Chong-Kil Lee

Chungbuk National University, Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (88)184.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Little information is available regarding the precise swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in the context of human HLA molecules. Here, we identified SLA-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in association with human HLA-A2 molecule.
    Xenotransplantation 07/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mediate tumor-associated immune suppression in both cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. Reduction or elimination of MDSCs reduces the rate of tumor progression and improves cancer therapies that employ mechanisms of immunity. Here we show that baccatin III, which is the precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, exerts anti-tumor immunomodulatory activity in very low doses (0.05-0.5mg/kg), although it is regarded as an inactive derivative of paclitaxel. Oral administration of baccatin III significantly reduced the growth of tumors induced by engrafting BALB/c mice with either 4 T1 mammary carcinoma or CT26 colon cancer cells. Baccatin III (0.5mg/kg) did not exert anti-tumor activity in athymic nude mice. Baccatin III decreased the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleens of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, MDSCs isolated from baccatin III-treated mice, compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated mice, had a significantly reduced suppressive effect on T cells treated with the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, these cells produced significantly reduced amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. These results suggest that baccatin III reduced tumor progression by inhibiting the accumulation and suppressive function of MDSCs.
    International immunopharmacology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, subsequently suppressing the host immune system. MDSCs represent a group of immature myeloid cells expressing CD11b and Gr-1. Here, we show that a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, resiquimod, which binds to TLR7 and TLR8, induces the differentiation of MDSCs into mature myeloid cells. MDSCs were isolated from mice bearing mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells, and the purified MDSCs were cultured in the presence of resiquimod for 5 days. Phenotypic analysis showed that the resiquimod-treated MDSCs differentiated into F4/80(+) macrophages and CD11c(+)/I-A(d+) dendritic cells. Functional analysis showed that the MDSCs also lost their suppressive activity on T cells. Resiquimod-treated MDSCs significantly enhanced the proliferation of T cells that were treated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. These results show that resiquimod induces the differentiation of MDSCs into macrophages and dendritic cells, and also suggest that resiquimod may improve cancer immunotherapy by reducing immunosuppressive MDSCs.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 04/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to develop a human adiponectin expression system in transgenic silkworm using a human adiponectin expression vector. The silk gland of the silkworm is a highly specialized organ that has the wonderful ability to synthesize and secrete silk protein. To express human adiponectin in the silk gland of transgenic silkworm, targeting vectors pB-A3-adiponectin-IRES-RFP and pB-Ser1-adiponectin-IRES-RFP were constructed and then introduced into the silkworm pupa. The transgenic silkworms were verified by PCR and then generated. The level of adiponectin in the transgenic silkworm was 6-10 ng/50 mg of freeze-dried powder, and western blotting using an antibody against human adiponectin demonstrated a specific band with a molecular weight of 30 kDa in the silkworm. These results showed that human adiponectin introduced into the silkworm genome was expressed successfully on a large-scale.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 11/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared lung tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice and normal mice. These mice expressed elevated levels of Prdx6 mRNA and protein in multiple tissues. In vivo model, Tg mice displayed a greater increase in the growth of lung tumor compared with normal mice. Glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase 2 (iPLA2) activities in tumor tissues of Tg mice were much higher than in tumor tissues of normal mice. Higher tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice was associated with the increase of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity. Moreover, expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, metalloproteinase-9, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cyclines were much higher in the tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice than in tumor tissues of normal mice. However, expressions of apoptotic regulatory proteins including caspase-3 and Bax were slightly less in the tumor tissues of normal mice. In tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was much higher than in normal mice. In cultured lung cancer cells, PRDX6 siRNA suppressed glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities and cancer cell growth, but enforced over-expression of PRDX6 increased cancer cell growth associated with increased their activities. In vitro, among the tested MAPK inhibitors, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor clearly suppressed growth of lung cancer cells and AP-1 DNA binding, glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities in normal and PRDX6 over-expressing lung cancer cells. These data indicate that over-expression of PRDX6 promotes lung tumor growth via increased glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities through the up-regulation of the AP-1 and JNK pathways.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we showed that biodegradable nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) together with ovalbumin (OVA) were efficient at inducing MHC-restricted presentation of OVA peptides in dendritic cells. The CTL-inducing activities of the nanoparticles were examined in the present study. Nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA were prepared using biodegradable polymer poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), and then were opsonized with mouse IgG. The nanoparticles were injected into the tail vein of mice, and 7 days later the OVA-specific CTL activities were measured using an in vivo CTL assay. Immunization of mice with the nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA elicited potent OVA-specific CTL activity compared to those containing OVA only. In accordance with these results, nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA exerted potent antitumor activity in mice that were subcutaneously implanted with EG7.OVA tumor cells. These results show that encapsulation of poly-IC or CpG ODN together with antigen in biodegradable nanoparticles is an effective approach for the induction of potent antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo.
