[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs) belong to the genus Norovirus and are members of the family Caliciviridae. NoVs are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, but progress in understanding the molecular characteristics of NoV and its replication strategies have been hampered by the lack of a cell culture system or a practical animal model, except for murine NoVs. To elucidate the transcription and replication of the NoV genome, a complete genome of a human NoV genogroup II strain was cloned downstream of a T7 RNA polymerase promoter and expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T/17 cells using a T7 vaccinia virus expression system. Bands for a 7.6-kb negative-strand RNA, a 7.6-kb positive-strand genomic RNA, and a 2.6-kb positive-strand subgenomic-like RNA were found in the infected cells. However, recombinant capsid protein (rVP1) and rVP2 were not detected by Western blotting. When a construct containing VP1 and VP2 genes was co-transfected with a full-length construct, the expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) with a buoyant density of 1.271 g/cm3 was observed. We also observed round particles, 20 to 80 nm in diameter, with a buoyant density of 1.318 g/cm3. Our results indicated that NoV RNA was incorporated into the heavier particles. However, further studies are needed to investigate the antigenicity of these particles and to determine if they represent undeveloped VLPs.
Archives of Virology 08/2006; 151(7):1291-308. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0720-9 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses are a major health burden and are responsible for the majority of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. Human noroviruses can be genetically divided into two main genogroups (GI and GII) and subdivided into many genotypes. In this study, stool specimens collected from 12 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Taiwan were screened for viral agents between the 23rd of November 2004 and 9th of March 2005. Noroviruses were detected in all outbreaks. We detected six different norovirus genotypes: GI/11, GI/14, GII/3, GII/4, GII/6, and GII/18. Noroviruses belonging to GII/4 were dominant, 50 of 60 (83%) sequences, and were detected in 10 of 12 outbreaks. Furthermore, the norovirus GII/4 strains were detected throughout Taiwan, demonstrating their widespread distribution. We also found that three outbreaks had noroviruses from multiple genotypes. Our results have shown for the first time that noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis in Taiwan.
Archives of Virology 08/2006; 151(7):1319-27. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0717-4 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human sapovirus (SaV) strains are etiological agents of mild and/or acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. In this study, we describe the development of a novel antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection system that was based on hyperimmune rabbit and guinea pig antisera raised against SaV genogroup I (GI) virus-like particles. The ELISA had 100% specificity, and sensitivities of 60% and 25% when compared to single-round PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Our results have shown the ELISA was useful in detecting SaV GI antigens in clinical stool specimens collected two days after the onset of illness.
Archives of Virology 04/2006; 151(3):551-61. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0630-x · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sapovirus (SaV) is an etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in human and swine. SaV can be divided into five genogroups, GI to GV. Virus-like particles (VLPs) morphologically similar to native SaV have been expressed for GI, GII, GIII and GV strains in insect cells, although only low expression levels were observed for GII strains. In this study, we report the successful expression of SaV GII VLPs using cultured mammalian COS-7 and 293T cells. Our results demonstrated that this mammalian expression system was able to express and form SaV VLPs.
Archives of Virology 03/2006; 151(2):399-404. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0613-y · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human sapovirus (SaV) strains are agents of gastroenteritis. They cannot be grown in cell culture. In this study, constructs containing SaV N- and C-terminal-deleted recombinant capsid proteins (rVP1) were expressed in a baculovirus expression system to allow us to better understand the sequence requirements for the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). Only proteins derived from N-terminal-deleted rVP1 constructs that began 49 nucleotides downstream assembled into VLPs, which included both small and native-size VLPs. Our results were similar to those reported in a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) N- and C-terminal-deleted rVP1 expression study but were distinct from those reported in a norovirus N- and C-terminal-deleted rVP1 expression study, suggesting that SaV and RHDV may have similar expression requirements.
Archives of Virology 01/2006; 150(12):2529-38. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0599-5 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently determined the ORF1 cleavage map of Mc10, a human sapovirus (SaV) strain, as follows: NH2-p11-p28-p35(NTPase)-p32-p14(VPg)-p70(Pro-Pol)-p60(VP1)-COOH. This cleavage was dependent on the viral encoded 3C-like protease. To identify the cleavage site of SaV ORF1, putative p70 (Pro-Pol) and p14-p70 (VPg-Pro-Pol) were expressed as N-terminal GST and C-terminal 6 x His-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, and the expressed products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the efficient proteolytic cleavage occurred between p14 (VPg) and p70 (Pro-Pol), and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the cleavage site was between E(1055) and A(1056). In contrast, the p70 (Pro-Pol) was not further cleaved. We also found that SaV protease cleaved the Q/G site within the rhinovirus 3C protease recognition site. Site-directed mutagenesis in a conserved GDCG motif of the protease completely abolished these proteolytic activities. This is the first report to identify the cleavage site of the SaV ORF1 polyprotein.
Archives of Virology 01/2006; 150(12):2539-48. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0591-0 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae, is an agent of human and porcine gastroenteritis. SaV strains were recently divided into five genogroups (GI to GV). We characterized novel polyclonal antibodies raised against SaV GV virus-like particles (VLPs) by Western blot analysis, and both antibody and antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Our results have indicated SaV GI and GV VLPs were antigenically distinct by Western blotting and ELISAs. These reagents may be useful for genogroup specific detection of SaV.
Archives of Virology 08/2005; 150(7):1433-7. DOI:10.1007/s00705-005-0506-0 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae, is an agent of human and porcine gastroenteritis. SaV strains are divided into five genogroups (GI-GV) based on their capsid (VP1) sequences. Human SaV strains are noncultivable, but expression of the recombinant capsid protein (rVP1) in a baculovirus expression system results in the self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically similar to native SaV. In this study, rVP1 constructs of SaV GI, GII, and GV strains were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The structures of the GI, GII, and GV VLPs, with diameters of 41-48 nm, were morphologically similar to those of native SaV. However a fraction of GV VLPs were smaller, with diameters of 26-31 nm and spikes on the outline. This is the first report of GII and GV VLP formation and the first identification of small VLPs. To examine the cross-reactivities among GI, GII, and GV rVP1, hyperimmune rabbit antisera were raised against Escherichia coli-expressed GI, GII, and GV N- and C-terminal VP1. Western blotting showed the GI antisera cross-reacted with GV rVP1 but not GII rVP1; GII antisera cross-reacted weakly with GI rVP1 but did not cross-react with GV rVP1; and GV antisera reacted only with GV rVP1. Also, hyperimmune rabbit and guinea pig antisera raised against purified GI VLPs were used to examine the cross-reactivities among GI, GII, and GV VLPs by an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA showed that the GI VLPs were antigenically distinct from GII and GV VLPs.
Archives of Virology 02/2005; 150(1):21-36. DOI:10.1007/s00705-004-0406-8 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) infections in hospitalized children with acute sporadic gastroenteritis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Stool specimens collected between December 1999 and November 2000 were examined for NoV and SaV using reverse transcription-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were detected in 72 of 448 rotavirus-negative specimens, counted as part of an overall annual detection rate of 5.4% (72 of 1,339 children). This included four NoV genogroup I (GI) strains and 68 NoV GII strains. Only one SaV GI strain was detected in the rotavirus-negative specimens. Over 73% of the NoV sequences belonged to GII/4 (Lordsdale cluster) and were detected in all months except March. We also detected GII/3 strains (Saitama U201 cluster), a naturally occurring recombinant NoV, between January 2000 and March 2000 but not after this period. Other NoV strains belonging to GI/4, GI/8, GII/1, and GII/7 were also detected but were infrequent. In addition, two almost identical NoV GII strains (strains 026 and 0703) collected six months apart were classified into a new genotype that includes the Mc37 strain, which was previously shown to be a recombinant NoV. During this one-year study, the NoV prevailed at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season. Further epidemiological studies may be necessary to determine whether the GII/4 strains continue to dominant in this region.
Archives of Virology 10/2004; 149(9):1673-88. DOI:10.1007/s00705-004-0345-4 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative autologous blood donation has been suggested for patients with liver disease who are to undergo liver resection. The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the risk factors for increased blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
From January 1996 to December 2000, 206 consecutive patients, 98.5 per cent of whom had underlying liver disease, underwent elective hepatectomy for HCC.
Major hepatectomy was performed in 34 patients (16.5 per cent) and minor hepatectomy in 172 patients (83.5 per cent). The mean blood loss was 410 (median 260) ml. Eleven (5.3 per cent) of the 206 patients received blood transfusion during or after the operation. Operation time (P = 0.004) and central venous pressure (CVP) (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with blood loss of more than 1000 ml. Only preoperative haemoglobin level (P = 0.001) was independently correlated with the need for blood transfusion.
In patients with underlying liver disease, maintaining CVP at a level below 5 cm H2O during parenchymal transection to reduce blood loss is more important than reserving autologous blood before the operation.
British Journal of Surgery 01/2003; 90(1):23-8. DOI:10.1002/bjs.4012 · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The age-related changes in the electrical and physiological properties of the skin were examined in rats at the ages of 5, 10, 21, 90, and 180 d. The resistance of the stratum corneum, the resistance of the viable skin (epidermis and dermis), and the capacitance of the stratum corneum were analyzed from skin impedance data using an equivalent circuit. With development and aging, the resistance of the stratum corneum and the viable skin increased, whereas the capacitance of the stratum corneum decreased. Physiological characteristics such as the thickness of skin strata and the content of lipid and water in the stratum corneum were also measured. The lipid content in the stratum corneum was constant at all ages. The water content in the stratum corneum decreased, and the thickness of skin strata increased with age. Comparison between electrical data and physiological properties suggested that the increase in the resistance of the stratum corneum with aging is primarily caused by the decrease in the water content and that the capacitance of the stratum corneum and the resistance of the viable skin depend on age-related increases in the thickness of skin strata. In conclusion, the age dependency of cutaneous electrical properties may affect the permeation profile of drugs through the skin, and impedance analysis can be used to estimate age-related changes in transdermal drug delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of pH on the skin permeation enhancement of three acidic drugs by the l-menthol-ethanol system was investigated. The total flux of acidic drugs from the system remarkably varied over the pH range 3.0-8.0, and the permeation enhancement factor depended on the system pH and drug. A skin permeation model, which consists of two permeant (unionized and ionized) species, two system (oily and aqueous) phases, and two permeation (lipid and pore) pathways, was developed. The assumptions were made that only the unionized species can distribute to the oily phase and transport via the lipid pathway. The model explained the relationship between the concentration of drug in the aqueous phase and system pH. The skin permeability data were also described by the model and permeability coefficients corresponding to the physicochemical properties of permeant were calculated for the lipid and pore pathways. The model simulation showed that the permeation of acidic drugs occurred from the aqueous phase and the oily phase acted as a reservoir. Whether the total flux increased with increase of pH was dependent on the lipophilicity of drug. These results suggest that the pH of l-menthol-ethanol system should be given attention to elicit the maximum permeation enhancement.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 10/2001; 226(1-2):69-80. DOI:10.1016/S0378-5173(01)00778-5 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma concentration and vasodilating effect after i.v. bolus injection of stereoisomeric organic nitrates were evaluated. Pharmacokinetics of mononitrates was analyzed with a linear one-compartment model. The apparent volumes of distribution were almost identical, but systemic clearances were different among stereoisomers. The concentration data after dinitrate administration could be described based on a two-compartment model with elimination only from the central compartment via metabolism to mononitrate, and then mononitrate-dependent metabolic clearance was estimated. In the vasodilation by mononitrate administered intravenously, the maximum effect was not observed. The reduction of mean arterial pressure from baseline level was related to plasma concentration with a log-linear model. The pharmacological effect following dinitrate dosing was analyzed by a sigmoidal Emax model assuming a simple additive effect of dinitrate and mononitrate. Although almost the same Hill's constant and maximum effect (Emax) values were estimated, the concentrations required to produce 50% of Emax (EC50) differed among stereoisomers. The clearance and EC50 values of stereoisomers with nitrate group at the exo position were generally higher than those with the same group at the endo position. This suggests that the stereostructure of organic nitrates controls the vasodilator potency and duration of action.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2001; 298(1):346-53. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translational initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome RNA occurs via its highly structured 5' noncoding region called the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Recent studies indicate that HCV IRES and 40 S ribosomal subunit form a stable binary complex that is believed to be important for the subsequent assembly of the 48 S initiation complex. Ribosomal protein (rp) S9 has been suggested as the prime candidate protein for binding of the HCV IRES to the 40 S subunit. RpS9 has a molecular mass of approximately 25 kDa in UV cross-linking experiments. In the present study, we examined the approximately 25-kDa proteins of the 40 S ribosome that form complexes with the HCV IRES upon UV cross-linking. Immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies against two 25-kDa 40 S proteins, rpS5 and rpS9, clearly identified rpS5 as the protein bound to the IRES. Thus, our results support rpS5 as the critical element in positioning the HCV RNA on the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TT virus (TTV) has been reported to occur in association with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in patients with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. We examined whether the presence, change of DNA titer, or variation in sequence of this virus is associated with acute or chronic liver dysfunction in Japanese. We detected TTV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers generated from the conserved region of the TTV genome. Direct DNA sequencing of the original N22 region was used to characterize TTV isolates. We detected TTV DNA in 15 (25%) of 60 patients with liver dysfunction. Variants recovered from infected patients formed four genotypes/subtypes, corresponding to G1a, G1b, G2, and G4. Although TTV DNA titers in patients with G2 and G4 were lower than those with G1, TTV was consistently detected regardless of genotype/subtype. TTV infection continued for at least 1 year after normalization of ALT level in patients with acute liver dysfunction. Changes in DNA titer, substitutions of deduced amino acids, and variety of quasispecies of TTV were detected during the observation period, but no significant fluctuation in ALT level was found. We conclude that persistent infection, changes in DNA titer, and variation in sequence of this novel virus are not significantly related to hepatic disorders.
Hepatology Research 04/2001; 19(3):212-224. DOI:10.1016/S1386-6346(00)00106-6 · 2.74 Impact Factor