Malcolm R Ogborn

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (84)302.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces indicators of early renal disease progression and the associated elevated cyclooxygenase (COX) levels in young obese rats with obesity-associated nephropathy (OAN). Therefore, renal function and injury and COX and its metabolites were assessed in obese fa/fa Zucker rats with more advanced renal disease. Obese rats at 16 weeks of age were provided with either cis(c)9, trans(t)11 (fa/fa-9,11) or t10,c12 (fa/fa-10,12) CLA for 8 weeks, and compared to lean (lean-CTL) and obese (fa/fa-CTL) rats provided the control diet without CLA. Obese rats displayed significantly reduced renal function and increased renal injury compared to lean rats. In the obese rat groups, glomerular hypertrophy was reduced in both CLA-supplemented groups. While all other measures of renal function or injury were not different in fa/fa-9,11 compared to fa/fa-CTL rats, the fa/fa-10,12 rats had greater renal hypertrophy, glomerular fibrosis, fibrosis, tubular casts and macrophage infiltration compared to the fa/fa-CTL and fa/fa-9,11 groups. The fa/fa-10,12 group also had elevated levels of renal COX1, which was associated with increased levels of two oxylipins produced by this enzyme, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and thromboxane B2. Renal linoleic acid and its lipoxygenase products also were lower in obese compared to lean rats, but CLA supplementation had no effect on these or any other lipoxygenase oxylipins. In summary, supplementation with c9,t11 CLA did not improve more advanced OAN and t10,c12 CLA worsened the renal pathology. Altered production of select COX1 derived oxylipins was associated with the detrimental effect of the t10,c12 isomer.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.09.011 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mixture of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers reduces inflammation and mitigates disease progression in the Han:SPRD-cy rat model of chronic kidney disease. Since cyclooxygenase (COX) activities and prostanoid levels are higher in diseased kidneys in this rat, and dietary CLA can inhibit COX2 and prostanoid production in other tissues, the effects of dietary CLA were investigated. Kidney homogenates from normal and diseased Han:SPRD-cy rats were analyzed for prostanoid levels under various conditions: endogenous levels, steady-state levels (60-min incubations) and produced by COX isoforms. Thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2); TXA(2) metabolite), 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1α) (6-keto-PGF(1α); PGI(2) metabolite) and PGE(2) levels under these conditions were two- to ninefold higher in diseased kidneys. Dietary CLA resulted in ∼32%-53% lower levels of prostanoids produced by total COX and COX2 activities in normal and diseased kidneys and partially mitigated alterations in COX2 protein levels associated with disease. The COX1 protein and activity were higher in renal disease, resulting in increased production of TXB(2) and 6-ketoPGF(1α), but not PGE(2). Dietary CLA had no effect on COX1, however. Disease resulted in up to twofold higher ratios of TXB(2)/6-ketoPGF(1α), TXB(2)/PGE(2) and 6-ketoPGF(1α) /PGE(2), and dietary CLA partially mitigated these increases under several conditions. Elevated levels of renal membrane associated cytosolic phospholipase A(2) in diseased kidneys also were reduced by 50% with CLA feeding. The effects of CLA feeding on COX2 protein levels and activity indicate that the beneficial effect of dietary CLA in this renal disorder is mediated in part via effects on COX2-derived prostanoids.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 09/2011; 23(8):908-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.04.016 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-protein (HP) diets for weight loss remain popular despite questions surrounding overall safety. In a recent study using the pig model, we showed that long-term intakes from whole proteins at 35 % energy (en %) cause moderate renal histological damage. To examine whether this observation may be species specific or more generalisable, the effect of this diet in rats was examined. Using plant and animal whole proteins, 70-d-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to either a normal-protein (NP; 15 en %) or a HP (35 en %) diet for 4, 8, 12 and 17 months. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance and urinary protein levels, and pathology was assessed by examination of glomerular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Rats consuming the HP diet had 17 % higher kidney weights (P < 0·0001), three times higher proteinuria (P < 0·0001) and 27 % higher creatinine clearance (P = 0·0012) compared with those consuming the NP diet. Consistent with this, HP-fed rats had larger glomeruli (P < 0·0001) and more glomerulosclerosis (P = 0·0003) compared with NP-fed rats. The HP diet also resulted in altered levels of free monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P < 0·0001). The histological changes are consistent with those observed in the pig model. In contrast to the pig model, the elevated proteinuria and creatinine clearance observed in the rat model are also usually observed with HP consumption in human subjects. These results indicate that the rat is a useful model for HP effects on the kidney and, along with previous results using the pig model, suggest that long-term intake of high levels of protein may be detrimental to renal health.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2011; 106(5):656-63. DOI:10.1017/S0007114511000730 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soy diet ameliorates renal injury in the Han:SPRD-cy rat. The relative roles of protein, isoflavones and changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status are not determined. We fed male Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes casein (C), high isoflavone soy protein (HIS), alcohol-extracted low isoflavone soy protein (LIS) or mixed soy protein diet (MIS). LIS and MIS were associated with a small decrease in animal weight compared with HIS or C. Soy diets preserved normal renal function and reduced relative renal weight (10.9-14.6 g/kg, cf. 23.6, P < 0.001), scores for cystic change (0.168-0.239, cf. 0.386, P < 0.05), fibrosis (0.013-0.015, cf. 0.032, P < 0.05), tissue oxidized LDL content (0.012-0.021, cf. 0.048, P < 0.05), inflammation (8.5-12.9, cf. 31.2, P < 0.05) and epithelial cell proliferation (6.5-13.8, cf. 26.3, P < 0.05). In post hoc testing, LIS produced a greater reduction in relative renal weight, cystic change and epithelial proliferation, whereas HIS produced a significantly greater reduction in oxidized-LDL. Soy diets were associated with increased hepatic content of 18C PUFA (P < 0.001). LIS and HIS diets were associated with a small increase in body fat content (P < 0.001). Alcohol-extracted soy protein retains its major protective effects in this model with subtle differences attributable to isoflavones.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 10/2010; 235(11):1315-20. DOI:10.1258/ebm.2010.010059 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence of potential antiobesity effects of high-protein (HP) diets, the impact of consuming diets with protein levels at the upper limit of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) on kidney health is unknown. To test whether HP diets affect renal health, whole plant and animal proteins in proportions that mimicked human diets were given to pigs, because their kidneys have a similar anatomy and function to those of humans. Adult female pigs received either normal-protein (NP) or HP (15 or 35% of energy from protein, respectively) isocaloric diets for either 4 or 8 mo. The higher protein in the HP diet was achieved by increasing egg and dairy proteins. Although there were initial differences in body weight and composition, after 8 mo these were similar in pigs consuming the NP and HP diets. The HP compared with NP diet, however, resulted in enlarged kidneys at both 4 and 8 mo. Renal and glomerular volumes were 60-70% higher by the end of the study. These enlarged kidneys had greater evidence of histological damage, with 55% more fibrosis and 30% more glomerulosclerosis. Renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels also were 22% higher in pigs given the HP diet. Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in the HP pigs at 4 mo and continued to be elevated by 35% at 8 mo of feeding. These findings suggest that long-term intakes of protein at the upper limit of the AMDR from whole protein sources may compromise renal health.
    Journal of Nutrition 09/2010; 140(9):1646-52. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.123034 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a case study describing how climate change may affect the health of British Columbians and to suggest a way forward to promote health and policy research, and adaptation to these changes. After reviewing the limited evidence of the impacts of climate change on human health we have developed five principles to guide the development of research and policy to better predict future impacts of climate change on health and to enhance adaptation to these change in BC. We suggest that, with some modification, these principles will be useful to policy makers in other jurisdictions.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 03/2010; 7(3):1018-35. DOI:10.3390/ijerph7031018 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.
