Kimberly A Mallett

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Maryland, United States

Are you Kimberly A Mallett?

Claim your profile

Publications (72)217.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Despite showing reductions in college student drinking, interventions have shown some inconsistency in their ability to successfully decrease consequences. With the goal of improving prevention efforts, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of consequence-specific constructs, in addition to drinking, that influence students' experiences with alcohol-related problems. The study examined how drinking and protective behaviors mediated the relationships between students' willingness to experience consequences, intentions to avoid them, and four categories of alcohol-related problems (physiological, social, sexual, and academic). Method: First-year college student drinkers (n = 2,024) at a large northeastern university completed surveys during the fall and spring of their freshman year. Results: As expected, different patterns of associations emerged for physiological and nonphysiological consequences. When physiological consequences (e.g., hangover, vomiting) were examined, drinking significantly mediated the effect of willingness on the consequences. Drinking-specific protective behaviors indirectly influenced consequences through drinking behaviors whereas general protective behaviors did not. When nonphysiological (e.g., social, sexual, academic) consequences were examined, drinking and general protective behaviors emerged as significant mediators of the effects of willingness and intentions on the consequences, whereas drinking-specific protective behaviors did not. Conclusions: The results suggest that prevention efforts (e.g., personalized feedback) could be tailored to address specific types of protective behaviors as well as specific types of consequences frequently experienced by college students.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 11/2015; 76(6):862-871. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2015.76.862 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous work examining college drinking tendencies has identified a disproportionately small (20%), but uniquely high-risk group of students who experience nearly 50% of the reported alcohol-related consequences (i.e., the multiple repeated consequences, or MRC, group). With the goal of reducing drinking-related consequences later in college, the current study sought to identify potential MRC group members in their first semester by examining: 1) early-risk subgroups based on analysis of early-risk screening constructs (e.g., age of drinking onset, middle school alcohol exposure, high school drinking and consequences); and 2) their association with MRC criteria early in the first semester of college. Methods: A random sample of 2021 first year college student drinkers (56% female) completed a web-based drinking survey in their first semester on campus. Results: Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed four early-risk subgroups: 1) an Early Onset Risk group who endorsed early age of drinking onset and engaged in heavy middle and high school drinking (10%); 2) a Late Onset Risk group who engaged in weekend drinking and drunkenness and experienced six or more unique consequences as seniors in high school (32%); 3) an Early Onset Limited Risk group who only endorsed early age of onset and middle school drinking (3%); and 4) a Minimal Risk group who did not engage in any early risk behaviors (55%). Members of both the Early and Late Onset Risk groups had significantly higher odds of MRC membership in their first semester of college (9.85 and 6.79 greater, respectively). Conclusions: Results suggest age of onset, middle and high school drinking and drunkenness, and frequency of unique consequences could be particularly useful in brief screening tools. Further, findings support early screening and prevention efforts for MRC membership prior to college matriculation. Keywords: early screening; high-risk college drinking; MRC group; alcohol-related consequences
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/acer.12846 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Importance Melanoma has a high survival rate if it is detected early. Training patients with early-stage melanoma who are at risk of developing new melanomas to perform skin self-examination (SSE) may improve survival.Objective To examine for whom the intervention works best in a sample composed of dyads of patients with melanoma and skin-check partners who received an SSE intervention vs customary care.Design, Setting, and Participants For 494 patients with stage 0 to IIB melanoma (mean age, 55 years; 253 [51.2%] females) and their skin-check partners (mean age, 55 years; 280 [56.7%] females), a randomized clinical trial was conducted in ambulatory care dermatologic offices from June 6, 2011, to April 14, 2014. Follow-up assessments were performed at 12 months. Analysis was performed between March 23 and June 25, 2015.Methods Dyads of 494 patients and their partners were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (395 patients) or customary care (control) (99 patients). The main outcome was patient SSE self-efficacy. Partner motivation to assist with SSE