Tracy Vaillancourt

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (110)174.04 Total impact

  • Irene Vitoroulis, Tracy Vaillancourt
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Aggressive Behavior 11/2014; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differences in how developmental pathways interact dynamically in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely contribute in important ways to phenotypic heterogeneity. This study aimed to model longitudinal reciprocal associations between social competence (SOC) and language (LANG) pathways in young children with ASD.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 11/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    John D Haltigan, Tracy Vaillancourt
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    ABSTRACT: The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian children. Dual trajectory modeling revealed four distinct subgroups of children: (a) those low in both bullying perpetration and peer victimization (low/limited involvement); (b) those with moderately increasing levels of involvement in bullying perpetration and low levels of victimization (bullies); (c) those with low levels of bullying perpetration and moderate/decreasing levels of peer victimization (initial/declining victims); and (d) a victim-to-bully group characterized by increasing bullying perpetration and moderate decreasing victimization. Conditional probability results suggest that a pathway from peer victimization to involvement in bullying is more likely than a pathway from bullying perpetration to peer victimization. Children classified in the victim-to-bully and initial/declining victim groups showed more pervasive elevations in parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology across elementary and middle school and in Grade 9 than individuals with limited involvement in bullying or peer victimization. Most associations with Grade 9 parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology remained even after controlling for initial symptoms of psychopathology. Results are discussed in the context of extant taxonomies of involvement in bullying, the temporal relationship between bullying and victimization, and the increased mental health risk associated with both pure victims and bully-victims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Developmental psychology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates-ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    School Psychology Quarterly 09/2014; 29(3):360-377. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis was used to study the anti-cyberbullying program preferences of 1,004 university students. More than 60% reported involvement in cyberbullying as witnesses (45.7%), victims (5.7%), perpetrator–victims (4.9%), or perpetrators (4.5%). Men were more likely to report involvement as perpetrators and perpetrator–victims than were women. Students recommended advertisements featuring famous people who emphasized the impact of cyberbullying on victims. They preferred a comprehensive approach teaching skills to prevent cyberbullying, encouraging students to report incidents, enabling anonymous online reporting, and terminating the internet privileges of students involved as perpetrators. Those who cyberbully were least likely, and victims of cyberbullying were most likely, to support an approach combining prevention and consequences. Simulations introducing mandatory reporting, suspensions, or police charges predicted a substantial reduction in the support of uninvolved students, witnesses, victims, and perpetrators. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Aggressive Behavior 09/2014; · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Steven Arnocky, Tracy Vaillancourt
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the unique challenges faced by male victims of intimate partner violence. We explored sex differences in perception of male versus female victims, as well as in one’s willingness to identify as a victim, to minimize or conceal victimization, and to seek help for perceived victimization in a sample of 166 (89 female, 77 male) undergraduates. Results indicated that participants held more negative attitudes toward male versus female victims. Males were less likely than females to consider hypothetical aggressive acts perpetrated against them as abusive. When asked to think about how they would respond if they felt “abused” by their partner, male participants reported being more likely to minimize and less likely to disclose and seek help compared to females. Results are discussed in terms of the social emphasis on male dominance and highlight the need to consider the unique challenges faced by male victims.
    Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 08/2014; 23(7):705 - 724.