    Immune Network 02/2013; 13(1):30-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is widely used for T2D therapy but its cellular mechanism of action is undefined. Recent studies on the mechanism of metformin in T2D have demonstrated involvement of the immune system. Current immunotherapies focus on the potential of immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of T2D. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on the antigen-presenting function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Metformin decreased both MHC class I and class II-restricted presentation of OVA and suppressed the expression of both MHC molecules and co-stimulatory factors such as CD54, CD80, and CD86 in DCs, but did not affect the phagocytic activity toward exogenous OVA. The class II-restricted OVA presentation-regulating activity of metformin was also confirmed using mice that had been injected with metformin followed by soluble OVA. These results provide an understanding of the mechanisms of the T cell response-regulating activity of metformin through the inhibition of MHC-restricted antigen presentation in relation to its actions on APCs.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 01/2013; 21(1):35-41. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Park C-S, Kim K-H, Im S-A, Song S, Lee C-K. Identification of HLA-DR4-restricted immunogenic peptide derived from xenogenic porcine major histocompatibility complex class I molecule. Xenotransplantation 2012; 19: 317-322. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:  Indirect recognition of xenoantigens has been implicated as the major mechanism underlying xenospecific CD4(+) T-cell activation in chronic rejection. We identified swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in the context of human HLA-DR4 molecules. The SLA class I-derived peptides that bind HLA-DRB1*0401, a representative of the DR4 supertype, were predicted using a computer-assisted algorithm. The candidate peptides were synthesized, and their binding capacities to HLA-DRB1*0401 were compared in a competitive ELISA using biotinylated hemagglutinin reporter peptides [HA(307-319) ]. Peptide-11 (LRSWTAADTAAQISK) was determined to exhibit the most potent binding capacity to HLA-DRB1*0401 in vitro and thus selected for in vivo immunization. Immunization of HLA-DRB1*0401-transgenic mice with peptide-11 elicited potent CD4(+) Th1 responses. Peptide-11 shares homology to α2 domains of three SLA-1 alleles, six SLA-2 alleles, and 14 SLA-3 alleles. Thus, this study has important implications not only for the identification of an immunogenic indirect epitope shared by diverse SLA class I alleles, but also for the development of epitope-specific immunoregulation strategies.
    Xenotransplantation 09/2012; 19(5):317-22. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity-induced disorders contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, fatty liver diseases, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we evaluated whether the Aloe QDM complex could improve metabolic disorders related to blood glucose levels and insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of Aloe QDM complex or pioglitazone (PGZ) or metformin (Met) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Dietary Aloe QDM complex lowered body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and leptin levels, and markedly reduced the impairment of glucose tolerance in obese mice. Also, Aloe QDM complex significantly enhanced plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity via AMPK activity in muscles. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and scavenger receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Dietary Aloe QDM complex reduces obesity-induced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing PPARγ/LXRα but also by enhancing AMPK activity in the WAT and muscles, both of which are important peripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The Aloe QDM complex could be used as a nutritional intervention against T2D.
    Immune Network 06/2012; 12(3):96-103.
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    Sunim Park, Sun-A Im, Ki-Hyang Kim, Chong-Kil Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Hypocrellin A has gained much attention in recent years due to its light-induced antitumor, antifungal and antiviral activities. Here we report that hypocrellin A exerts immunomodulatory effects on MHC-restricted presentation of antigen. Hypocrellin A inhibited class II-MHC restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, but not class I MHC-restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, in dendritic cells. Hypocrellin A also inhibited the cytosolic pathway of endogenous antigen presentation. However, hypocrellin A did not inhibit the expression of class I and class II MHC molecules on dendritic cells (DCs), the phagocytic activity of DCs, or the H-2K(b)-restricted presentation of a synthetic peptide, SIINFEKL. These results show that hypocrellin A differentially modulates the MHC-restricted antigen presentation pathways.
