L Hasholt

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (43)151.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6. We screened 40 probands with ataxia for the CAG repeat expansion and found five probands with SCA1 representing five different families. The SCA1 gene was analysed in 50 members of these families, and the CAG repeat expansion was found in all 17 affected persons and in 14 unaffected at-risk individuals. The range of expansion was 41–53 repeat units, while the range of normal alleles was 22–36 repeat units. We found pronounced inter- and intrafamilial phenotypical variation. One of the families had a comparatively mild phenotype which correlates with a CAG repeat length in the low end of the range of expansions and a late age at onset. With few exceptions, normal alleles of the SCA1 gene have one to three CAT interruptions in the middle of the CAG repeat, while all expanded alleles are uninterrupted. We report the hitherto longest normal uninterrupted allele of 22 repeat units and stress the importance of analysis for the presence of CAT interruptions in the diagnosis of SCA1.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2011; 4(6):586 - 592. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • NeuroImage 01/2010; 52. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder characterised by neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. HD has been associated with diabetes mellitus, which is, to some extent, supported by studies in transgenic HD mice. In transgenic mice, the severity of the diabetic phenotype appears to correlate with the length of a polyglutamine expansion in the protein huntingtin. In the present study, we investigated the association between diabetes mellitus and HD by performing an oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) to evaluate the glucose-tolerance status and OGTT-related insulin release in 14 HD patients. Furthermore, we expressed N-terminal huntingtin fragments with different polyglutamine lengths in an insulinoma-cell line (INS-1E) to investigate how mutant huntingtin influences glucose-stimulated insulin release in vitro. We found no difference between a group of early- and middle-stage HD patients and a large group of control individuals in any of the assessed variables. However, the glucose-stimulated induction of insulin release was significantly reduced in the insulinoma-cell line expressing highly expanded huntingtin compared to cells expressing huntingtin with modestly elongated polyglutamine stretches. These data indicate that insulin release from beta-cells expressing mutant huntingtin appears to be polyglutamine length-dependent, and that polyglutamine lengths within the range normally found in adult onset HD do not influence insulin release. This challenges the assumption of an increased risk of diabetes among HD patients, although our results do not exclude a changed glucose tolerance in end-stage HD patients or in patients with juvenile onset HD. It also raises the question of which extent transgenic mice models reflect the pathology of human HD in this regard.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 08/2009; 21(9):770-6. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene. Although the age at onset is correlated to the CAG repeat length, this correlation only explains approximately half of the variation in onset age. Less variation between siblings indicates that the variation is, in part, explained by genetic modifiers. We analyzed polymorphic loci within or close to the HD gene on the HD chromosome in Danish HD patients. We found one specific haplotype segregating with later age at onset, compared with patients with similar CAG repeat length and another haplotype. The nine Danish families in the study carrying this haplotype most likely have a common founder. Several of the polymorphic loci displayed alleles that may be specific to the late-onset haplotype, implicating that from this study we cannot determine which of the loci tested (or other polymorphic loci in this chromosomal area) do in fact contain genetic modifiers of age at onset.
    Clinical Genetics 04/2009; 75(3):244-50. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the Presenilin 2 gene (PSEN2) are rare causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pathogenic mutations in the genes associated with autosomal dominant inherited AD have been shown to alter processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in a relative increase of the amount of Abeta42 peptide. We present a patient with neuropathologically confirmed early-onset AD characterized by profound language impairment. The patient was heterozygous for a novel missense mutation in exon 11 of the PSEN2 gene leading to a predicted amino acid substitution from valine to methionine in position 393, a conserved residue. However, in vitro expression of PSEN2 V393M cDNA did not result in detectable increase of the secreted Abeta42/40 peptide ratio. The mutation was not found in 384 control individuals tested. The possible pathogenic nature of the mutation is not clarified. We discuss the limitations of functional PSEN2 studies and the challenges associated with genetic counselling of family members at risk.
    European Journal of Neurology 09/2008; 15(10):1135-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports have highlighted a possible link between Huntington's disease (HD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), but the association has not been characterised in detail. A transgenic mouse model for HD, the R6/2 mouse, also develops diabetes. In the present study, we examined the R6/1 mouse, which carries a shorter CAG repeat than the R6/2 mouse, and found that, although not diabetic, the mice showed several signs of impaired glucose tolerance. First, following i.p. glucose injection, the blood glucose concentration was approximately 30% higher in young R6/1 mice (10 weeks) compared to wild-type mice (P = 0.004). In older mice (38 weeks), glucose tolerance was further impaired in both R6/1 and wild-type animals. Second, during glucose challenge, the R6/1 mice reached higher plasma insulin levels than wild-type mice, but the peripheral insulin sensitivity was normal as measured by injection of human or mouse insulin or when evaluated by the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Third, the beta cell volume was 17% and 39% smaller at 10 and 38 weeks of age, respectively, compared to age-matched wild-type littermates and the reduction was not caused by apoptosis at either age. Finally, we demonstrated the presence of the HD gene product, huntingtin (htt), in both alpha- and beta-cells in R6/1 islets of Langerhans. Since pancreatic beta cells and neurons share several common traits, clarification of the mechanism associating neurodegenerative diseases with diabetes might improve our understanding of the pathogenic events leading to both groups of diseases.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 03/2008; 20(2):165-72. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transduced deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNK) can be used to kill recipient cells in combination with nucleoside prodrugs. The Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate dNK (Dm-dNK) displays a superior turnover rate and has a great plasticity regarding its substrates. We used directed evolution to create Dm-dNK mutants with increased specificity for several nucleoside analogs (NAs) used as anticancer or antiviral drugs. Four mutants were characterized for the ability to sensitize Escherichia coli toward analogs and for their substrate specificity and kinetic parameters. The mutants had a reduced ability to phosphorylate pyrimidines, while the ability to phosphorylate purine analogs was relatively similar to the wild-type enzyme. We selected two mutants, for expression in the osteosarcoma 143B, the glioblastoma U-87M-G and the breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. The sensitivities of the transduced cell lines in the presence of the NAs fludarabine (F-AraA), cladribine (CdA), vidarabine and cytarabine were compared to the parental cell lines. The sensitivity of 143B cells was increased by 470-fold in the presence of CdA and of U-87M-G cells by 435-fold in the presence of F-AraA. We also show that a choice of the selection and screening system plays a crucial role when optimizing suicide genes by directed evolution.
    Gene Therapy 10/2007; 14(17):1278-86. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked to the SPG4 locus on chromosome 2p as previously reported for pure HSP. Sequence analysis of the SPG4 (spastin) gene identified a novel 1593 C > T (GLN490Stop) mutation leading to premature termination of exon 12 with ensuing truncation of the encoded protein. However, the mutation was only identified in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance of these features to SPG4 is unclear. Electrophysiologic investigation showed increased central conduction time at somatosensory evoked potentials measured from the lower limbs as the only abnormal finding in two affected individuals with the SPG4 mutation. Moreover, PET of one patient showed significantly relatively decreased regional cerebral blood flow in most of the cerebellum. We conclude that this kindred demonstrates a considerable overlap between cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia, emphasizing the marked clinical heterogeneity of HSP associated with spastin mutations.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2005; 11(12):817-24. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Movement Disorders 01/2004; 19(9}, Meeting Abstract = {P1034):S353-S354. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice expressing exon 1 of the human Huntington's disease (HD) gene carrying a 115 CAG repeat (line R6/1) are characterized by a neurologic phenotype involving molecular, behavioral and motor disturbances. We have characterized the R6/1 to establish a set of biomarkers, which could be semi-quantitatively compared. We have measured motor fore- and hindlimb coordination, fore- and hindpaw footprinting, general activity and anxiety, feetclasping, developmental instability. Molecular investigations involved measurements of cannabinoid receptor 1 mRNA, met-enkephalin peptide, dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoroprotein 32 kDa and neuronal inclusions. Molecular and behavioral testing was performed on female hemizygotic R6/1 transgenic mice and female wildtype littermates between 6 and 36 weeks of age. We show that the cannabinoid receptor 1 receptor is severely and rapidly downregulated in the R6/1 mouse between the 8(th) to the 10(th) week of age. At 14 weeks of age the first transgenic mice showed a behavioral phenotype measured by feetclasping. However, there was great variation between the individual animals. At 11 weeks of age the mice demonstrated progressively increasing developmental instability as measured by fluctuating asymmetry. Weight differences were evident by 22 weeks of age. Mice tested at 23 and 24 weeks of age showed significant impairments in open field and plus-maze analysis respectively. We observed no significant abnormalities in stride length of the R6/1 mouse model. As the analyzed parameters are easily detected and measured, the R6/1 mouse appears to be a good model for evaluating new drugs or types of therapy for HD.
    Neuroscience 02/2003; 122(4):1049-57. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Acta Paediatrica 11/2002; 91(s439). · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    European Journal of Endocrinology 07/2002; 146(6):741-2. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To revisit Fabry disease, a rare X-linked metabolic glycosphingolipid storage disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A). Summary of the existing knowledge of Fabry disease including the clinical feature of Fabry disease and the recent breakthrough in the treatment of Fabry patients with the development of recombinant human alpha-gal A. The diffuse organ manifestations of Fabry disease resemble medical endocrinological diseases, and medical endocrinology might be an appropriate speciality to manage the treatment in collaboration with other specialists and clinical geneticists.
    Hormone Research 02/2002; 58(6):259-65. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Ugeskrift for laeger 10/2001; 163(39):5382.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to relate the number of platelet serotonin transporters in unipolar and bipolar patients and in control subjects to two polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene: a VNTR in intron 2 and a deletion/insertion in the promoter region. Density of platelet serotonin transporters was determined by radioligand binding analysis. Genotyping was performed by PCR amplification of polymorphic regions followed by size determination of the obtained fragments. The control subjects and the two groups of patients were similar with respect to the genotype and allele distribution belonging to the two polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene for. An interaction between status (control, unipolar- or bipolar patient) and VNTR genotype regarding the number of platelet serotonin transporters was observed; unipolar patients with the genotype 12/10 had more platelet serotonin transporters than bipolar patients and controls with this genotype. No association related to the polymorphism was found in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. An association was observed between the polymorphism in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene and the number of platelet serotonin transporters. Unipolar patients with a particular genotype had more platelet serotonin transporters than the corresponding controls and bipolar patients.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 04/2001; 103(3):229-33. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Huntington disease gone encodes the protein huntington, which is widely expressed during embryonic development and in mature tissues. In order to elucidate the physiological function of huntington, which so far is unknown, we intend to study the effect of antisense down-regulated huntington expression. We have found an inhibiting effect of a phosphorothioated oligodeoxynucleotide (PS-ODN) added to the culture medium of embryonic teratocarcinoma cells (NT2) and postmitotic neurons (NT2N neurons) differentiated from the NT2 cells. Specific inhibition of expression of endogenous huntington was achieved in NT2N neurons in the concentration range of 1-5 microM PS-ODN, whereas no inhibition was obtained in NT2 cells. We describe in detail the selection of the target sequence for the antisense oligo and the uptake, intracellular distribution, and stability of the antisense PS-ODN in the two cell types. Antisense down-regulation of huntington in this model of human neurons represents a suitable approach to study its normal function.
    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 11/2000; 16(4):313-23. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The AGG interspersion pattern and flanking microsatellite markers and their association with instability of the FMR1 (CGG)(n) repeat, involved in the fragile X syndrome, were analyzed in DNA from filter-paper blood spots randomly collected from the Danish newborn population. Comparison of DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotype frequencies in the normal population and among fragile X patients suggested strong linkage disequilibrium between normal alleles and haplotype 7-3 and between fragile X alleles and haplotype 2-1 and 6-4. Comparison of the AGG interspersion pattern in 143 alleles, ranging in size from 34-62 CGG, and their associated haplotypes indicates the existence of at least three mutational pathways from normal alleles toward fragile X alleles in the Danish population. Two subgroups of normal alleles, with internal sequences of (CGG)(10)AGG(CGG)(19) and (CGG)(9)AGG(CGG)(12) AGG(CGG)(9), possibly predisposed for expansion, were identified in the data set. When alleles larger than 34 CGG were investigated, comparing the length of 3' uninterrupted CGG triplets (uCGG), we found that alleles associated with haplotype 2-1 and 6-4 contain significantly longer stretches of uCGG than alleles associated with haplotype 7-3. Thus, the data support that (CGG)(n) instability is correlated to the length of uCGG.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 08/2000; 93(2):99-106.
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    ABSTRACT: The AGG interspersion pattern and flanking microsatellite markers and their association with instability of the FMR1 (CGG)n repeat, involved in the fragile X syndrome, were analyzed in DNA from filter-paper blood spots randomly collected from the Danish newborn population. Comparison of DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotype frequencies in the normal population and among fragile X patients suggested strong linkage disequilibrium between normal alleles and haplotype 7–3 and between fragile X alleles and haplotype 2–1 and 6–4. Comparison of the AGG interspersion pattern in 143 alleles, ranging in size from 34–62 CGG, and their associated haplotypes indicates the existence of at least three mutational pathways from normal alleles toward fragile X alleles in the Danish population. Two subgroups of normal alleles, with internal sequences of (CGG)10AGG(CGG)19 and (CGG)9AGG(CGG)12 AGG(CGG)9, possibly predisposed for expansion, were identified in the data set. When alleles larger than 34 CGG were investigated, comparing the length of 3' uninterrupted CGG triplets (uCGG), we found that alleles associated with haplotype 2–1 and 6–4 contain significantly longer stretches of uCGG than alleles associated with haplotype 7–3. Thus, the data support that (CGG)n instability is correlated to the length of uCGG. Am. J. Med. Genet. 93:99–106, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 06/2000; 93(2):99 - 106.
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. The mutations responsible for Fabry disease are diverse and include large rearrangements as well as single base substitutions, and they are dispersed throughout the seven exons of the gene. In this study, we found five novel mutations in four different exons. We have detected the mutations by the PCR-SSCP method and then analysed them by direct sequencing. Three of the novel mutations were deletions: 1205delA, 1238del26 and 5236del18. We also found one novel nonsense mutation: W162X. The final novel mutation was an insertion combined with a deletion: 10995ins24del4.
    Human Mutation 03/2000; 15(2):207-8. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fragile X syndrome is caused by the expansion of a polymorphic (CGG)n tract in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene. Apparently the incidence of fragile X syndrome is rare in the population of Greenland. In order to examine population-related factors involved in stability of the (CGG)n sequence, DNA samples obtained randomly from the Greenlandic population were analysed for size and AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 (CGG)n region and associated DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes. In addition a large Greenland family with unstable transmission in the premutation range was analysed. The (CGG)n allele sizes in the Greenland population showed a narrow distribution similar to that reported for Asian populations. DNA sequencing of alleles with 36 CGG repeats revealed an AGG(CGG)6 insertion previously reported exclusively in Asian populations and a high frequency of alleles with a (CGG)10AGG(CGG)9AGG(CGG)9 or (CGG)9AGG(CGG)9AGG(CGG)6AGG(CGG)9 sequence pattern was found. Thus the data confirm the Asian origin of the Greenlandic (Eskimo) population and indicates that some (CGG)n alleles have remained stable for 15-30,000 years, since the population of the New World arrived from Asia via the Bering Strait.
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 01/1999; 7(7):771-7. · 4.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

505 Citations
151.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2011
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009
    • Steno Diabetes Center
      Gjentofte, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1997–2000
    • Statens Serum Institut
      • Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark