Kimberly A Mallett

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Maryland, United States

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Publications (61)163.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: College is a time of increased risk for problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. The comorbidity of these conditions is well documented, but is less well understood, with few interventions designed to prevent or reduce the related consequences. The current study evaluated a web-based personalized intervention for students (N=311) who reported an AUDIT score of 8 or more, a BDI-II score of 14 or more, and reported drinking four (women) or five (men) or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past month. Method: Invited participants were randomly selected from all enrolled undergraduates at a large, public, Pacific Northwestern University. Participants completed a screening and baseline assessment, and those who met study eligibility criteria were randomized to one of four conditions (alcohol only, depressed mood only, integrated, and referral-only control). Follow-up occurred one-month post-intervention. Results: While no main effects for the interventions were found, there were moderation effects, such that students in the alcohol only and integrated conditions who had lower levels of depressed mood or alcohol-related problems at baseline showed greater reductions in alcohol-related problems at follow-up compared to students in the control condition. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive behaviors. 11/2014; 42C:36-43.
  • JAMA Dermatology 10/2014; · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma can metastasize but is often successfully treated when discovered in an early stage. Melanoma patients and their skin check partners can learn skin self-examination (SSE) skills and these skills can be improved by practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of fidelity with which educational in-person SSE intervention can be delivered by trained research coordinators to patients at risk of developing another melanoma and their skin check partners. The in-person intervention was performed in two iterations. In phase 1 (2006-2008), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention using a written script. In phase 2 (2011-2013), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention with a PowerPoint aid. Each research coordinator was individually counseled by one of the authors (KM) to insure standardization and enhance fidelity of intervention delivery. Phase 1 and Phase 2 were compared on 16 fidelity components. Further, Phase 2 fidelity was assessed by comparing mean scores of fidelity across the five research coordinators who delivered the intervention. Phase 2, which utilized a PowerPoint aid, was delivered with a higher degree of fidelity compared to phase 1with four fidelity components with significantly higher fidelity than Phase 1: 1) Explained details of melanoma, χ (2) (1, n = 199)= 96.31, p < .001, 2) Discussed when to call doctor, χ(2) (1, n = 199) = 53.68, p < .001 3) Explained assessment at month 1, χ(2) (1, n = 199)= 12.39, p < .01, and 4) Explained assessment at month 2, χ(2) (1, n = 199) = 117.75, p < .001. Further, no significant differences on mean fidelity were found across research coordinators in Phase 2. When using the PowerPoint aide, the research coordinators delivered the intervention with high fidelity (all scores >14) and there were no mean differences in fidelity across research coordinators, indicating consistency in fidelity. This can be attributed to the standardization and cueing that the PowerPoint program offered. Supervision was also a key component in establishing and maintaining fidelity of the patient educational process. This method of intervention delivery enables trained healthcare professionals to deliver an educational intervention in an effective, consistent manner.
    Journal of nursing education and practice. 09/2014; 4(2):253-258.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consequences among college students are a significant public health concern. Although drinking is associated with negative outcomes, studies have demonstrated that alcohol-related consequences are multi-determined and routinely influenced by additional factors. The current NIAAA-funded longitudinal study takes an innovative theoretical approach by examining the relationships between both consequence-specific constructs and alcohol consumption in predicting alcohol-related problems. METHOD: Participants were 2024 first-year student drinkers at a large public university from two waves of a prospective design. First, the study examined whether alcohol consumption, drinking- and consequence-specific protective behaviors mediated the relationship between consequence-specific predictors (willingness to experience consequences, intentions to avoid consequences) and physiological (e.g., vomiting) or non-physiological (e.g., sexual) consequences. Second, distal intra- and inter-personal consequence-specific constructs (e.g., consequence expectancies; perceived norms about consequences; etc.) were examined as correlates of willingness to experience consequences and intentions to avoid them. RESULTS: Findings revealed differences depending on whether the outcomes were physiological or non-physiological consequences. First, consequence-specific protective behaviors and drinking significantly mediated the effects of willingness and intentions on non-physiological consequences. Second, drinking protective behaviors mediated these relationships only for physiological consequences. Finally, results of analyses evaluating distal predictors of consequences, revealed willingness and intentions were significantly associated with consequence specific expectancies, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that willingness to experience consequences and intentions to avoid them are central to predicting the protective behaviors directly related to experiencing consequences over and above drinking. Further, distal predictors are promising targets for future intervention efforts geared toward changing the constructs of willingness to experience and intentions to avoid consequences. Together, the results provide additional support for integrating consequence-specific constructs into alcohol interventions to improve their efficacy at reducing the harmful effects of college student drinking behaviors.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts.