and relationship quality (eg, agreeability, activities with partner, and happiness) were assessed for moderation of the influence of the intervention’s effect on SSE self-efficacy.Results Relationship quality, defined by activities with the partner (β = –0.892, SE = 0.432, t = –2.066; P = .001) and happiness (β = –4.586, SE = 2.044, t = –2.24; P = .001), significantly moderated the intervention effects on patients’ SSE self-efficacy. In contrast, patient-partner agreeability (β = –0.262, SE = 0.148, t = –1.773; P = .09) and partner motivation (β = –0.328, SE = 1.024, t = –0.320; P = .10) did not significantly moderate the intervention effects on patients’ SSE self-efficacy. Differences between the conditions were highest when activities performed with the partner were below average (mean difference, 6.652; P = .001) and when happiness was below average (mean difference, 7.000; P = .001). Although everyone receiving the intervention experienced some benefit, the findings indicate the greatest increases in self-efficacy were observed for those with below-average activities performed with the partner and happiness.Conclusions and Relevance The training of patients with melanoma and their partners in early-detection SSE benefited some more than others. Pairs who have low relationship quality, as determined by activities performed with the partner and happiness, may have received the greatest benefits from the training intervention because they were given an activity to perform together.Trial Registration Identifier: NCT01432860
    JAMA Dermatology 09/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.2819 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Alcohol interventions targeting college students and their parents have been shown to be efficacious. Little research has examined moderators of intervention efficacy to help tailor interventions for subgroups of students. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis of readiness to change, drinking norms, and gender as moderators of an efficacious peer- and parent-based intervention (Turrisi et al., 2009). Students (n=680) were randomized to the combined peer and parent intervention (n=342) or assessment-only control (n=338). Results: The combined intervention reduced peak blood alcohol content (BAC) compared to control. Gender and norms did not moderate the relationship between the intervention and drinking. Significant interactions were found between gender, precontemplation, and intervention. Students in the combined condition with higher precontemplation had lower weekly drinking compared to those with lower precontemplation. This pattern was also found among men for peak BAC and alcohol-related consequences but not among women, indicating a three-way interaction. Conclusion: Interventions may need to consider readiness to change and gender to optimize effectiveness.
    Addictive behaviors 09/2015; 52:75-82. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.028 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students’ decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine 1) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use, and 2) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Method: Students (n = 508) completed web-based baseline (mid-spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Results: Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Discussion: Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization.
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 09/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1037/adb0000113 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Jerod L Stapleton · Rob Turrisi · Kimberly A Mallett · June K Robinson ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin-self examination (SSE) training interventions can increase understanding of melanoma early detection criteria and promote SSE. However, there remains a need to evaluate whether intervention participants can apply such early detection skills to accurately identify concerning, or potentially malignant, pigmented lesions during full body SSE. We assessed SSE accuracy using data from a randomized control trial of a SSE skills training intervention designed to promote partner-assisted SSE among melanoma patients. In the trial, patient-partner pairs were administered the training intervention and performed monthly SSE to identify, evaluate, and track concerning pigmented skin lesions. Patients received a total body skin examination by a dermatologist approximately 4-months post-intervention. SSE accuracy was assessed as the correspondence between the specific concerning pigmented lesions identified by 274 study pairs during SSE with those identified during dermatological examination. We also examined whether lesions that were biopsied during the study were identified prior to biopsy during SSE. Approximately 3 in 4 of the concerning lesions identified by pairs during SSE were also identified during the dermatological exam. There were 81 biopsies performed during the study and pairs had identified 73% of the corresponding lesions during SSE. Of the 5 melanoma detected, 3 were identified during SSE. Melanoma patients and partner taught to do SSE using an evidence-based program developed a high degree of correspondence with the study dermatologist in identifying concerning lesions. This study provides novel evidence that supports the accuracy of full-body SSE for the patient identification of concerning lesions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 06/2015; 24(8). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0218 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Rob Turrisi · Brittney Hultgren · Kimberly A Mallett · Mary Martini · June K Robinson ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early detection of melanoma may improve survival. The present study continued research establishing that in-person training on skin self-examinations (SSEs) was significantly enhanced when delivered to patients with their partners present instead of to patients alone. To examine 3 alternative SSE training approaches that included partners compared with a treatment-as-usual control condition. A randomized clinical trial with 4- and 12-month follow-up visits was conducted at the clinical offices in the ambulatory care area of a hospital. The evaluable population included 494 patients with stage 0 to IIB melanoma and their skin check partners drawn from an electronic medical record melanoma registry and advertisements in large regional newspapers. The study was conducted from June 6, 2011, to April 14, 2014, and analysis was performed between December 4 and December 11, 2014. Pairs of patients and their partners were randomly assigned to (1) in-person intervention, (2) take-home booklet intervention, and (3) treatment-as-usual controls. An additional subgroup of patients received an electronic interactive tablet personal computer intervention. The MoleScore content was comparable across formats and consisted of demonstrations of the ABCDE (assess border, color, diameter, and evolution of pigmented lesions) rule and skills training. Outcomes were self-reported SSE of the total body as well as easy-to-see and difficult-to-see regions at baseline, 4 months, and 12 months. No significant differences in SSEs were observed between the 3 intervention conditions on all of the body areas; results for all 3 intervention conditions were significantly higher than for controls at 4- and 12-month follow-ups (all P < .05). Mean (SD) body areas examined by control pairs (n = 99) at 4 months (0.98 [1.17]) and 12 months (1.82 [1.43]) were significantly less compared with examination by pairs participating in all interventions at 4 months (workbook [n = 159], 2.68 [1.19]; in-person [n = 165], 2.66 [1.11]; and tablet [n = 71], 2.53 [1.17]) and at 12 months (workbook, 2.53 [1.25]; in-person, 2.59 [1.30]; and tablet, 2.34 [1.37]) (F6,674 = 15.60; P < .001; η2 = 0.12). The findings of the research support the sustainability and efficacy at 12 months of partner-assisted SSE interventions for early detection targeting individuals with a history of melanoma. Identifier: NCT01432860.
    06/2015; 151(9). DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0690
  • Kimberly A Mallett · Nichole Scaglione · Racheal Reavy · Rob Turrisi ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported anabrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 05/2015; 76(3):389-396. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2015.76.389 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: College is a time of increased risk for problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. The comorbidity of these conditions is well documented, but is less well understood, with few interventions designed to prevent or reduce the related consequences. The current study evaluated a web-based personalized intervention for students (N=311) who reported an AUDIT score of 8 or more, a BDI-II score of 14 or more, and reported drinking four (women) or five (men) or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past month. Method: Invited participants were randomly selected from all enrolled undergraduates at a large, public, Pacific Northwestern University. Participants completed a screening and baseline assessment, and those who met study eligibility criteria were randomized to one of four conditions (alcohol only, depressed mood only, integrated, and referral-only control). Follow-up occurred one-month post-intervention. Results: While no main effects for the interventions were found, there were moderation effects, such that students in the alcohol only and integrated conditions who had lower levels of depressed mood or alcohol-related problems at baseline showed greater reductions in alcohol-related problems at follow-up compared to students in the control condition. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive Behaviors 11/2014; 42C:36-43. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.030 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly A Mallett · Sarah Ackerman · Rob Turrisi · June K Robinson ·