    Immune Network 12/2011; 11(6):412-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, activates the innate immunity system through a receptor complex of myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MD-2 directly recognizes the lipid A domain of LPS, which triggers MD-2/TLR4-mediated cellular response aimed at eliminating the invaded pathogen. However, excess production of inflammatory mediators is harmful to host tissue and this can cause septic death in extreme cases. MD-2 represents an attractive therapeutic target of inflammatory and immune diseases in human. In particular, eritoran is a synthetic tetraacylated lipid A that binds directly to MD-2 and antagonizes LPS binding to the same site, and it ameliorates various inflammatory conditions due to infection or sterile organ injury. In this review, we outline the recent advances in the structure biology of ligand interaction with MD-2/TLR4, and highlight the MD-2-directed LPS antagonists, which are natural and synthetic chemicals, under development to treat inflammatory diseases.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2011; 133(3):291-8. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five new dimeric ent-kauranoids, biexcisusins A-E (1-5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisus. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Of these, biexcisusins C-E (3-5) are dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoids exhibiting an unprecedented linkage through a nine-membered lactone ring between two ent-kaurane subunits. Compounds 1-5 showed no inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, up to a dose of 50 μM.
    Journal of Natural Products 11/2011; 74(11):2382-7. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the rhizomes and roots of Nardostachys chinensis led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenoids, narchinol B (8) and narchinol C (9), along with 10 known compounds, ursolic acid (1), nardosinone (2), pinoresinol (3), desoxo-narchinol A (4), kanshone B (5), epoxyconiferyl alcohol (6), debilon (7), 4α,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4,4α,5,6,7-octahydronaphthalene (10), p-coumaric acid (11), and isoferulic acid (12). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, which included 1D- and 2D-NMR. Among the isolates, compounds 2, 4, 5, 8 and 9 showed inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production with IC(50) values of 4.6-21.6 μM.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 10/2011; 22(1):706-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polymers have increasingly been recognized for various biological applications in recent years. Here we examined the immunostimulatory activities of the novel poly(aspartic acid) conjugated with L-lysine (PLA). PLA was synthesized by conjugating L-lysine to aspartic acid polymer. PLA-nanoliposomes (PLA-NLs) were prepared from PLA using a microfluidizer. The immunostimulatory activities of PLA-NLs were examined in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs). PLA-NLs increased the number of BM-DCs when added to cultures of GM-CSF-induced DC generation on day 4 after the initiation of cultures. Examination of the phenotypic properties showed that BM-DCs generated in the presence of PLA-NLs are more mature in terms of the expression of MHC class II molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules than BM-DCs generated in the absence of PLA-NLs. In addition, the BM-DCs exhibited enhanced capability to produce cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IL-1β. Allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions also confirmed that the BMDCs were more stimulatory on allogeneic T cells. PLA- NL also induced further growth of immature BM-DCs that were harvested on day 8. These results show that PLA-NLs induce the generation and functional activities of BM-DCs, and suggest that PLA-NLs could be immunostimulating agents that target DCs.
    Immune Network 10/2011; 11(5):281-7.
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthraquinone (PAQ) isolated from the tuberous roots of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) dependent prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.08 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively. In the Western blotting with specific anti-COX-2 antibodies, the decrease of the quantity of PGD(2) was accompanied by a decrease in the COX-2 protein level. But PAQ did not affect COX-1 protein level. In addition, this compound inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dependent production of leukotriene C(4) in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 0.032 μM. These results demonstrate that PAQ has a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. This compound also inhibited the degranulation reaction in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.7 μM. Thus, these results suggest that PAQ may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2011; 34(9):1495-501. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from biodegradable polymers, such as poly (D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), have been studied as vehicles for the delivery of antigens to phagocytes. This paper describes the preparation of antigen-loaded PLGA-NPs for efficient cross-priming. NPs containing a similar amount of ovalbumin (OVA) but different sizes were produced using a micromixer-based W/O/W solvent evaporation procedure, and the efficiency of the NPs to induce the cross-presentation of OVA peptides were examined in dendritic cells (DCs). Cellular uptake and biodistribution studies were performed using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-loaded NPs in mice. The NPs in the range of 1.1~1.4µm in size were the most and almost equally efficient in inducing the cross-presentation of OVA peptides via H-2K(b) molecules. Cellular uptake and biodistribution studies showed that opsonization of the NPs with mouse IgG greatly increased the percentage of FITC-positive cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The major cell type of FITC-positive cells in the spleen was macrophages, whereas that of lymph nodes was DCs. These results show that IgG-opsonized PLGA-NPs with a mean size of 1.1µm would be the choice of biodegradable carriers for the targeted-delivery of protein antigens for cross-priming in vivo.
    Immune Network 06/2011; 11(3):163-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders, including type II diabetes and obesity, present major health risks in industrialized countries. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become the focus of a great deal of attention as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndromes. In this study, we evaluated whether dietary aloe could reduce obesity-induced inflammation and adipogenesis. Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of aloe formula (PAG, ALS, Aloe QDM, and Aloe QDM complex) or pioglitazone (PGZ) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Aloe QDM complex down-regulated fat size through suppressed expression of scavenger receptors on adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) compared with HFD. Both white adipose tissue (WATs) and muscle exhibited increased AMPK activation through aloe supplementation, and in particular, the Aloe QDM complex. Obesity-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and -6) and HIF1α mRNA and protein were decreased markedly, as was macrophage infiltration by the Aloe QDM complex. Further, the Aloe QDM complex decreased the translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytosol in the WAT. Dietary aloe formula reduced obesity-induced inflammatory responses by activation of AMPK in muscle and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in the WAT. Additionally, the expression of scavenger receptors in the ATM and activation of AMPK in WAT led to reduction in the percent of body fat. Thus, we suggest that the effect of the Aloe QDM complex in the WAT and muscle are related to activation of AMPK and its use as a nutritional intervention against T2D and obesity-related inflammation.
    Immune Network 04/2011; 11(2):107-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Baccatin III, a precursor for the semisynthesis of taxol, is widely considered to be an inactive derivative of taxol. Here we show that baccatin III efficiently enhances MHC-restricted antigen presentation in dendritic cells. Baccatin III increased both class I- and class II-restricted presentation of exogenous OVA in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs). Baccatin III also increased class I-restricted presentation of virus-encoded endogenous OVA in BM-DCs. Baccatin III did not affect the phagocytic activity of BM-DCs. The antigen presentation-enhancing activity of baccatin III was examined further with nanoparticles containing OVA and baccatin III. Inclusion of baccatin III to nanoparticles containing OVA greatly enhanced their capacity to induce class I-restricted OVA peptide presentation in DCs both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, nanoparticles containing both OVA and baccatin III were much more efficient in inducing an OVA-specific CTL response in mice compared to those containing OVA only. These results demonstrate that baccatin III exerts immunomodulatory activities in vivo as well as in vitro on the MHC-restricted antigen presentation.
    International immunopharmacology 02/2011; 11(8):985-91. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is an integral feature of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we evaluated whether the aloe component could reduce obesity-induced inflammation and the occurrence of metabolic disorders such as blood glucose and insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of aloe formula (PAG, ALS, Aloe QDM, and Aloe QDM complex) or pioglitazone (PGZ) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Aloe QDM lowered fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with HFD. Obesity-induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, -6, -12, TNF-α) and chemokine (CX3CL1, CCL5) mRNA and protein were decreased markedly, as was macrophage infiltration and hepatic triglycerides by Aloe QDM. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and 11β-HSD1 both in the liver and WAT. Dietary aloe formula reduces obesity-induced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing inflammatory responses but also by inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the WAT and liver, both of which are important peripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The effect of Aloe QDM complex in the WAT and liver are related to its dual action on PPARγ and 11β-HSD1 expression and its use as a nutritional intervention against T2D and obesity-related inflammation is suggested.
    Immune Network 02/2011; 11(1):59-67.
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    ABSTRACT: The bark and/or seed cones of the Magnolia tree have been used in traditional herbal medicines in Korea, China and Japan. Bioactive ingredients such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol and obovatol have received great attention, judging by the large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. Recently, many investigators reported the anti-cancer, anti-stress, anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects as well as toxicities and pharmacokinetics data, however, the mechanisms underlying these pharmacological activities are not clear. The aim of this study was to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports and, describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of Magnolia and/or its constituents.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2011; 130(2):157-76. · 7.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

870 Citations
184.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Chungbuk National University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2002–2013
    • Sahmyook University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Food and Nutrition
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2003
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States