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed sensory processing differences between 24-month infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), each with an older sibling with ASD, and low-risk infants with no family history of ASD. Sensory processing differences were assessed using the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile, a parent-reported measure. Groups were compared based on 3-year outcomes: (a) high-risk infants subsequently diagnosed with ASD; (b) high-risk infants without an ASD diagnosis; and (c) low-risk infants without an ASD diagnosis. Analyses showed that high-risk infants diagnosed with ASD have more difficulty with auditory processing (i.e., responses to auditory stimuli) and lower registration (i.e., lacking sensation awareness) compared to controls. Thus, behavioral responses to sensory input represent early risk markers of ASD, particularly in high-risk infants.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The latent class structure of autism symptoms from the time of diagnosis to age 6 years was examined in a sample of 280 children with autism spectrum disorder. Factor mixture modeling was performed on 26 algorithm items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised at diagnosis (Time 1) and again at age 6 (Time 2). At Time 1, a "2-factor/3-class" model provided the best fit to the data. At Time 2, a "2-factor/2-class" model provided the best fit to the data. Longitudinal (repeated measures) analysis of variance showed that the "2-factor/3-class" model derived at the time of diagnosis allows for the identification of a subgroup of children (9 % of sample) who exhibit notable reduction in symptom severity.
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 06/2014;
  • Cultural and Contextual Perspectives on Developmental Risk and Well-being, Edited by J A Burack, L A Schmidt, 05/2014: chapter 6: pages 107 - 126; Cambridge University Press., ISBN: 978-1-10700-885-4
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    ABSTRACT: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment (ASD/LI); intellectual disability (ASD/ID) and ASD without LI or ID (ASD/alone). Children with ASD/LI were significantly more socially impaired at baseline than the ASD/alone subgroup, and less impaired than those with ASD/ID. Growth in social competence was significantly slower for the ASD/ID group. Many preschool-aged children with ASD/LI at time of diagnosis resembled "late talkers" who appeared to catch up linguistically. Children with ASD/ID were more severely impaired and continued to lag further behind.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 05/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mental health disorders are common in children with ASD, particularly anxiety and ADHD, but the prevalence and nature of mental health disorders among high-risk younger siblings of children with ASD is not yet known. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to describe mental health disorders in a sample of high-risk younger siblings of children with ASD. Methods: Participants were 31 younger siblings of children with ASD from our Canadian multi-site prospective study who were followed from age 6 or 12 months to 8 years. Mental health diagnoses (other than ASD) were determined using the K-SADS-PL (2009 version), a semi-structured interview designed to assess current and past psychopathology in children age 6–18 years according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, administered to participants' parents. Chi-square tests were used to explore diagnostic rates between groups, and file review provided additional details about the cases with mental health diagnoses. Results: Based on independent, best-estimate clinical diagnoses at age 8 made with the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, and expert clinical judgement using DSM-IV-TR, participants were classified as “non-ASD sibs” (n=17; 47% male) or “ASD sibs” (n=14; 79% male). The groups did not differ in language ability, as measured by the CELF-4 Core Language score (t(26)=-1.36, p=.19). Overall, 29% (n=5) of non-ASD sibs and 64% (n=9) of ASD sibs met criteria for one or more lifetime diagnoses other than ASD, Chi2=3.77, p=.05. Psychopathology primarily involved internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders), externalizing (attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders), and elimination disorders; no participant met criteria for schizophrenia/psychotic, eating, or tic disorders. The most common diagnosis among non-ASD sibs was Specific Phobia (n=3), whereas the most common among ASD sibs was ADHD (n=6). Anxiety disorders were evident in equivalent proportions in both groups (60% non-ASD sibs; 56% ASD sibs), Chi2=1.31, p=.25. Conclusions: This is the first known study of mental health disorders (other than ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD. Consistent with previous studies of comorbidity in ASD, we found high rates of both internalizing and externalizing disorders among ASD sibs. Correspondingly, almost one-third of non-ASD sibs also had mental health disorders, and in both groups multiple disorders were common. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mental health status in younger siblings of children with ASD throughout childhood, whether or not they have ASD themselves.