    Addiction Research and Theory 04/2014; 22(2):91-97. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The first semester of college has been associated with increased drinking and sexual risk. However, it remains unclear why some drinking occasions result in experiencing negative sexual consequences whereas others do not. The current study used a diary-based approach to assess the event-level effect of alcohol use and previous adult/adolescent sexual victimization (PSV) on experiencing negative sex-related consequences in first-year college women. Method: Participants (N = 120) provided repeated measures of weekend drinking and sex-related consequences on the Friday and Saturday nights of six different weekends over the course of their first semester, resulting in 12 measured drinking occasions. A multilevel model was used to assess both between- and within-person effects of alcohol use and between-person effects of PSV on the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related sexual consequences. Results: Findings revealed an important within-person association, such that every drink consumed above one's mean was associated with a 13% increase in the likelihood of experiencing negative consequences. In addition, PSV had a significant main effect on experiencing negative sex-related consequences. Individuals with PSV experienced nearly 2.5 times more sexual consequences than individuals without PSV. Conclusions: These results yield important implications for prevention, particularly with respect to limiting "above average" alcohol consumption among women with a history of sexual victimization. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 241-248, 2014).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2014; 75(2):241-8. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined how well students estimate their overall drinker type and the relation between the accuracy of this estimation with alcohol-related consequences. The study also explored the association between psychosocial alcohol variables and underestimation or overestimation of drinker type. College students (n = 1,895) completed questionnaires at baseline (precollege matriculation) assessing self-reported drinker types (SI), protective and risky drinking behaviors, drinking expectancies, attitudes, and norms. Postbaseline assessment occurred during the fall semester sophomore year and included the number and type of alcohol consequences experienced during the previous year. Students' SIs were coded as accurate, overestimated, or underestimated relative to their empirically derived latent class analytic drinker class. The association between drinker type accuracy and consequences and membership in the high-risk Multiple and Repeated Consequence group was assessed, as was the relationship between the psychosocial alcohol variables and accuracy. Eighteen percent of students underestimated and 10% overestimated their drinker type. Students who under- or overestimated their drinker type reported experiencing more consequences, even after controlling for drinking. Increases in positive alcohol expectancies, protective and risky drinking behaviors, and descriptive peer norms were positively associated with underestimation of drinker type. Only protective and risky drinking behaviors were associated with overestimation. This study underscores the importance of accurate estimation of drinker type and the risk of experiencing alcohol consequences. Future research and intervention strategies are discussed.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early detection of melanoma improves survival. Since many melanoma patients and their spouses seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine the efficacy of teaching at-risk melanoma patients and their skin check partner how to conduct skin self-examinations (SSEs). Internet-based health behavior interventions have proven efficacious in creating behavior change in patients to better prevent, detect, or cope with their health issues. The efficacy of electronic interactive SSE educational intervention provided on a tablet device has not previously been determined. The electronic interactive educational intervention was created to develop a scalable, effective intervention to enhance performance and accuracy of SSE among those at-risk to develop melanoma. The intervention in the office was conducted using one of the following three methods: (1) in-person through a facilitator, (2) with a paper workbook, or (3) with a tablet device used in the clinical office. Differences related to method of delivery were elucidated by having the melanoma patient and their skin check partner provide a self-report of their confidence in performing SSE and take a knowledge-based test immediately after receiving the intervention. The three interventions used 9 of the 26 behavioral change techniques defined by Abraham and Michie to promote planning of monthly SSE, encourage performing SSE, and reinforce self-efficacy by praising correct responses to knowledge-based decision making and offering helpful suggestions to improve performance. In creating the electronic interactive SSE educational intervention, the educational content was taken directly from both the scripted in-person presentation delivered with Microsoft PowerPoint by a trained facilitator and the paper workbook training arms of the study. Enrollment totaled 500 pairs (melanoma patient and their SSE partner) with randomization of 165 pairs to the in-person, 165 pairs to the workbook, and 70 pairs to electronic interactive SSE educational intervention. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between groups in age, education, or income. The tablet usability survey given to the first 30 tablet pairs found that, overall, participants found the electronic interactive intervention easy to use and that the video of the doctor-patient-partner dialogue accompanying the dermatologist's examination was particularly helpful in understanding what they were asked to do for the study. The interactive group proved to be just as good as the workbook group in self-confidence of scoring moles, and just as good as both the workbook and the in-person intervention groups in self-confidence of monitoring their moles. While the in-person intervention performed significantly better on a skill-based quiz, the electronic interactive group performed significantly better than the workbook group. The electronic interactive and in-person interventions were more efficient (30 minutes), while the workbook took longer (45 minutes). This study suggests that an electronic interactive intervention can deliver skills training comparable to other training methods, and the experience can be accommodated during the customary outpatient office visit with the physician. Further testing of the electronic interactive intervention's role in the anxiety of the pair and pair-discovered melanomas upon self-screening will elucidate the impact of these tools on outcomes in at-risk patient populations. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01013844; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01013844 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LvGGSTKK).
    Journal of Medical Internet Research 01/2014; 16(1):e7. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring's alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother's heavy alcohol use on their offspring's alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18 and 22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers' and daughters' drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults' heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities.
    Addictive behaviors 01/2014; 39(5):869–878. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on college drinking has paid little attention to Latino students. Social development models (Catalano, Hawkins, & Miller, 1992) suggest that protective influences in one domain (e.g., mothers) can offset negative influences from other domains (e.g., peers) though this possibility has not been explored with respect to Latino college student drinking. The present study had two aims: 1) to determine whether four specific maternal influences (monitoring, positive communication, permissiveness, and modeling) and peer descriptive norms were associated with college drinking and consequences among Latino students, and 2) to determine whether maternal influences moderated the effect of peer norms on college drinking and consequences. A sample of 362 first-year students (69.9% female) completed an online assessment regarding their mothers' monitoring, positive communication, permissiveness, and modeling, peer descriptive norms, and drinking and related consequences. Main effects and two-way interactions (mother×peer) were assessed using separate hierarchical regression models for three separate outcomes: peak drinking, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Maternal permissiveness and peer descriptive norms were positively associated with drinking and consequences. Maternal communication was negatively associated with consequences. Findings indicate that previously identified maternal and peer influences are also relevant for Latino students and highlight future directions that would address the dearth of research in this area.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Studies show that emerging adults who do not obtain postsecondary education are at greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders later in life relative to their college-attending peers. Research examining constructs amenable to change within this population is necessary to inform intervention efforts. Thus, the current study aimed to identify psychosocial correlates of risky alcohol use for noncollege emerging adults. A secondary goal was to examine whether gender moderated the relationships between the psychosocial constructs and alcohol use. Method: Participants were a nationally representative sample of noncollege emerging adults (18-22 years old) who reported using alcohol in the past year, recruited through an established Internet panel (N = 209; 125 women). A path model was used to examine the relationship between theoretically derived constructs (expectancies, attitudes, normative beliefs) and risky (peak) drinking. A second model examined a multigroup solution to assess moderating effects of gender. Results: The full-sample model revealed significant associations between attitudes toward drinking and risky drinking. The model assessing gender differences revealed association between normative beliefs and drinking for women but not men, whereas attitudes were significantly associated with risky drinking for both men and women. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of attitudes and, for women, descriptive norms in the etiology of risky drinking among noncollege emerging adults, which emphasizes their potential utility in the development and adaptation of interventions for this at-risk population. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 765-769, 2013).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 09/2013; 74(5):765-9. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption.
    Prevention Science 08/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Caitlin C Abar, Robert J Turrisi, Kimberly A Mallett
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Participants were surveyed five times from the summer before college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern United States. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents' alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent-child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) - highest parent-teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) - highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) - poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) - highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak blood alcohol content, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 08/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous research identified a high-risk subgroup of students who experience high levels of multiple and repeated alcohol-related consequences (MRC group). Although they consist of 20% of the population and account for nearly 50% of the consequences, the MRC group has not been the focus of etiological or prevention research. The present study identified pre-college profiles of psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and examined the association between these profiles and membership in the MRC group. Method: The sample consisted of 370 first-year college students (57% female) recruited in the summer before college. Participants reported on typical drinking, alcohol-related risky and protective drinking behaviors, alcohol beliefs, descriptive and injunctive norms, and alcohol-related consequences at three time points over 15 months. Results: Latent profile analysis identified four baseline student profiles: extreme-consequence drinkers, high-risk drinkers, protective drinkers, and nondrinkers. Logistic regression revealed that, when the high-risk drinkers were used as the reference group, both the protective drinkers and the nondrinkers were significantly less likely to be members of the MRC group, whereas the extreme-consequence drinkers were at increased odds of being in the MRC group, even after first-year drinking was controlled for. Student profiles and previously identified parental profiles both had unique main effects on MRC group membership, but there was no significant interaction between parental and student profiles. Conclusions: Findings suggest ways that brief interventions can be tailored for students and parents in relation to the MRC group. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 542-551, 2013).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 07/2013; 74(4):542-51. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parent-based interventions (PBIs) are an effective strategy to reduce problematic drinking among first-year college students. The current study examined the extent to which student-based characteristics, derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior, moderated 3 PBI conditions: (i) prior to college matriculation (PCM); (ii) PCM with a booster during the fall semester; and (iii) after college matriculation. The moderator variables included injunctive and descriptive peer norms about alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol use. METHODS: Using data from a randomized control trial delivered to 1,900 incoming college students, we examined differential treatment effects within 4 types of baseline student drinkers: (i) nondrinkers; (ii) weekend light drinkers (WLD); (iii) weekend heavy episodic drinkers; and (iv) heavy drinkers. The outcome variable was based on the transitions in drinking that occurred between the summer prior to college enrollment and the end of the first fall semester and distinguished between students who transitioned to 1 of the 2 risky drinking classes. RESULTS: The results indicated that injunctive norms (but not descriptive norms or attitudes) moderated the differential effects of the PBI with strongest effects for students whose parents received the booster. Differential effects also depended on baseline drinking class and were most pronounced among WLDs who were deemed "high-risk" in terms of injunctive peer norms. CONCLUSIONS: Parental influence can remain strong for young adults who are transitioning to college environments, even among students with relatively high peer influence to drink alcohol. Thus, the PBI represents an effective tool to prevent escalation of alcohol use during the first year of college, when risk is highest and patterns of alcohol use are established.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2013; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The mixing of alcohol and energy drinks (AMEDs) is a trend among college students associated with higher rates of heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The goals of this study were to take a person-centered approach to identify distinct risk profiles of college students based on AMED-specific constructs (expectancies, attitudes, and norms) and examine longitudinal associations between AMED use, drinking, and consequences. METHODS: A random sample of incoming freshmen (n = 387, 59% female) completed measures of AMED use, AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs, and drinking quantity and alcohol-related consequences. Data were collected at 2 occasions: spring semester of freshmen year and fall semester of sophomore year. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis identified 4 subgroups of individuals: occasional AMED, anti-AMED, pro-AMED, and strong peer influence. Individuals in the pro-AMED group reported the most AMED use, drinking, and consequences. There was a unique association between profile membership and AMED use, even after controlling for drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlighted the importance of AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and norms. The unique association between AMED risk profiles and AMED use suggests AMED use is a distinct behavior that could be targeted by AMED-specific messages included in existing brief interventions for alcohol use.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2013; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared with non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multidimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a Web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmED-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: moderate drinker, low proportion AmED users (ML); heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs; however, MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests that increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 03/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings (Tollison et al., 2008) on the association between peer facilitator adherence to motivational interviewing (MI) microskills and college student drinking behavior. This study used a larger sample size, multiple follow-up time-points, and latent variable analyses allowing for more complex models to be tested in a sample with different characteristics than Tollison et al. Matriculating students who participated in high school sports (N=327) took part in a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students led by peer facilitators trained in motivational interviewing (MI). Participants were assessed pre- and immediately postintervention on contemplation to change, as well as pre-, 5months, and 10months postintervention on drinking quantity. Independent coders used the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003) to evaluate therapist MI adherence. Contrary to our previous study, results indicated that a higher number of open questions was positively related to increases in drinking, especially for heavier drinkers. Congruent with the previous study, more simple reflections was positively related to increases in drinking. Finally, this study revealed that heavier baseline drinking was associated with more simple reflections. There were no significant results found for changes in contemplation. Results corroborate previous findings that the excessive use of simple reflections may be indicative of countertherapeutic outcomes while raising questions about the relationship between the frequency of open questions and therapeutic outcomes.
    Behavior therapy 03/2013; 44(1):137-51. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on parent-based interventions (PBIs) to reduce college student drinking has explored the optimal timing of delivery and dosage. The present study extended this work by examining the effectiveness of three different PBI conditions on student drinking outcomes as a function of parenting types and students' pre-college drinking patterns. Four hypotheses were evaluated (early intervention, increased dosage, invariant, and treatment matching risk). A random sample of 1,900 college students and their parents was randomized to four conditions: (1) pre-college matriculation, (2) pre-college matriculation plus booster, (3) post-college matriculation, or (4) control, and was assessed at baseline (summer prior to college) and 5-month follow-up. Baseline parent type was assessed using latent profile analysis (positive, pro-alcohol, positive, anti-alcohol, negative mother, and negative father). Student drinking patterns were classified at baseline and follow-up and included: non-drinker, weekend light drinker, weekend heavy episodic drinker, and heavy drinker. Consistent with the treatment matching risk hypothesis, results indicated parent type moderated the effects of intervention condition such that receiving the intervention prior to college was associated with lower likelihood of being in a higher-risk drinking pattern at follow-up for students with positive, anti-alcohol, or negative father parent types. The findings are discussed with respect to optimal delivery and dosage of parent-based interventions for college student drinking.
    Prevention Science 02/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. Method: First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration <.08) were used in a latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine a stage-sequential model of drinking. LTA models with dummy-coded intervention variables were used to examine the effects of the intervention conditions on changes in drinking patterns. Results: Results indicated that four patterns of drinking were present at all waves: (a) nondrinkers, (b) weekend light drinkers, (c) weekend heavy episodic drinkers, and (d) heavy drinkers. Results indicated that the PCM condition was most effective at influencing baseline heavy drinkers' transition out of this pattern to lower risk patterns at first follow-up, whereas the ACM condition was not effective at preventing drinking escalation for baseline nondrinkers at first follow-up. No decay of effects was observed at long-term follow-up for the PCM condition. Finally, the results also indicated that increased dosage of the parental intervention was not significantly associated with either reduction or escalation of use Conclusions: The results underscore the value of pre-college parental interventions and targeted efforts to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 30-40, 2013).
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2013; 74(1):30-40. · 1.68 Impact Factor