    JAMA Dermatology 10/2014; 151(2). DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.3092 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Melanoma can metastasize but is often successfully treated when discovered in an early stage. Melanoma patients and their skin check partners can learn skin self-examination (SSE) skills and these skills can be improved by practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of fidelity with which educational in-person SSE intervention can be delivered by trained research coordinators to patients at risk of developing another melanoma and their skin check partners. The in-person intervention was performed in two iterations. In phase 1 (2006-2008), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention using a written script. In phase 2 (2011-2013), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention with a PowerPoint aid. Each research coordinator was individually counseled by one of the authors (KM) to insure standardization and enhance fidelity of intervention delivery. Phase 1 and Phase 2 were compared on 16 fidelity components. Further, Phase 2 fidelity was assessed by comparing mean scores of fidelity across the five research coordinators who delivered the intervention. Phase 2, which utilized a PowerPoint aid, was delivered with a higher degree of fidelity compared to phase 1with four fidelity components with significantly higher fidelity than Phase 1: 1) Explained details of melanoma, χ (2) (1, n = 199)= 96.31, p < .001, 2) Discussed when to call doctor, χ(2) (1, n = 199) = 53.68, p < .001 3) Explained assessment at month 1, χ(2) (1, n = 199)= 12.39, p < .01, and 4) Explained assessment at month 2, χ(2) (1, n = 199) = 117.75, p < .001. Further, no significant differences on mean fidelity were found across research coordinators in Phase 2. When using the PowerPoint aide, the research coordinators delivered the intervention with high fidelity (all scores >14) and there were no mean differences in fidelity across research coordinators, indicating consistency in fidelity. This can be attributed to the standardization and cueing that the PowerPoint program offered. Supervision was also a key component in establishing and maintaining fidelity of the patient educational process. This method of intervention delivery enables trained healthcare professionals to deliver an educational intervention in an effective, consistent manner.
    09/2014; 4(2):253-258. DOI:10.5430/jnep.v4n2p253
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consequences among college students are a significant public health concern. Although drinking is associated with negative outcomes, studies have demonstrated that alcohol-related consequences are multi-determined and routinely influenced by additional factors. The current NIAAA-funded longitudinal study takes an innovative theoretical approach by examining the relationships between both consequence-specific constructs and alcohol consumption in predicting alcohol-related problems. METHOD: Participants were 2024 first-year student drinkers at a large public university from two waves of a prospective design. First, the study examined whether alcohol consumption, drinking- and consequence-specific protective behaviors mediated the relationship between consequence-specific predictors (willingness to experience consequences, intentions to avoid consequences) and physiological (e.g., vomiting) or non-physiological (e.g., sexual) consequences. Second, distal intra- and inter-personal consequence-specific constructs (e.g., consequence expectancies; perceived norms about consequences; etc.) were examined as correlates of willingness to experience consequences and intentions to avoid them. RESULTS: Findings revealed differences depending on whether the outcomes were physiological or non-physiological consequences. First, consequence-specific protective behaviors and drinking significantly mediated the effects of willingness and intentions on non-physiological consequences. Second, drinking protective behaviors mediated these relationships only for physiological consequences. Finally, results of analyses evaluating distal predictors of consequences, revealed willingness and intentions were significantly associated with consequence specific expectancies, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that willingness to experience consequences and intentions to avoid them are central to predicting the protective behaviors directly related to experiencing consequences over and above drinking. Further, distal predictors are promising targets for future intervention efforts geared toward changing the constructs of willingness to experience and intentions to avoid consequences. Together, the results provide additional support for integrating consequence-specific constructs into alcohol interventions to improve their efficacy at reducing the harmful effects of college student drinking behaviors.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
  • Source
    Michael J. Cleveland · Racheal Reavy · Kimberly A. Mallett · Rob Turrisi · Helene R. White ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring's alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother's heavy alcohol use on their offspring's alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18 and 22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers' and daughters' drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults' heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities.
    Addictive behaviors 05/2014; 39(5):869–878. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.01.028 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Miesha Marzell · Rob Turrisi · Anne E. Ray · Kimberly A. Mallett · Nichole Marie Scaglione ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts.