    Journal of Nutrition 09/2009; 139(11):2099-105. DOI:10.3945/jn.109.106377 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence in human chronic kidney disease and in animal models indicates the potential utility of dietary soy protein in the treatment of this disorder. A model in which a beneficial soy protein effect has been consistently demonstrated is the Han:SPRD-cy rat model of polycystic kidney disease. Therefore, since dietary soy protein alters renal hemodynamics and prostanoid production, the effects of dietary soy protein on renal prostanoids and related rate-limiting enzymes were examined. Normal and diseased weanling rats were given diets containing casein or soy protein for 7 wk. At 10 wk of age, renal levels of thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2), stable metabolite of TXA(2)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (stable metabolite of PGI(2)) and activities of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2 were elevated in diseased compared to normal kidneys. Soy protein feeding resulted in 49% lower in vitro steady-state levels of TXB(2), and 76% less 6-keto PGF(1alpha) produced by COX1 activity in diseased kidneys, while not altering these parameters in normal kidneys. It also resulted in 47% less TXB(2) and 36% lower 6-keto PGF(1alpha) produced by COX2 activity in diseased kidneys. The relative effect of soy protein feeding on COX2 activity was in the order of TXB(2) > 6-keto PGF(1alpha) > PGE(2). Diseased kidneys had elevated protein and mRNA levels of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and COX1 and lower levels of COX2. Dietary soy protein attenuated the protein levels of cPLA(2) in diseased kidneys, and reduced COX2 mRNA expression in both normal and diseased kidneys. Dietary soy protein therefore reduced the levels of specific renal prostanoids, cPLA(2) and COX enzymes in this model of polycystic kidney disease, a model in which soy protein has been demonstrated to reduce disease progression.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 06/2009; 234(7):737-43. DOI:10.3181/0811-RM-315 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of macroalbuminuria and to describe the clinical and renal pathological changes associated with macroalbuminuria in a population of Canadian First Nation children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective chart review at a single tertiary care pediatric diabetes center, and a case series was constructed. We collected data on microalbuminuria (>or=3 mg/mmol creatinine [26.5 mg/g]) and macroalbuminuria (>or=28 mg/mmol creatinine [247.5 mg/g]), estimated glomerular filtration rate, renal pathology, and aggravating risk factors (poor glycemic control, obesity, hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and exposure to diabetes in utero). We reviewed 90 charts of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes. A total of 53% had at least one random urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >or=3 mg/mmol (26.5 mg/g). There were 14 of 90 (16%) who had persistent macroalbuminuria at or within 8 years of diagnosis of diabetes. Of these 14 subjects, 1 had orthostatic albuminuria and 3 had spontaneous resolution of albuminuria. A total of 10 had renal biopsies performed. There were 9 of 10 who exhibited immune complex disease or glomerulosclerosis, and none had classic diabetic nephropathy. This study suggests that the diagnosis of renal disease in children with type 2 diabetes cannot be reliably determined by clinical and laboratory findings alone. Renal biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis of renal disease in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes and macroalbuminuria. The additional burden of nondiabetic kidney disease may explain the high rate of progression to end-stage kidney failure in this population.
    Diabetes care 03/2009; 32(5):786-90. DOI:10.2337/dc08-1828 · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) slows the progression of disease in models of chronic kidney disease. Because obesity is associated with nephropathy and increased renal cyclooxygenase (COX) levels, the effects of dietary CLA on kidney function, morphology, and COX protein levels in the kidneys of young obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, a model of metabolic syndrome, were examined. In study 1, 6-wk-old fa/fa and lean Zucker rats were given a mixture of CLA isomers (1.5% CLA, wt:wt) or the control diet (CTL) with no CLA for 8 wk. To examine specific isomer effects, study 2 used the same model with the following diets: 0.4% (g/g) cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) CLA; 0.4% trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA; a combination of these 2 isomers (0.4% each); or CTL diets with no CLA. In study 1, fa/fa rats given the CLA mixture had 11% smaller kidney weights and 28% smaller glomeruli, and feed intake and body weight did not differ from the CTL rats. In study 2, diet also did not affect body weights, but fa/fa rats given a diet containing t10,c12 CLA had 7% lower kidney weights, 20% smaller glomeruli, and 39% lower COX-2 protein levels than CTL rats. In conclusion, dietary t10,c12 CLA reduces the enlargement of glomeruli in young obesity-associated nephropathy and is associated with lower protein levels of renal COX-2. Long-term studies with CLA supplementation are required to determine whether these changes would lead to reduction in development of renal disease associated with obesity.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2009; 139(2):285-90. DOI:10.3945/jn.108.101345 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several dietary interventions, including those involving conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), slow progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) when initiated in the early stages of disease in Han:SPRD-cy rats. However, in humans, kidney disease is often undetected until extensive renal injury has developed. The objective of this study therefore was to determine whether initiating dietary CLA intervention in advanced PKD would slow disease progression. Adult male Han:SPRD-cy rats with advanced kidney disease were fed diets with or without 1% CLA for 16 weeks. Disease progression was assessed by serum urea, proteinuria, and creatinine clearance, and morphological and immunohistochemical measurements for pathologic change. Renal injury was lower in the PKD rats given CLA compared to those given the control diet as indicated by a reduction in inflammation (42% less), fibrosis (28% less), oxidative damage (30% less) and proliferating cells (35% less). Diet had no effect on body, kidney, or liver weight, serum urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, or cyst volume. Late dietary intervention with CLA reduced some disease-associated pathologies, but did not alter renal function in adult Han:SPRD-cy rats. The long-term anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative benefits of CLA in advanced kidney disease remain to be determined.
