evaluation of the polyynes' potential anticancer activities, sixteen more acetylated derivatives OHR-1~16 have synthesized and their anti-proliferation activity on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, A549, HepG2 and LO2 cells assayed to elucidate their structure-activity relationships. The results showed that OH-1 ((3S, 8S)-falcarindiol) had the most potent anticancer activity, with IC50 values of 15.3, 23.5, 7.7 and 4.7 μM on MCF-7, A549, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. For the primary structure-activity relationship, the anticancer activities of polyynes become weaker if their hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the terminal double bonds transformed into single bonds or they contain one more methylene group in the main skeleton chain.
    Molecules 01/2014; 19(5):6142-62. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100) has anti-inflammatory activities, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. TU-100 includes ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, each component possessing bioactive properties. The effects of TU-100 and individual components were investigated in a model of intestinal T lymphocyte activation using anti-CD3 antibody. To determine contribution of intestinal bacteria, specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ free (GF) mice were used. TU-100 or its components were delivered by diet or by gavage. Anti-CD3 antibody increased jejunal accumulation of fluid, increased TNFα, and induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis in both SPF and GF mice, which was blocked by either TU-100 or ginger, but not by ginseng or Japanese pepper. TU-100 and ginger also blocked anti-CD3-stimulated Akt and NF-κB activation. A co-culture system of colonic Caco2BBE and Jurkat-1 cells was used to examine T-lymphocyte/epithelial cells interactions. Jurkat-1 cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 to produce TNFα that activates epithelial cell NF-κB. TU-100 and ginger blocked anti-CD3 antibody activation of Akt in Jurkat cells, decreasing their TNFα production. Additionally, TU-100 and ginger alone blocked direct TNFα stimulation of Caco2BBE cells and decreased activation of caspase-3 and polyADP ribose. The present studies demonstrate a new anti-inflammatory action of TU-100 that is microbe-independent and due to its ginger component.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97456. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.
    Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 01/2014; 19(12):19708-17.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by AOM/DSS, was established and the effects of oral American ginseng were evaluated. The contents of representative ginseng saponins in the extract were determined. Results Our data demonstrated that American ginseng significantly reduced experimental colitis measured by the disease activity index scores. This suppression of the experimental colitis was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS, suggesting that the ginseng significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Consistent with the anti-inflammation data, we showed that ginseng very significantly attenuated AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing colon tumor number and tumor load. The ginseng also effectively suppressed DSS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines activation using ELISA array, in which 12 pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed, and this effect was supported subsequently by real-time PCR data. Conclusion Our results suggested that American ginseng, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility.
    Journal of ginseng research 01/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anticancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received azoxymethane, the animals received DSS for 8 days or were supplemented with P. notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90 mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index. The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P. notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in disease activity index score, were in a dose-related manner (p < 0.01). P. notoginseng inhibited the reduction of the colon length and the loss of bodyweight in dose-related manner (all p < 0.05). The histological assessment of the colitis and inflammatory-related immunohistochemical data also supported the pharmacological observations. Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous phytochemical studies showed that the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis are baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside and wogonin. The two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) can be transformed into their aglycons (baicalein and wogonin), which possess positive anticancer potential. In this study, we used glycosidase to catalyze flavonoids in S. baicalensis to enhance the herb's anticancer activities. Our HPLC data showed that, using the optimized conditions obtained in our experiments (20 U/g of cellulase, 50˚C, pH 4.8 and treatment for 8 h), there was a marked transformation from the two glycosides to their aglycons. The anticancer activity was subsequently evaluated using a series of S. baicalensis extracts in which variable lengths of glycosidase treatment time were used. Combining analytical and bioassay results, we observed that the higher the aglycon content, the stronger the antiproliferation effects. Compared to the untransformed control, 8 h of glycosidase catalyzing significantly increased antiproliferative activity on human colorectal and breast cancer cells, and its cancer cell growth inhibition is, in part, mediated by cell cycle arrest at the S-phase and induction of apoptosis. Data from this study suggest that using glycosidase to catalyze S. baicalensis offers a promising approach to increase its anticancer activity.
    Oncology Reports 09/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Botanically derived natural products have recently become an attractive source of new chemotherapeutic agents. To explore active anticolorectal cancer compounds, we carried out phytochemical studies on Alkanna tinctoria and isolated eight quinone compounds. Using different spectral methods, compounds were identified as alkannin (1), acetylalkannin (2), angelylalkannin (3), 5-methoxyangenylalkannin (4), dimethylacryl alkannin (5), arnebifuranone (6), alkanfuranol (7), and alkandiol (8). Compounds 4, 7, and 8 are novel compounds. The structures of the three novel compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidence including high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The antiproliferative effects of these eight compounds on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were determined using the MTS method. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using flow cytometry. Enzymatic activities of caspases were determined using a colorimetric assay, and interactions of compound 4 and caspase 9 were explored by docking analysis. Among the eight compounds, alkannin (1), angelylalkannin (3), and 5-methoxyangenylalkannin (4) showed strong antiproliferative effects, whereas compound 4 showed the most potent effects. Compound 4 arrested cancer cells in the S and G2/M phases, and significantly induced cell apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of compound 4 were supported by caspase assay and docking analysis. The structural-functional relationship assay suggested that to increase anticancer potential, future modifications on alkannin (1) should focus on the hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-8.
    Anti-cancer drugs 09/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
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    ABSTRACT: Opioids are potent analgesics for treating moderate to severe pain, but their use is associated with a number of adverse effects, especially opioid-induced constipation (OIC). If the centrally mediated analgesia of opioids could be separated from their peripherally mediated gastrointestinal effects, by a peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist, opioid-induced bowel dysfunction could be prevented or reversed. There has been considerable interest in peripherally acting opioid antagonists or other compounds to treat OIC. Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone is the first approved therapeutic agent for treatment of OIC, and studies have been conducted using the oral formulation. This editorial contains a brief overview of other selected compounds to treat OIC. Other potential uses of peripherally acting opioid antagonist in clinical practice are also discussed.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 07/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Chun-Hao Yu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a group of various diseases, all of which involve unregulated cell growth. Many currently used chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from botanicals. Thus, searching botanical sources for novel oncology medications, including identifying the lead compounds and their derivatives for chemoprevention, is an essential step in advancing cancer therapeutics. This article mainly focuses on the data from our previous American ginseng anti-colon cancer studies. In addition to the potential role of American ginseng on cancer, the herb as an adjuvant for cancer treatment is presented, including describing the attenuation of adverse events induced by chemotherapeutic agents and increasing of quality of cancer patient life. Since heat-treated American ginseng and ginsenoside gut microbiome metabolites showed significant increases in cancer chemopreventive effects, active constituents of the steamed herb and their gut metabolites should be clearly identified, and the structure-activity relationship should be further explored. Data obtained from herbal medicine studies and clinical trials will help develop useful anticancer agents.
    Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 07/2013; 48(7):986-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. However, compared to many pharmacological studies of this botanical, much less attention has been paid to the quality control of the herb's pretreatment prior to extract preparation, an issue that may affect therapeutic outcomes. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate whether different pretreatment conditions change the contents of the four major flavonoids in the herb, i.e., two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) and two aglycones (baicalein and wogonin). Materials and methods: A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was used to quantify the contents of these four flavonoids. The composition changes of four flavonoids by different pretreatment conditions, including solvent, treatment time, temperature, pH value and herb/solvent ratio were evaluated. Results: After selection of the first order time-curve kinetics, our data showed that at 50 °C, 1:5 herb/water (in w/v) ratio and pH 6.67 yielded an optimal conversion rate from flavonoid glycosides to their aglycones. In this optimized condition, the contents of baicalin and wogonoside were decreased to 1/70 and 1/13, while baicalein and wogonin were increased 3.5- and 3.1-fold, respectively, compared to untreated herb. Discussion and conclusion: The markedly variable conversion rates by different pretreatment conditions complicated the quality control of this herb, mainly due to the high amount of endogenous enzymes of S. baicalensis. Optimal pretreatment conditions observed in this study could be used obtain the highest level of desired constituents to achieve better pharmacological effects.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor

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1k Citations
305.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Anesthesia & Critical Care
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Pritzker School of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2013
    • Huaiyin Institute of Technology
      Wu-hsien, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • Yantai University
      Chifu, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Nagasaki International University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 2005–2013
    • China Pharmaceutical University
      • • Department of Pharmacognosy
      • • Ministry of Education and Department of Pharmacognosy
      Nan-ching-hsü, Jiangxi Sheng, China
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Emergency Medicine (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Macau
      • Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Macau, Concelho de Macau, Macao