    Addiction Research and Theory 04/2014; 22(2):91-97. DOI:10.3109/16066359.2013.804510 · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The first semester of college has been associated with increased drinking and sexual risk. However, it remains unclear why some drinking occasions result in experiencing negative sexual consequences whereas others do not. The current study used a diary-based approach to assess the event-level effect of alcohol use and previous adult/adolescent sexual victimization (PSV) on experiencing negative sex-related consequences in first-year college women. Method: Participants (N=120) provided repeated measures of weekend drinking and sex-related consequences on the Friday and Saturday nights of six different weekends over the course of their first semester, resulting in 12 measured drinking occasions. A multilevel model was used to assess both between- and within-person effects of alcohol use and between-person effects of PSV on the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related sexual consequences. Results: Findings revealed an important within-person association, such that every drink consumed above one's mean was associated with a 13% increase in the likelihood of experiencing negative consequences. In addition, PSV had a significant main effect on experiencing negative sex-related consequences. Individuals with PSV experienced nearly 2.5 times more sexual consequences than individuals without PSV. Conclusions: These results yield important implications for prevention, particularly with respect to limiting "above average" alcohol consumption among women with a history of sexual victimization.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2014; 75(2):241-8. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2014.75.241 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Brittney A Hultgren · Michael J Cleveland · Rob Turrisi · Kimberly A Mallett ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined how well students estimate their overall drinker type and the relation between the accuracy of this estimation with alcohol-related consequences. The study also explored the association between psychosocial alcohol variables and underestimation or overestimation of drinker type. College students (n = 1,895) completed questionnaires at baseline (precollege matriculation) assessing self-reported drinker types (SI), protective and risky drinking behaviors, drinking expectancies, attitudes, and norms. Postbaseline assessment occurred during the fall semester sophomore year and included the number and type of alcohol consequences experienced during the previous year. Students' SIs were coded as accurate, overestimated, or underestimated relative to their empirically derived latent class analytic drinker class. The association between drinker type accuracy and consequences and membership in the high-risk Multiple and Repeated Consequence group was assessed, as was the relationship between the psychosocial alcohol variables and accuracy. Eighteen percent of students underestimated and 10% overestimated their drinker type. Students who under- or overestimated their drinker type reported experiencing more consequences, even after controlling for drinking. Increases in positive alcohol expectancies, protective and risky drinking behaviors, and descriptive peer norms were positively associated with underestimation of drinker type. Only protective and risky drinking behaviors were associated with overestimation. This study underscores the importance of accurate estimation of drinker type and the risk of experiencing alcohol consequences. Future research and intervention strategies are discussed.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1111/acer.12351 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early detection of melanoma improves survival. Since many melanoma patients and their spouses seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine the efficacy of teaching at-risk melanoma patients and their skin check partner how to conduct skin self-examinations (SSEs). Internet-based health behavior interventions have proven efficacious in creating behavior change in patients to better prevent, detect, or cope with their health issues. The efficacy of electronic interactive SSE educational intervention provided on a tablet device has not previously been determined. The electronic interactive educational intervention was created to develop a scalable, effective intervention to enhance performance and accuracy of SSE among those at-risk to develop melanoma. The intervention in the office was conducted using one of the following three methods: (1) in-person through a facilitator, (2) with a paper workbook, or (3) with a tablet device used in the clinical office. Differences related to method of delivery were elucidated by having the melanoma patient and their skin check partner provide a self-report of their confidence in performing SSE and take a knowledge-based test immediately after receiving the intervention. The three interventions used 9 of the 26 behavioral change techniques defined by Abraham and Michie to promote planning of monthly SSE, encourage performing SSE, and reinforce self-efficacy by praising correct responses to knowledge-based decision making and offering helpful suggestions to improve performance. In creating the electronic interactive SSE educational intervention, the educational content was taken directly from both the scripted in-person presentation delivered with Microsoft PowerPoint by a trained facilitator and the paper workbook training arms of the study. Enrollment totaled 500 pairs (melanoma patient and their SSE partner) with randomization of 165 pairs to the in-person, 165 pairs to the workbook, and 70 pairs to electronic interactive SSE educational intervention. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between groups in age, education, or income. The tablet usability survey given to the first 30 tablet pairs found that, overall, participants found the electronic interactive intervention easy to use and that the video of the doctor-patient-partner dialogue accompanying the dermatologist's examination was particularly helpful in understanding what they were asked to do for the study. The interactive group proved to be just as good as the workbook group in self-confidence of scoring moles, and just as good as both the workbook and the in-person intervention groups in self-confidence of monitoring their moles. While the in-person intervention performed significantly better on a skill-based quiz, the electronic interactive group performed significantly better than the workbook group. The electronic interactive and in-person interventions were more efficient (30 minutes), while the workbook took longer (45 minutes). This study suggests that an electronic interactive intervention can deliver skills training comparable to other training methods, and the experience can be accommodated during the customary outpatient office visit with the physician. Further testing of the electronic interactive intervention's role in the anxiety of the pair and pair-discovered melanomas upon self-screening will elucidate the impact of these tools on outcomes in at-risk patient populations. NCT01013844; (Archived by WebCite at
    Journal of Medical Internet Research 01/2014; 16(1):e7. DOI:10.2196/jmir.2883 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research on college drinking has paid little attention to Latino students. Social development models (Catalano, Hawkins, & Miller, 1992) suggest that protective influences in one domain (e.g., mothers) can offset negative influences from other domains (e.g., peers) though this possibility has not been explored with respect to Latino college student drinking. The present study had two aims: 1) to determine whether four specific maternal influences (monitoring, positive communication, permissiveness, and modeling) and peer descriptive norms were associated with college drinking and consequences among Latino students, and 2) to determine whether maternal influences moderated the effect of peer norms on college drinking and consequences. A sample of 362 first-year students (69.9% female) completed an online assessment regarding their mothers' monitoring, positive communication, permissiveness, and modeling, peer descriptive norms, and drinking and related consequences. Main effects and two-way interactions (mother×peer) were assessed using separate hierarchical regression models for three separate outcomes: peak drinking, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Maternal permissiveness and peer descriptive norms were positively associated with drinking and consequences. Maternal communication was negatively associated with consequences. Findings indicate that previously identified maternal and peer influences are also relevant for Latino students and highlight future directions that would address the dearth of research in this area.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2013; 39(1). DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.007 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Studies show that emerging adults who do not obtain postsecondary education are at greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders later in life relative to their college-attending peers. Research examining constructs amenable to change within this population is necessary to inform intervention efforts. Thus, the current study aimed to identify psychosocial correlates of risky alcohol use for noncollege emerging adults. A secondary goal was to examine whether gender moderated the relationships between the psychosocial constructs and alcohol use. Method: Participants were a nationally representative sample of noncollege emerging adults (18-22 years old) who reported using alcohol in the past year, recruited through an established Internet panel (N = 209; 125 women). A path model was used to examine the relationship between theoretically derived constructs (expectancies, attitudes, normative beliefs) and risky (peak) drinking. A second model examined a multigroup solution to assess moderating effects of gender. Results: The full-sample model revealed significant associations between attitudes toward drinking and risky drinking. The model assessing gender differences revealed association between normative beliefs and drinking for women but not men, whereas attitudes were significantly associated with risky drinking for both men and women. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of attitudes and, for women, descriptive norms in the etiology of risky drinking among noncollege emerging adults, which emphasizes their potential utility in the development and adaptation of interventions for this at-risk population.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 09/2013; 74(5):765-9. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.765 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption.
    Prevention Science 08/2013; 15(5). DOI:10.1007/s11121-013-0430-6 · 2.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
217.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • • Prevention Research Center
      • • Department of Biobehavioral Health
      University Park, Maryland, United States
    • Evergreen State College
      Olympia, Washington, United States
  • 2014
    • York College of PA
      SCE, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008-2013
    • William Penn University
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.
      Lexington, Massachusetts, United States