Sugao Ishiwata

Toranomon Hospital, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (98)291.72 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been reported to be poor in hemodialysis (HD) patients even in the drug-eluting stent era. We have reported relatively poor outcomes after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in the OUCH study. The OUCH-TL study is a prospective, non-randomized, single-arm registry designed to assess the results of paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in HD patients with follow-up quantitative coronary angiography analysis. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of target-vessel failure (TVF) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-vessel revascularization (TVR) at 12 months. A total of 119 patients with 154 lesions were enrolled (one withdrawal). Mean age was 65±10 years, male gender was 79%, 89% of cases had stable coronary disease. Diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed in 61% of the patients. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association type B2/C accounted for 96% of lesions and 22.7% of lesions were treated with Rotablator (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA). Rates of TVF, death, MI, stent thrombosis and TVR at 12 months were 20.2%, 5.9%, 5.0%, 1.4%, and 12.6%, respectively. TVR was performed in 8.4% of the patients up to 12 months. Late loss in-stent was 0.48±0.61mm, and late loss in-segment was 0.37±0.61mm at 9 months. Binary restenosis in-stent was 10.3% and in-segment was 14.5%. Outcomes of PES implantation in hemodialysis patients appears comparable to those of non-hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cardiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2015.03.008
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A1466. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61466-8
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics and trends of POBA in current drug-eluting stent (DES) era. We examined retrospectively the cases of POBA performed in our institute during the years from 2008 to 2012. For control, bare metal stents (BMS) and DES implantation done in 2011 were analyzed. During the period, 85 cases of POBA, 63 BMS and 132 DES were identified. In the result, the rate of restenosis in POBA was significantly higher than BMS and DES (39.7, 14.9, 3.7 %, POBA, BMS, DES, respectively, p < 0.001). We assumed three categories depending on the reasons for selecting POBA. (1) Stent delivery failure or expected difficulty of stent delivery due to calcification, etc. (n = 14), (2) intervention for in-stent restenosis or stent thrombosis (n = 34), (3) successful POBA applied to small vessels without complication (n = 14). According to it, category 1 showed significantly high probability of restenosis compared with others [(1) 10/14, 71.4 %, (2) 12/34, 35.3 %, 3; 2/14, 14.3 %, p < 0.05]. In addition, category 3 showed nearly as good as BMS. Balloons used in POBA contained 32 non-compliant balloons and 14 scoring balloons, whereas 30 were semi-compliant balloons only. ACC/AHA lesion type B2/C was 85.7, 45.7 and 50.0 %, and cases treated only with semi-compliant balloon were 57.1, 14.3, 92.9 % (category (1), (2) and (3), respectively, both p < 0.05). Therefore, this fact shows that a case of small vessel of which diameter is less than 2.5 mm would have a favorable outcome with POBA when treated well only with semi-compliant balloon under the current DES era.
    Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s12928-015-0316-6
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) on clinical decision-making remains unclear in daily practice. The CVIT-DEFER registry is a prospective multicenter registry enrolling consecutive patients with angiographically intermediate coronary stenosis for whom FFR measurement is clinically indicated. The treatment strategy determined from angiographic findings alone and the strategy selected after FFR measurement were compared. Data on the treatment strategy were obtained for 3093 subjects. The average age of these subjects was 69.5 ± 10.2 years and 73.8 % were men. The majority had stable coronary artery disease, including 60.4 % with stable angina pectoris. The treatment strategy based on angiographic findings was medical management in 34.5 %, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 63.5 %, and coronary artery bypass grafting in 2.1 %. The FFR was ≤0.8 in 1566 lesions (42.2 %). After FFR measurement, medical treatment was changed to revascularization in 19.7 %, while PCI was switched to medical treatment in 57.4 % at the lesion level. As a result, reclassification of the treatment strategy at the patient level was done in 39.0 % of the patients. Revascularization was frequently switched to medical treatment after FFR measurement. These findings support the clinical utility of employing FFR data to guide selection of PCI.
    05/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.1007/s12928-014-0266-4
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    ABSTRACT: The fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered to be a reliable index for the assessment of clinically relevant coronary artery stenosis. However, mismatch in assessing the severity of coronary stenosis between coronary angiography and the FFR has been pointed out. The cardiovascular intervention therapeutics (CVIT)-DEFER registry is a prospective multicenter registry study that has enrolled 3,228 consecutive patients among 3,804 patients with angiographically moderate coronary artery lesions in whom FFR analysis was clinically indicated. The demographic and angiographic parameters associated with an FFR ≤0.8 were analyzed, and the incidence of discrepancy between the angiographic severity of coronary stenosis and the FFR was assessed. Based on the visual assessment, 1,609 (42.9 %) lesions were categorized as showing 50 % stenosis, 1,882 lesions (50.2 %) as 75 % stenosis, and 257 lesions (6.9 %) as 90 % stenosis. Angiographic-FFR "mismatch," which was defined as visual stenosis ≥75 % with FFR >0.80, was found in 43.4 % of lesions, while reverse angiographic mismatch (visual stenosis <75 % with FFR ≤0.8) was found in 23.2 %. The independent predictors for "angiographic-FFR mismatch" were the presence of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) history, one-vessel disease, non-left anterior descending artery (LAD) location, non-diffuse lesion, non-ostial lesion, and non-tandem lesion. Conversely, "reverse angiographic mismatch" was independently associated with the multivessel disease, LAD location, and diffuse lesion. The FFR is not only influenced by luminal stenosis but also by coronary artery morphology and the amount of jeopardized myocardium. Angiographic-FFR mismatch is frequent in patients with moderate coronary stenosis, which suggests the clinical importance of using physiological assessment to guide PCI.
    03/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1007/s12928-014-0259-3
  • Sleep Medicine 12/2013; 14:e44-e45. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.11.069
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated with heart failure (HF); however, the reason for this is not well understood. Craniofacial anatomic risk factors may contribute to OSA pathogenesis in HF patients. However, there are no data about cephalometric findings among OSA patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and OSA (defined as total apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h) were enrolled. As controls, OSA patients without HF but matching the test group in age, BMI, and obstructive AHI were also enrolled. Overall, 17 OSA patients with HF and 34 OSA patients without HF were compared. There are no significant differences in the characteristics or polysomnographic parameters between 2 groups. In the cephalometric findings, compared with patients without HF, patients with HF showed a significantly greater angle between the line SN to point "A" (SNA) and a longer inferior airway space and greater airway area. However, the tongue area of patients with HF was more than those without HF. The craniofacial structures of OSA patients with HF were different from those without HF. OSA patients with HF had an upper airway anatomy that is more likely to collapse when sleeping while recumbent, despite having a larger airway space.
    Sleep And Breathing 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11325-013-0906-4
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -Prolonged P-wave duration, indicating atrial conduction delay, is a potent precursor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for AF development. We investigated the association of P-wave duration with OSA and its treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We enrolled 80 consecutive men with normal sinus rhythms who underwent polysomnography, had no history of AF or ischemic heart disease, and no evidence of heart failure. Signal-averaged P-wave duration (SAPWD) was measured in all participants. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age, hypertension, and log-transformed apnea-hypopnea index were significantly and independently correlated with SAPWD. SAPWD was repeatedly measured following 1 month of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 62 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. As controls, 18 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were enrolled. Their SAPWD was also measured at baseline and following 1 month without CPAP therapy. No significant change in SAPWD was found between baseline and after 1 month in the controls. However, SAPWD was significantly shortened after 1 month of CPAP therapy (from 137.5±8.6 to 129.7±8.5 ms, P<0.001), and the SAPWD change was significantly different in patients with CPAP therapy compared with controls (P<0.001). In addition, the SAPWD change in patients with CPAP therapy correlated inversely with nightly CPAP usage (r=-0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: -OSA severity was significantly associated with prolonged SAPWD. CPAP therapy significantly shortened SAPWD in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. Thus, OSA may cause atrial conduction disturbances, leading to an increased risk of AF development, which may be modifiable by alleviating OSA with CPAP therapy.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 03/2013; 6(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000266
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether effective suppression of central sleep apnea (CSA) by adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) improves underlying cardiac dysfunction among patients with heart failure (HF) in whom CSA was not effectively suppressed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Background The presence of CSA in HF is associated with a poor prognosis, whereas CPAP treatment improves HF. However, in a large-scale trial, CPAP failed to improve survival, probably due to insufficient CSA suppression. Recently, ASV was reported as the most effective alternative to CSA suppression. However, the effects of sufficient CSA suppression by ASV on cardiac function are unknown. Methods Patients with New York Heart Association class ≥II HF, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and CSA that was unsuppressed (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15) despite ≥3 months of CPAP were randomly assigned to receive ASV in either CPAP mode or ASV mode. Results Of 23 patients enrolled, 12 were assigned to the ASV-mode group and 11 were assigned to the CPAP-mode group. Three months after randomization, the ASV mode was significantly more effective in suppressing the apnea-hypopnea index (from 25.0 ± 6.9 events/h to 2.0 ± 1.4 events/h; p < 0.001) compared to the CPAP mode. Compliance was signi-ficantly greater with the ASV mode than with the CPAP mode. Improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction was greater with the ASV mode (32.0 ± 7.9% to 37.8 ± 9.1%; p < 0.001) than with the CPAP mode. Conclusions Patients with HF and unsuppressed CSA despite receiving CPAP may receive additional benefit by having CPAP replaced with ASV. Additionally, effective suppression of CSA may improve cardiac function in HF patients.
    02/2013; 1(1):58–63. DOI:10.1016/j.jchf.2012.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most important causes of coronary artery aneurysms in children and young adults. However, the natural course of the disease and the patient prognosis remain obscure. A 72-year-old asymptomatic man with undiagnosed KD underwent whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography during a health checkup. The imaging disclosed giant aneurysms in the proximal portion of the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending artery. The patient was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting. The present case suggests that there may be a substantial number of patients who have attained middle to old age with undiagnosed KD.
    Internal Medicine 01/2013; 52(9):977-80. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.52.9463
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a life-threatening disease which always presents in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). There are few statements in guidelines regarding indications for anticoagulation based on the location of DVT. We investigated whether the relative risk of PTE depends on thrombus location and bleeding complications with anticoagulation therapy. Between January 1 and July 10, 2007, 461 patients underwent lower extremity venous ultrasound studies, and 129 patients were diagnosed as DVT (60 males, 66.9 ± 13.3 years). We retrospectively studied the incidence of PTE and bleeding complications associated with anticoagulation therapy. Average follow-up period was 536 ± 324 days. Above and below knee thrombosis was present in 60 and 69 patients, respectively. Warfarin was administered in 60 patients. Nine patients developed PTE. Multivariate analysis showed the absence of anticoagulation therapy and location of DVT (above knee) to be significantly correlated with onset of PTE (anticoagulation; P < 0.01, location; P = 0.02). However, the incidence of bleeding was not significantly different between above knee and below knee vein thrombosis (P = 0.72). In conclusion, below knee vein thrombosis carries a relatively low risk of PTE, but the incidence of bleeding complications does not depend on thrombosis location. This suggests that the indication of anticoagulation therapy should be based on DVT location.
    International Heart Journal 01/2013; 54(3):166-70. DOI:10.1536/ihj.54.166
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    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet therapy could prevent stent thrombosis, but may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Recent studies have revealed that bleeding complications are relatively frequent in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Our aim was to describe the current status of antiplatelet therapy for Japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The Japan AMI (J-AMI) registry is a prospective observational study that has enrolled 2,030 consecutive patients with stent thrombosis elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted to 213 participating Japanese institutions. Current antiplatelet therapy for STEMI was assessed, and the occurrence of bleeding complications (based on GUSTO bleeding criteria) and stent thrombosis was also evaluated. Additionally, the clinical course after bleeding episodes was investigated. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was done in 97.2 % of the patients, using a drug-eluting stent in 30 % and a bare metal stent in 63 % of PCI cases. A 300-mg loading dose of clopidogrel followed by its administration at 75 mg/day with aspirin was the current standard treatment for Japanese STEMI patients. In-hospital bleeding complications occurred in 1.9 %, especially in patients with severe clinical features or a history of cerebrovascular disease. Moderate to severe bleeding complications were associated with 10 deaths. The in-hospital stent thrombosis (ST) rate was 1.47 %, and loading with clopidogrel prior to PCI was significantly less frequent in patients who developed ST (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the J-AMI registry revealed that severe symptoms of STEMI increased the risk of bleeding, while delay of clopidogrel loading was associated with ST. These findings suggest the need for treatment based on risk stratification to improve the balance between the beneficial and adverse effects of antiplatelet therapy in Japanese STEMI patients.
    12/2012; 28(4). DOI:10.1007/s12928-012-0146-8
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure 10/2012; 18(10):S164. DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.08.210
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    ABSTRACT: The door-to-balloon time and total ischemic time are important predictors of the outcome in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving primary angioplasty, but the current situation in Japan is unknown. The Japan Acute Myocardial Infarction registry is a prospective observational study of 2,030 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to 213 Japanese institutions. The time from symptom onset to hospital arrival, door-to-balloon time, and in-hospital outcome were assessed. Data were compared between patients treated during regular hours or after hours. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was done in 97.2 % of the patients, using drug-eluting stents in 30 % and bare metal stents in 63 % of the treated cases. The median symptom onset-to-door time (25th and 75th percentiles) was 135 min (64-305 min), median door-to-balloon time was 42 min (28-66 min), and mean procedural time was 98 ± 51 min. The on-call catheterization team performed 48.5 % of the procedures. There was no significant difference of door-to-balloon time between the patients treated after hours and those treated during regular hours. The cardiac mortality rate was 3.2 %, and it increased with longer door-to-balloon times (P = 0.03). The relationship between total ischemic time and cardiac mortality showed 2 peaks, with a trough at 5 h. Median door-to-balloon time was <90 min and was not longer in after hours cases. These findings suggest that Japanese institutions can provide primary angioplasty within an acceptable time frame.
    09/2012; 28(4). DOI:10.1007/s12928-012-0128-x
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged P-wave duration, indicating atrial conduction delay, is a marker of left atrial abnormality and is reported as a potent precursor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Several studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with AF. We evaluated the relationship between OSA and prolonged P-wave duration. Consecutive subjects who underwent overnight polysomnography and showed a normal sinus rhythm, had no history of AF or ischemic heart disease, and showed no evidence of heart failure were enrolled. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is defined as the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep. P-wave duration was determined on the basis of the mean duration of three consecutive beats in lead II from a digitally stored electrocardiogram. A total of 250 subjects (middle-aged, predominantly male, mildly obese, with a mean P-wave duration of 106 ms) were enrolled. In addition to age, male gender, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and uric acid and creatinine levels, AHI (r = 0.56; P < 0.001) had significant univariable relationship with P-wave duration. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, BMI, male gender, and AHI (partial correlation coefficient, 0.47; P < 0.001) were significantly independently correlated to P-wave duration. Severity of OSA is significantly associated with delayed atrial conduction time. Obstructive sleep apnea may lead to progression of atrial remodeling as an AF substrate.
    Heart and Vessels 09/2012; 28(5). DOI:10.1007/s00380-012-0288-8
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    ABSTRACT: Pivotal studies on drug-eluting stents have excluded hemodialysis (HD) patients. No quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) analysis has been reported. The OUtcome of Cypher stent in Hemodialysis patients (OUCH) Study is a prospective non-randomized single-arm registry designed to assess the results of sirolimus-eluting stents in HD patients, with follow-up QCA in an independent core laboratory. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of target-vessel failure (TVF) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-vessel revascularization (TVR) at 1 year. A total of 117 patients were enrolled. The TVF rate was 24.9% (2.6% cardiac death, 1.4% MI, 23.9% TVR), and stent thrombosis was documented in 1 patient (0.9%). Coronary calcification was a predictor of TVF. Late lumen loss (LLL) averaged 0.69±0.93mm. The histogram of LLL showed that a total of 76% of lesions were distributed the same normally as that in normal renal function (average LLL 0.20±0.29mm), but 24% of lesions were outliers (average LLL 2.07±0.62mm). This report describes different clinical and QCA results in HD patients as higher TVF rate, different predictive factors, and different histogram of LLL compared with normal renal function. The different histogram of LLL was the existence of many outliers with the same average and the same deviation, suggesting the loss of sirolimus had an effect on a significant number of HD patients.
    Circulation Journal 05/2012; 76(8):1856-63. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-12-0046
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). After performing an initial titration study, most physicians do not have the CPAP equipment retitrated unless the patient complains about the CPAP use. Several automated CPAP devices are used clinically that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP. The aim of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by automated CPAP devices to that obtained from polysomnography. Methods Patients with OSA underwent polysomnography for CPAP titration using the REMstar Auto M-series. The initial two hours of CPAP titration were spent at a subtherapeutic pressure of 4 cmH(2)O so that more breathing events could be observed. The correlations between the simultaneous determination of the AHI with polysomnography (AHI-PSG) and the automated device (AHI-RAM) during the subtherapeutic, therapeutic and overall phases were evaluated. In addition, the apnea index (AI) and the hypopnea index (HI) were each evaluated separately. Results Sixty patients were enrolled. The mean AHI on diagnostic PSG was 35.2±2.6 events/hour. Strong correlations were observed between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-RAM (subtherapeutic: r=0.958, p<0.001; therapeutic: r=0.824, p<0.001; overall: r=0.927, p<0.001). A slightly stronger correlation was observed between the AI values, whereas a weaker correlation was observed between the HI values in all three phases. Conclusion Strong correlations between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-RAM were observed. The correlations were weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI and the therapeutic phase.
    Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(20):2877-85. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.51.8249
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    ABSTRACT: The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been linked to arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. However, an effective antihypertensive agent for patients with SDB has not been identified. We investigated the effect of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blocker olmesartan in hypertensive patients with SDB. This prospective, one-arm pilot study included 25 male patients with untreated SDB (mean age, 52.7 ± 11.4 years). We measured blood pressure, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cardiac function using echocardiography, and insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) before and after 12 weeks of olmesartan therapy (mean dose, 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day). Olmesartan significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (151.4 ± 8.0 vs. 134.0 ± 7.4 mmHg; P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (93.4 ± 7.1 vs. 83.9 ± 6.3 mmHg; P < 0.001), and HOMA index (3.7 ± 2.9 vs. 2.8 ± 1.9; P = 0.012). Furthermore, left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased at 12 weeks (68.1 ± 5.1 vs. 71.6 ± 5.4%; P = 0.009). However, body mass index (BMI) and degree of SDB did not change (BMI, 26.6 ± 4.0 vs. 26.6 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P = 0.129; 3% ODI, 29.5 ± 23.1 vs. 28.2 ± 21.0 events/h, P = 0.394). Olmesartan significantly reduced blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with SDB without changing BMI or SDB severity.
    Heart and Vessels 11/2011; 26(6):603-8. DOI:10.1007/s00380-010-0104-2
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    ABSTRACT: A few reports have shown that cardiac valve repair may improve central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with valvular heart disease. It has been suggested that such improvements are associated with the improvement of cardiac function. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with mitral regurgitation, whose CSA converted to predominant obstructive sleep apnea following mitral valvuloplasty in association with a shortening of lung-to-finger circulation time.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 10/2011; 7(5):523-5. DOI:10.5664/JCSM.1324
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have an elevated arterial stiffness, and alleviation of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) might attenuate this. Recently, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) has been reported to be a highly reproducible arterial stiffness parameter in OSA patients. However, the change in CAVI that occurs following long-term CPAP treatment for OSA remains unclear. Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were enrolled. Changes in CAVI at 1 and 12 months after CPAP initiation (ΔCAVI(1) and ΔCAVI(12), respectively) were assessed. Factors associated with ΔCAVI(1) and ΔCAVI(12) were determined by multivariable regression analyses. Thirty subjects were assessed. CAVI was significantly reduced at 1 month compared with the baseline from 7.80 ± 1.19 to 7.56 ± 1.08 (p = 0.013). A non-significant reduction was observed at 12 months (7.72 ± 1.18, p = 0.365 versus baseline) and CAVI had actually increased compared with that measured at 1 month. In multivariable analyses, ΔCAVI(1) was inversely correlated with CPAP usage (coefficient: -0.500, p = 0.006) and was directly correlated with the change in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency in heart rate variability (coefficient: 0.607, p < 0.001), whereas ΔCAVI(12) was related to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin-II-receptor blockers (ARB; coefficient: 0.464, p = 0.013), was directly correlated with the change in hemoglobin A1c levels (coefficient: 0.644, p < 0.001), and was inversely correlated with the change in CPAP usage (coefficient: -0.380, p = 0.046). CAVI was significantly reduced by short-term CPAP and then slightly increased from 1 to 12 months, which was probably due to natural progression associated with the aging process. However, long-term CPAP treatment had the beneficial effect of maintaining CAVI below baseline levels when associated with the use of ACE-I/ARB, the control of blood glucose and the CPAP compliance.
    Journal of Cardiology 05/2011; 58(1):74-82. DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.03.005