    2014 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presents a wide range of challenges for which families seek professional support across the lifespan. Parents also experience high levels of stress that is chronic and persistent over time (Zaidman-Zait et al., 2013). Thus, treatments and supports for families of children with ASD should address the needs of the entire family. The provision of family-centered services (FCS) has been shown to be associated with higher levels of parental satisfaction and better parental and child psychosocial well-being in non-ASD populations (King et al., 2004; Rosenbaum et al., 1998). Objectives: This study sought to examine (1) parents’ perceptions of the extent to which the after-school treatment services their children with ASD received were family-centered, over a 12-month period; and (2) the relationship between parents’ perceptions, child service utilization, and parenting stress over a 12-month period, after controlling for child behavior problems. Methods: Data were drawn from the Canadian Pathways in ASD study and included 124 parents and their children with ASD, who were 7-8 years old at T1 (mean age = 7.75 years). Data were available 12 months later (T2) for 82 of these families, when the children were aged 8.7 years, on average. At both time points, parents completed a family demographic survey; the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-20; King et al., 2004); and the Community Program Services and Activities questionnaire (Brayson et al., 2009). At T2, parents completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) and the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL). Teachers also completed the CBCL at T2. Results: Profile analysis results indicated that, at T1, mean scores on the MPOC subscales related to providing general information (M = 4.18) and enabling partnerships with families (M = 4.83) were lower than scores on the other three subscales (i.e., providing specific information about the child, providing coordinated and comprehensive care for the child and family, and providing respectful and supportive care). Paired t-tests indicated that, over a 12-month period, there was a significant increase in scores on the enabling partnerships subscale (t = -2.28, p = 0.02). In the regression analysis, parent and teacher child behavior problem scores on the CBCL at T2 were entered in the first block, and accounted for 23% of the variance in parenting distress (F=17.85, p<.001). The average number of after-school treatment hours at T1 and scores on the two MPOC information-providing subscales were entered in the next two steps, with no significant effects. Scores on the three MPOC subscales addressing supportive care and parent–professional relationships were entered in a final step, and accounted for an additional 14% of the variance in parenting stress at T2. The overall model explained 38% of the variance in parental distress on the PSI-SF at T2 (F = 4.72, p<.001). Conclusions: Service delivery processes make an important contribution to parents’ experiences of stress. Professionals providing interventions to school-age children with ASD should endeavor to build supportive and collaborative relationships with families. Such relationships may help to ameliorate parenting stress over time.
    2014 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Early development in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is increasingly studied using prospective ‘high-risk’ designs, focused on infants at risk of the disorder by virtue of having an affected older sibling. However, the comparability of children with ASD ascertained from these high-risk cohorts versus those ascertained by clinical referral from the community has never been examined, which is relevant to the generalizability of findings across groups. Objectives: To compare the sex ratio, symptom severity and adaptive functioning of preschool children with ASD ascertained from a high-risk longitudinal sibling cohort (HR-ASD) to those diagnosed following referral to a specialized assessment clinic (clin-ASD). Methods: The HR-ASD group (n=94) were identified as part of an ongoing multi-site prospective study of HR siblings. ASD diagnoses were established shortly after the child’s 3rd birthday, using the Autism Diagnostic Interview –Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) and expert clinical judgement based on DSM-IV-TR. The clin-ASD group (n=176) were identified from an inception cohort of clinically referred children with ASD participating in a multi-site longitudinal study. To ensure comparability by age, only children diagnosed at age 3 were included. Categorical variables (sex, language level) were compared using the chi-squared (χ2) test, and continuous variables (e.g., adaptive functioning, indexed by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Schedule – II; VABS-II) were compared using ANOVA. Results: The clin-ASD group was slightly older than the HR-ASD group (41.2+3.9 vs 38.7+3.4 months, F1,262=31.8, p<.001). Sex ratio differed between the HR-ASD (2.2:1) and clin-ASD groups (5.1:1) (χ2(1)=7.51, p=.006). ASD symptoms, indexed by the ADOS severity metric and ADI-R social, communication and behavioral subscales were less severe in the HR-ASD group (all ps<.001; effect sizes 0.54-0.86). There were marked differences in parent-reported language level (on the ADI-R), with phrase speech in 79 of 94 children (84.0%) in the HR-ASD group, compared to 63 of 166 children (38.0%) in the clin-ASD group (χ2(2)=51.5, p<.001). As well, the HR-ASD group had higher levels of overall adaptive functioning, as indexed by VABS-II Adaptive Behavior Composite Standard Scores (78.1+1.4 vs 71.8+10.7, F1,241=16.1, p<.001). ANCOVAs incorporating sex and age (within the narrow range studied) as covariates did not detect any main or interactive effects for these variables, and HR-ASD versus clin-ASD differences remained essentially the same. Conclusions: Compared to clinically referred children with ASD, those ascertained from a HR cohort had less severe ASD symptoms, higher levels of language and adaptive functioning, and proportionately included more girls. These differences may reflect referral and ascertainment biases across the two cohorts, with important implications for generalizability of findings from HR infant studies. As well, children (and particularly girls) with ASD with phrase speech and higher levels of adaptive functioning who are identified by surveillance of high risk cohorts may be underrepresented among clinically referred preschoolers, due to later identification in the community. Surveillance strategies must take account of heterogeneity among children with ASD in order to ensure early identification of children across the spectrum.
    2014 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Many studies have pointed to the importance of early identification and treatment of ASD. However, despite mounting evidence, substantial delays still occur between the time of first expressed concerns, confirmation of diagnosis, and receipt of intervention services. It is well-documented that delays in diagnosis are related to geographic and sociodemographic factors. Fewer studies have examined variables influencing access to services around the time of diagnosis, which is critical for reducing the long-term impact of the condition. Objectives: The present study examined disparities in utilization of services around the time of ASD diagnosis on the basis of family income across settings. We investigated the relationship between household income and service use in five regional referral centers across Canada. Data were available through Pathways in ASD, a longitudinal study following preschoolers who received a diagnosis of ASD between ages 2 and 5 years in Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Edmonton, and Vancouver. Methods: Parents completed a demographics survey and provided information about utilization/receipt of services; the latter information was coded using the Pathways Autism Services Log (PASL; Volden et al., in preparation) around the time of diagnosis. Data were available for 339 families. Overall, around the time of diagnosis, 17.5% of families in the national cohort were not receiving any services (either general community or specialized services). Information about demographics and service use was provided again 6 months later. To explore potential disparities in utilization (no services vs. any) on the basis of income, families were classified into three annual household income categories: lower (below $30,000 CAD), middle ($30,000-$80,000 CAD), and higher (above $80,000 CAD). Results: There was a significant association between service use and income level (Chi-square = 13.8, p = .001, n= 339). Overall, 34.5% of lower income families were not receiving any services around the time of diagnosis vs.16.6% of middle- and 12.0% of higher-income families. We further inspected whether these disparities varied by site, given inter-provincial differences in service funding and delivery models. In three sites (Halifax, Vancouver, Edmonton), almost all families were receiving some service around the time of diagnosis. In the remaining sites, the association between income level and service use was mainly driven by the Montreal site (Chi-square = 12.3, p = 0.002, n= 123), which accounts for approximately a third of the overall national sample. In this site, 71.4% of lower-income families were not receiving any services around the time of diagnosis vs. 37.0% of middle-income and 27.1% of higher-income families. The disparities become narrower but do not completely close in the overall sample 6 months post-diagnosis, with 21.2% of families with lower income still not receiving services relative to 9.6% of middle- and 2.5% of higher income families. Conclusions: These results highlight disparities in utilization of services around the time of diagnosis of ASD. Disparities appear to decrease over time, but do not disappear. This suggests that lower-income families experience more difficulty identifying, accessing, and/or sustaining services, with some regional differences noted. These findings have significant implications for regional/provincial policy makers and service providers.
    2014 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework was employed to examine the relationships between two types of parent stress and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors over a 4-year period, in a sample of 184 mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Parent stress was measured with the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and child behavior was measured with Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5. Across all time points, parent general distress predicted both types of child behaviors, but not vice versa. In addition, there was modest evidence of a bidirectional relationship between parenting distress and both types of child behaviors from 12 months post-diagnosis to age 6. Results are compared to previous work in this area, with implications for early intervention.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 02/2014; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Tracy Vaillancourt, Patricia McDougall
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 09/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a gold standard assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms and behaviours. A key underlying assumption of studies using the ADI-R is that it measures the same phenotypic constructs across different populations (i.e. males/females, younger/older, verbal/nonverbal). The objectives of this study were to evaluate alternative measurement models for the autism symptom phenotype based on the ADI-R algorithm items and to examine the measurement equivalence of the most parsimonious and best fitting model across subgroups of interest. Data came from the Autism Genome Project consortium and consisted of 3,628 children aged 4-18 years (84.2% boys and 75% verbal). Twenty-eight algorithm items applicable to both verbal and nonverbal participants were used in the analysis. Measurement equivalence of the autism phenotype was examined using categorical confirmatory factor analysis. A second-order model resembling the proposed DSM-5 two-factor structure of the phenotype showed good overall fit, but not for all the subgroups. The autism symptom phenotype was best indexed by the first-order, six-factor measurement model proposed by Liu et al. (2011). This model was well fitting and measurement equivalent across subgroups of participants (age, verbal ability and sex). The autism symptom phenotype is adequately characterized by a six-factor measurement model; this model appears to be measurement equivalent across subgroups of children and youth with ASD that differ in age, sex and verbal ability. The two-factor model provides equally good fit for the sample as a whole, but comparison of these two dimensions between subgroups that might differ in terms of age, sex or verbal ability is challenged by lack of measurement equivalence.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 08/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental cascade models linking childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning were examined in a sample of 695 children assessed in Grade 3 (academic only) and Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8. Results revealed several complex patterns of associations in which poorer functioning in one domain influenced poorer outcomes in other areas. For example, a symptom driven pathway was consistently found with internalizing problems predicting future peer victimization. Support for an academic incompetence model was also found- lower GPA in Grade 5, 6, and 7 was associated with more externalizing issues in the following year, and poor writing performance in Grade 3 predicted lower grades in Grade 5, which in turn predicted more externalizing problems in Grade 6. Results highlight the need to examine bidirectional influences and multifarious transactions that exist between peer victimization, mental health, and academic functioning over time.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 08/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Eric Duku, Tracy Vaillancourt
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    ABSTRACT: The Behavior Rating Inventory for Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P) is an instrument designed to assess preschoolers' executive function (EF) in the context of where the behavior occurs. The present study examined the psychometric properties and measurement structure of the BRIEF-P using parents' and teachers' reports on 625 typically developing children aged 25 to 74 months. Results indicated that the BRIEF-P scales had good internal consistency and convergent validity in this sample of children. However, the measurement models examined exhibited poor fit statistics and showed that the EF construct was not unidimensional but rather multidimensional with interrelated subconstructs. Further analyses showed that three of the clinical scales (Emotional Control, Plan/Organize, and Working Memory) were unidimensional and invariant across informant. The other two clinical scales (Inhibit and Shift) were multidimensional and differed by informant. Results support a multidimensional construct of EF and, accordingly, different measurement models are proposed by informant.
    Child Neuropsychology 05/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • 2013 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2013

Publication Stats

844 Citations
174.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Ottawa
      • Faculty of Social Sciences
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Uppsala University
      • Department of Psychology
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2012
    • Clarkson University
      Potsdam, New York, United States
    • Nipissing University
      • Department of Psychology
      North Bay, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2012
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • Brigham Young University - Hawaii
      Kahuku, Hawaii, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Université de Montréal
      • School of Psycho-Education
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007
    • Thompson Rivers University
      Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2004
    • Keele University
      • School of Psychology
      Newcastle under Lyme, ENG, United Kingdom