    Nephron Experimental Nephrology 10/2008; 110(2):e44-8. DOI:10.1159/000153244 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory in the Han:SPRD-cy rat model of kidney disease. We used different doses of CLA and examined effects on renal histological benefit, the renal PPARgamma system and hepatic and renal levels of CLA isomers. Male and female offspring of Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes were fed diets with 0, 1 or 2% CLA isomer mixture for 12 weeks before dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, harvest of renal and hepatic tissue for histologic and lipid analysis. Both CLA diets reduced body fat content in both genders but did not change lean body mass. CLA produced a dose dependent reduction in female renal cystic change. CLA reduced fibrosis, but this reduction was significantly less with higher dose in males. CLA reduced macrophage infiltration, tissue oxidized LDL content and proliferation of epithelial cells. Serum creatinine rose significantly in female animals fed CLA diets. CLA treatment did not change PPARgamma activation. A significant negative correlation with renal content of the 18:2 c9,t11 isomer and the sum of histologic effects was identified. CLA reduces histologic renal injury in the Han:SPRD-cy rat model probably inversely proportionate to c9,t11 renal content. Possible functional CLA toxicity at high dose in female animals warrants further exploration.
    Lipids 09/2008; 43(9):783-91. DOI:10.1007/s11745-008-3211-4 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the rising incidence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, obesity-associated nephropathy also has increased. One of the earliest pathologies in the development of this nephropathy is glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertrophy. Dietary soy protein (SP) ameliorates disease progression in several models of renal disease, and vegetable sources of protein, as compared to animal sources of protein, alter renal hemodynamics. Therefore, the effect of dietary SP on early renal disease and prostanoid production was examined in the obese fa/fa Zucker rat. Rats, 6 weeks of age, were given diets containing 17% protein from either SP or egg white (EW) for 8 weeks. Feed consumption and body and kidney weights were significantly greater in fa/fa rats as compared to lean rats. The fa/fa rats also had 139% more proteinuria and kidneys with 43% larger glomeruli. SP feeding did not alter body weights or proteinuria but did result in 6% lower kidney weights (g/100 g body weight) and 16% smaller glomeruli in fa/fa rats. Cyclooxygenase activity as determined by 6-keto prostaglandin F(1alpha) (6-keto PGF(1alpha)) synthesis was lower in fa/fa rats given SP-based diets as compared to those given EW-based diets. Ratios of renal thromboxane (TX) B(2)/6-keto PGF(1alpha) and PGE(2)/6-keto PGF(1alpha) were higher, while TXB(2)/PGE(2) levels were not different in rats given SP diets as compared to those given EW diets, also indicating that dietary SP reduced renal 6-keto PGF(1alpha) levels. These findings suggest that attenuation of early glomerular hypertrophy in young obese fa/fa rats by dietary SP may be mediated by the lower levels of 6-keto PGF(1alpha) since this would be expected to reduce glomerular hyperfiltration.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 05/2008; 19(4):255-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.03.001 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Deepa Sankaran, Jing Lu, Malcolm R Ogborn, Harold M Aukema
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary n-3 fatty acids generally attenuate elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels in disease states. However, models of renal cystic disease (RCD) exhibit reduced renal COX-2 expression. Therefore, the in vivo regulation of COX-2 expression by dietary n-3 fatty acids was examined. In archived tissues from dietary studies, COX-2 protein and gene expression was up-regulated in diseased pcy mouse and Han:SPRD-cy rat kidneys when given diets containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but not those containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), compared to control diets with linoleic acid (LA). The presence of disease was necessary to elicit these effects as COX-2 expression was unaltered by diet in normal kidneys. The effects were specific for COX-2, since COX-1 levels were unaltered by these dietary manipulations in either model. Thus, in RCD, diets containing EPA and DHA but not ALA appear to specifically up-regulate renal COX-2 gene and protein levels in vivo.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 01/2008; 18(12):806-12. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.12.017 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to alter adiposity in some species with varying effects on insulin resistance. The objective of this 8-week study was to investigate the effects of feeding a CLA mixture (1.5%, wt/wt) on adipocyte size, insulin sensitivity, adipokine status, and adipose lipid composition in fa/fa vs lean Zucker rats. The fa/fa CLA-fed rats had smaller adipocytes and improved insulin sensitivity compared with fa/fa rats fed the control diet. Conjugated linoleic acids did not affect select markers of adipose differentiation, lipid filling, lipid uptake, or oxidation. Dietary CLA, compared with the control diet, reduced circulating leptin and elevated fasting serum adiponectin concentrations in fa/fa rats. Adipose resistin messenger RNA levels were greater in fa/fa CLA-fed rats compared with fa/fa control rats. CLA did not markedly alter adipose phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the changes in the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition reflected a lower delta-9 desaturase index of CLA-fed vs control-fed rats. In conclusion, CLA reduced adipocyte size and favorably modified adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in fa/fa Zucker rats.
    Metabolism 01/2008; 56(12):1601-11. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.06.025 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors appear to have beneficial renoprotective effects in most, but not all, renal disease conditions. The objective of our study was to examine the effects of COX-2 inhibition in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease. Four-week-old Han:SPRD-cy rats were given a standard rodent diet containing NS-398 (3 mg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1)) or a control diet without NS-398 for 7 wk. In diseased rats, selective COX-2 inhibition resulted in 18% and 67% reduction in cystic expansion and interstitial fibrosis, respectively, but no change in renal function. NS-398 also ameliorated disease-associated pathologies, such as renal inflammation, cell proliferation, and oxidant injury (by 33, 38, and 59%, respectively). Kidney disease was associated with elevated renal COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities, and NS-398 blunted the increase in COX-2 enzyme activity (as indicated by 21 and 28% lower renal thromboxane B2 and PGE2 levels, respectively). NS-398 reduced urinary excretion of prostanoid metabolites in diseased rats. In summary, COX-2 inhibition attenuated renal injury, reduced the elevated renal COX-2 activity, and ameliorated disease-related alterations in prostanoid production in this rat model of chronic renal disease.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 10/2007; 293(3):F821-30. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00257.2006 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flaxseed's oil and lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), are implicated in attainment of health and treatment of renal injury and osteoporosis. To test for these benefits, weanling Han:SPRD-cy rats (n=171) with or without kidney disease were randomized to diets made with either corn oil or flaxseed oil and with or without SDG for 12 weeks. In females, weight was lower with the SDG diet. In males fed flaxseed oil, lean mass was higher and fat % was lower. In both sexes, fat % was lower in diseased rats. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density were higher in rats fed flaxseed oil and lower in diseased rats, additionally; BMC was lower in SDG-supplemented females. The benefit of flaxseed oil on body composition is sex specific but the effect on bone mass is not. Lastly, reduced weight due to early rat kidney disease is not due to loss of lean body mass.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 05/2007; 76(5):269-75. DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2007.02.001 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary soy protein and flax oil retard kidney disease progression when initiated in the early stages of disease in several experimental models, including the Han:SPRD-cy rat. However, individuals with kidney disease often do not become aware of their condition until injury to the kidney is extensive. The objective of this study was to determine whether initiating these interventions in established disease would alter further progression of renal injury. Two-month-old adult male Han:SPRD-cy rats were given either a flax oil diet (7% flax oil), a soy protein diet (20% soy protein) or a control diet (7% corn oil, 20% casein) for 4 months. Renal disease progression was assessed by examining morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters. Compared to controls, there was 21-24% less staining of proliferating cells, 21-24% less oxidative damage and 13-15% less renal inflammation in kidneys from rats given dietary soy protein and flax oil. Renal cystic growth and fibrosis and serum creatinine levels were not altered by these dietary treatments. Late intervention with dietary soy protein and flax oil reduces some disease-associated pathologies in established renal disease in Han:SPRD-cy rats. The potential benefits of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on ultimate renal disease outcome in the long term remains to be determined.
    Nephron Experimental Nephrology 02/2007; 106(4):e122-8. DOI:10.1159/000104836 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flaxseed derivatives, including both oil and flax lignan, modify progression of renal injury in animal models, including Han:SPRD-cy polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Gender is a significant factor in the rates of progression of many forms of human renal disease, but the role of gender in the response to nutrition intervention in renal disease is unexplored. In this study, male and female Han:SPRD-cy rats or normal littermates were fed either corn oil (CO) or flax oil (FO) diets, with or without 20 mg/kg of the diet flax lignan secoisolaricinoresinol dyglycoside (SDG). Renal injury was assessed morphometrically and biochemically. Renal and hepatic PUFA composition was assessed by GC and renal PGE2 release by ELISA. FO preserved body weight in PKD males, with no effect in females. SDG reduced weight in both normal and PKD females. FO reduced proteinuria in both male and female PKD. FO reduced cystic change and renal inflammation in PKD males but reduced cystic change, fibrosis, renal inflammation, tissue lipid peroxides, and epithelial proliferation in PKD females. SDG reduced renal inflammation in all animals and lipid peroxides in PKD females. A strong interaction between SDG and FO was observed in renal FA composition of female kidneys only, suggesting increased conversion of C18 PUFA to C20 PUFA. FO reduced renal release of PGE2 in both genders. Gender influences the effects of flaxseed derivatives in Han:SPRD-cy rats. Gender-based responses to environmental factors, such as dietary lipid sources and micronutrients, may contribute to gender-based differences in disease progression rates.
    Lipids 01/2007; 41(12):1141-9. DOI:10.1007/s11745-006-5064-z · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary soya protein substitution for casein initiated at weaning slows disease progression in animal models of chronic renal disease. As there is increasing evidence that fetal programming can have a significant impact on kidney physiology and function in offspring, the objective of the current study was to determine whether exposure to soya protein in the diet earlier than weaning would have further benefits. Han:SPRD-cy (cy/+) breeder rats were fed a casein-based or soya protein-based diet 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. Following this maternal period, 3-week-old pups were given either the same or the alternate diet for a 7-week weaning period. Dietary soya protein compared with casein in the maternal or weaning period both independently resulted in less renal inflammation (macrophage infiltration lower by 24% (P=0.0003) and 32% (P<0.001), respectively). When soya protein was given in both feeding periods, the effect was additive. Soya protein substitution for casein resulted in less oxidative damages as indicated by 28% lower oxidized-LDL staining (P=0.013) when present in the maternal period, or in the weaning period (by 56%, P<0.0001). Renal cell proliferation was reduced by 29-33% (P<0.05) in rats given soya protein whether the exposure was during the maternal or weaning period. Soya protein compared with casein in the maternal period also resulted in 33% (P=0.0013) less proteinuria, indicating superior renal function. Dietary soya protein during pregnancy and lactation represents a potential preventative approach in treating for those with congenital kidney diseases.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2007; 97(1):77-84. DOI:10.1017/S0007114507250470 · 3.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

993 Citations
302.66 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Human Nutritional Sciences
      • • Department of Pediatrics and Child Health
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Northern British Columbia
      Prince George, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2000
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1994
    • Government of Manitoba, Canada
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1992
    • Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1987–1991
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada