Youn-Chul Kim

Wonkwang University, Riri, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea

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Publications (158)330.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Saussurea pulchella (Asteraceae) is widely distributed in Korea and has been used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension, hepatitis, and arthritis. Pulchellamin G is an amino acid-sesquiterpene lactone conjugate isolated from S. pulchella. In the present study, we focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of pulchellamin G, which acts by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. HO-1 plays important roles in cytoprotection since it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic properties. Pulchellamin G inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and COX-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. The compound also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and suppressed the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of p65 in murine peritoneal macrophages in response to LPS stimulus. The inhibitory effects of pulchellamin G on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation was impaired by co-treatment of the cells with HO activity inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). By using SnPP, we verified that the inhibitory effects of pulchellamin G on the pro-inflammatory mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-1β are associated with induction of HO-1 expression. Our data suggest that pulchellamin G might have potent therapeutic effects and it should be considered in the development of treatments for various inflammatory diseases.
    European journal of pharmacology 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.05.033
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    ABSTRACT: Standardization of processing methods for herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. We had previously prepared a standardized and purified Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract, PF2401-SF, and showed that it protects against liver injury in vivo, at a greater potency than an ethanol extract. PF2401-SF was enriched with tanshinone I (11.5%), tanshinone IIA (41.0%), and cryptotanshinone (19.1%). In this study, we investigated potential anti-inflammatory effects of PF2401-SF in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that PF2401-SF shows anti-inflammatory potency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. A mechanistic study indicated that PF2401-SF induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Moreover, we also evaluated that PF2401-SF significantly reduced inflammation on carrageenan- or dextran-induced acute arthritis in rats. Our results suggest that PF2401-SF may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
    International immunopharmacology 04/2013; 16(2). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2013.03.028
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    ABSTRACT: Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen (Leguminosae) has traditionally been used as an ingredient in East Asian medicines to treat various diseases. In the present study, 4,2',5'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (TMC), a biologically active chalcone isolated from the heartwood of D. odorifera, inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, leading to a reduction in COX-2-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and iNOS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, TMC suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, and the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α as well as the LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of p65 in macrophages. The present study also demonstrated that TMC induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. The effects of TMC on LPS-induced NO, PGE2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β production were partially reversed by the HO inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). These results suggest that TMC inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators by inducing the expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1 via the Nrf2 pathway.
    International immunopharmacology 04/2013; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2013.03.026
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1-3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1.
    Marine Drugs 04/2013; 11(4):1409-26. DOI:10.3390/md11041409
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    ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are spread among infected patients, with infection rates increasing at an alarming rate. Furthermore, increased resistance to antibiotics has resulted in serious challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Under the selection pressure of exposure to antibiotics, microorganisms evolve to survive against the new conditions imposed by therapy. Therefore, there exists a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. Curcumin (CCM), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of a plant, Curcuma longa Linné., has been found to possess many beneficial biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of curcumin and antibiotics as well as to determine the antibacterial activity of CCM against specific MRSA strains. The antibacterial activity of CCM was assessed by the broth microdilution method (by calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]), checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial activity of CCM was observed against all tested strains. The MICs of CCM against 10 strains of S. aureus ranged from 125 to 250μg/ml. In the checkerboard test, CCM markedly reduced the MICs of the antibiotics oxacillin (OXI), ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and norfloxacin (NOR) used against MRSA. The time-kill curves showed that a combined CCM and OXI treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24h. This study suggested that CCM reduced the MICs of several antibiotics tested, notably of OXI, AMP, CIP, and NOR, and that CCM in combination with antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination of antibiotics against MRSA infection.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2013.02.006
  • Pancreas 03/2013; 42(2):362-363. DOI:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3182592cac
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    ABSTRACT: 6,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (DMF) is a flavonoid isolated from Heartwood Dalbergia odorifera. It has been known that DMF has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. DMF, however, the efficacy of bone related diseases has not been reported. In this study, we determined DMF's efficacy on osteoclasts differentiation and function using in vitro bone marrow macrophage osteoclast differentiation culture system. DMF inhibited receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis dose dependently. In addition, DMF decreased osteoclast function through disruption of actin ring formation and consequently suppression of the pit-forming activity of mature osteoclasts. Mechanistically, DMF inhibited RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activatied T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and c-Fos via inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway.Collectively, the inhibition of osteoclasts differentiation and function by DMF suggests that DMF can be a potential therapeutic molecule for osteoclastogenic bone diseases such osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal diseases.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 02/2013; DOI:10.1248/bpb.b12-00964
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    ABSTRACT: During the course of our attempts to develop a potential herbal medicine, we had previously prepared PF2401-SF, a standardized fraction of S. miltiorrhiza, and reported its hepatoprotective activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Since apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a well-accepted anti-fibrotic strategy, in this study, we investigated the direct effect of PF2401-SF on t-HSC/Cl-6 cells in vitro and on CCl(4)-induced liver injury in vivo. We evaluated the activation and cleavage of hallmarkers of apoptosis, namely, caspase 3, 8, 9 and PARP. Upregulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein were also analyzed. Furthermore, in the PF2401-SF treated rats, apoptosis induction of activated HSCs was demonstrated by reduced distribution of α-SMA-positive cells and the presence of high number of TUNEL-positive cells in vivo. Our data suggest that PF2401-SF can mediate HSCs apoptosis induction, and may be a potential herbal medicine for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
    Molecules 02/2013; 18(2):2122-34. DOI:10.3390/molecules18022122
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the potential function of Rhus javanica in Korean medicine, it was fermented with each strain of Lactobacillus spp. Each strain of Lactobacillus spp. was inoculated in lactobacilli MRS broth, and 5 mg/ml of methanol extract of Rhus javanica was added. In mouse hippocampal HT22 cells, ethyl acetate extract of R. javanica fermented with L. brevis KCTC 3498 induced heme oxygenase-1 expression and showed a significant cytoprotective effect on glutamate-induced oxidative damage. The cytoprotective effect was related to the transcription of the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2), which is responsible for the induction of heme oxygenase-1 within the nucleus. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and heme oxygenase-1 expression activities of fermented R. javanica were measured after extraction with ethyl acetate. R. javanica fermented with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum KCTC 3108, L. fermentum KCTC 3112, and L. brevis KCTC 3498 had higher antioxidant activity than nonfermented R. javanica. The fermented R. javanica with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum KCTC 3108, L. casei KCTC 3109 after ethyl acetate extraction showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis PCI 219, Escherichia coli KCTC 1682, Shigella flexneri KCTC 2517, Vibrio parahaemolyticus KCTC 7471, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC 2004. An ethyl acetate extract of the fermented R. javanica with Lactobacillus brevis KCTC 3498 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than a nonfermented one against strains of B. subtilis PCI 219, E. coli KCTC 1682, S. flexneri KCTC 2517, and V. parahaemolyticus KCTC 7471.
    01/2013; 23(1). DOI:10.5352/JLS.2013.23.1.44
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    ABSTRACT: Rhus verniciflua Stokes is a plant that is native to East Asian countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. Butein, a plant polyphenol, is one of the major active components of R. verniciflua. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced via dental adhesive bleaching agents and pulpal disease, can cause oxidative stress. Here, we found that butein possesses cytoprotective effects on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced dental cell death. H(2)O(2) is a representative ROS and causes cell death through necrosis in human dental pulp (HDP) cells. H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity and production of ROS were blocked in the presence of butein, and these effects were dose dependent. Butein also increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression and HO activity. In addition, butein-dependent HO-1 expression was required for the inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and ROS generation. Furthermore, butein treatment caused nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the promoter activity of antioxidant response elements (AREs). Treatment of HDP cells with a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor also reduced butein-induced HO-1 expression, and butein treatment led to increased JNK phosphorylation. These results indicate that butein may be used to prevent functional dental cell death and thus may be useful as a pulpal disease agent.
    Toxicology in Vitro 01/2013; 27(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2013.01.003
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis occurs when cancer cells detach from a tumor, travel to distant sites in the body and develop into tumors in these new locations. Most cancer patients die from metastases. Among the various forms of cancer metastasis, lymphatic metastasis is an important determinant in cancer treatment and staging. In this study, we investigated lymphangiogenesis inhibitors from crude drugs used in Japan and Korea. The three crude drugs Saussureae Radix, Psoraleae Semen and Aurantti Fructus Immaturus significantly inhibited the proliferation of temperature-sensitive rat lymphatic endothelial (TR-LE) cells in vitro. By a chromatographic method using bioassay-guided fractionation methods, costunolide (1) and dehydrocostus lactone (2) from S. Radix, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), psoralen (4), angelicin (5), psoracorylifol D (6), isobavachalone (7), bavachinin (8) Δ(3),2-hydroxybakuchiol (9) and bakuchiol (10) from P. Semen and cis-octadecyl ferulate (11), (2R)-3β,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-flavanone (12), (2S)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-flavanone (13) and umbelliferone (14) from A. F. Immaturus were obtained. Three compounds (compounds 11-13) from A. F. Immaturus were isolated for the first time from this medicinal plant. Among isolated compounds, ten compounds (compounds 1, 2, 6-12, 13) showed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation and the capillary-like tube formation of TR-LE cells. In addition, all compounds except compound 12 showed selective inhibition of the proliferation of TR-LE cells compared to Hela and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. These compounds might offer clinical benefits as lymphangiogenesis inhibitors and may be good candidates for novel anti-cancer and anti-metastatic agents.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2013; 36(1):152-7. DOI:10.1248/bpb.b12-00871
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    ABSTRACT: Ganodermanondiol, a biologically active compound, was isolated from the Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum). The present study examined the protective effects of ganodermanondiol against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Ganodermanondiol protected human liver-derived HepG2 cells through nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expressions. Moreover, ganodermanondiol increased cellular glutathione levels and the expression of the glutamine-cysteine ligase gene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ganodermanondiol exposure enhanced the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream kinase activators, LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII). This study indicates that ganodermanondiol exhibits potent cytoprotective effects on t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity in human liver-derived HepG2 cells, presumably through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and AMPK.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 12/2012; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.016
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of ongoing research on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory compounds from Antarctic lichens, four new diterpene furanoids, hueafuranoids A-D (1-4) have been isolated from the MeOH extract of Antarctic lichen Huea sp. by various chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data, and comparing their spectral data with those in the literature. Compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against therapeutically targeted protein, PTP1B with an IC(50) value of 13.9μM. The kinetic analysis of PTP1B inhibition by hueafuranoid A (1) suggested that the diterpene furanoids encountered in this study inhibited PTP1B activity in a non-competitive manner.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 10/2012; 22(24). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.063
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris led to the isolation of three new carbohydrate derivatives, namely sucrose 3,3',4'-triisovalerate (2), sucrose 6,3',4'-triisovalerate (3), and ethanone-1-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (3,7-anhydro-1-deoxy-d-glycero-d-gulo-2-octulose, 6), along with four known carbohydrate derivatives, 2,6,3',4'-tetraisovalerate (1), ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), n-butyl β-d-fructofuranoside (5), and n-pentyl β-d-fructofuranoside (7), which were initially isolated from plants of the Brassica genus. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR. All of the isolated carbohydrate derivatives were evaluated to determine their effect on ROS production and glutamate-induced cell death in HT-22 cells. Compound 6 showed the most significant ROS reduction and a protective effect with IC50 values of 69.4±3.8μM and 4.96±0.32μM, respectively, which were equivalent to those of the positive control, Trolox.
    Carbohydrate research 09/2012; 372C:9-14. DOI:10.1016/j.carres.2012.09.015
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    ABSTRACT: Several sesquiterpene lactones are the active components of several medicinal plants and have been demonstrated to perform various pharmacological functions. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the root of Aucklandia lappa, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. Alantolactone inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA transcription, as well as the downstream products, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Investigation of the effects on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling showed that alantolactone inhibits the phosphorylation of inhibitory κB (IκB)-α and IκB kinase (IKK) and the subsequent translocation of the p65 and p50 NF-κB subunits to the nucleus. Moreover, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was also observed. A further study indicated that alantolactone attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and inhibited the expression of MyD88 and Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and MAPKs activation. Taken together, these results suggest that alantolactone exerts its anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB activation and MAPKs phophorylation via downregulation of the MyD88 signaling pathway. Thus, alantolactone may provide a useful therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated diseases.
    International immunopharmacology 08/2012; 14(4):375-383. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2012.08.011
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2012; 18(25):3223-34. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i25.3223
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    ABSTRACT: Eight new 3,4-seco-lupane triterpenes and glycosides, acanthosessiligenins I and II (1, 3) and acanthosessiliosides A-F (2, 4-8), as well as six known 3,4-seco-lupane triterpenes (9-14) were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. The chemical structures of 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines and their ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
    Journal of Natural Products 06/2012; 75(6):1138-44. DOI:10.1021/np3002173
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plant-derived products have proven to be valuable sources for discovery and development of unique anticancer drugs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan fruit (EMTF), a traditional medicine in the Chinese Pharmacopeia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against colon cancer. Human colon cancer cells SW480 and murine colorectal adenocarcinoma cells CT26 were used to investigate cell proliferation. The results showed that EMTF inhibited cell proliferation of SW480 and CT26 by promoting apoptosis as indicated by nuclear chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Through increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release from mitochondria, EMTF induced caspase-9 activity which further activated caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, leading the tumor cells to apoptosis. The in vivo results confirmed reduction of tumor volume and apoptotic effects and the side effects were not induced by EMTF. Therefore, EMTF may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment.
    Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 06/2012; 49(3):173-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke (Compositae) is indigenous to India and Pakistan. The dried root of S. lappa has been traditionally used for alleviating pain in abdominal distention and tenesmus, indigestion with anorexia, dysentery, nausea, and vomiting. Santamarin is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from S. lappa. In the present study, santamarin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, reduced iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), suppressed COX-2 protein and reduced COX-derived PGE(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages. Similarly, santamarin reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. In addition, santamarin suppressed the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α as well as the nuclear translocation of p65 in response to LPS in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, santamarin induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression mRNA and protein level that plays a cytoprotective role against inflammation. The induction of HO-1 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level, and its induction by various agents is mediated by the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), master regulator of antioxidant responses. Unbound Nrf2 translocates into the nucleus and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the upstream promoter region of many antioxidative genes, where it initiates their transcription. The effects of santamarin on LPS-induced NO, PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-1β production were partially reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Therefore, our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of santamarin in macrophages may be exerted through a novel mechanism that involves HO-1 expression.
    International immunopharmacology 05/2012; 13(3):271-9. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2012.04.016
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    ABSTRACT: A number of diseases that lead to injury of the central nervous system are caused by oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. In this study, NNMBS275, consisting of the ethanol extract of Viola patrinii, showed potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine hippocampal HT22 cells and BV2 microglia. NNMBS275 increased cellular resistance to oxidative injury caused by glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation in HT22 cells. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS275 were demonstrated by the suppression of proinflammatory mediators, including proinflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β). Furthermore, we found that the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS275 were linked to the upregulation of nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2-dependent expression of heme oxygenase-1 in HT22 and BV2 cells. These results suggest that NNMBS275 possesses therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases that are induced by oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2012; 2012:128019. DOI:10.1155/2012/128019

Publication Stats

2k Citations
330.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Wonkwang University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      • • Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine
      Riri, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea
    • Kyushu University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2014
    • Gyeongju University
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Keimyung University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea