E E Schoenbaum

State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, United States

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Publications (124)979.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial pneumonia risk is disproportionately high among those infected with HIV. This risk is present across all CD4(+) T-cell levels (TCLs), suggesting that additional factors govern susceptibility. This study examines CD8(+) TCLs and risk for HIV-associated bacterial pneumonia and all-cause mortality. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained for 885 HIV-infected women enrolled in the HIV Epidemiologic Research Study (HERS). Bacterial pneumonia cases were identified using clinical, microbiological, and radiographic criteria. CD8(+) TCLs were assessed at 6-month intervals. Statistical methods included Cox proportional hazards regression modeling and covariate-adjusted survival estimates. Relative to a referent CD8(+) TCL of 401-800 cells per cubic millimeter, risk for bacterial pneumonia was significantly higher when CD8(+) TCLs were <400 (hazard ratio 1.65, P = 0.017, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.49), after adjusting for age, CD4(+) TCL, viral load, and antiretroviral use. There was also a significantly higher risk of death when CD8(+) TCLs were ≤400 cells per cubic millimeter (hazard ratio 1.45, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.06). Covariate-adjusted survival estimates revealed shorter time to pneumonia and death in this CD8(+) TCL category, and the overall associations of the categorized CD8(+) TCL with bacterial pneumonia and all-cause mortality were each statistically significant (P = 0.017 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CD8(+) TCL ≤400 cells per cubic millimeter was associated with increased risk for pneumonia and all-cause mortality in HIV-infected women in the HERS cohort, suggesting that CD8(+) TCL could serve as an adjunctive biomarker of pneumonia risk and mortality in HIV-infected individuals.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2012; 60(2):191-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of data from a prospective study of 1257 high-risk women revealed 7 predictors of discordance between self-reported lack of recent exposure to semen and detection of spermatozoa on Gram stain, suggesting that inaccuracies in the reporting of sexual behaviors cannot be assumed to be distributed randomly.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 10/2011; 38(10):909-12. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook a prospective study to assess the impact of HIV infection on BMD in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women that included illicit drug users, and to measure the contribution of traditional risk factors as well as HIV-related factors to loss of BMD over time. We analyzed BMD at baseline and after ≥18 months in 245 middle-aged HIV-infected and 219 uninfected women, and conducted linear regression analysis to determine factors associated with annual BMD change at the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine. HIV-infected women had lower baseline BMD at the femoral neck and total hip compared with controls; unadjusted rates of BMD change did not differ by HIV status at any site. In multivariable analyses, we found that HIV seropositivity without protease inhibitor (PI) use was associated with BMD decline at the lumbar spine (-.009g/cm(2) per year, p=.03). Additional factors associated with BMD decline were: postmenopausal status, lower BMI, and methadone use at the lumbar spine; postmenopausal status and hepatitis C seropositivity at the femoral neck; and postmenopausal status, age, smoking, and lower BMI at the total hip (all p<.05). Among HIV-infected women, ≥3 years of PI use was associated with an increase in lumbar spine BMD (.013g/cm(2) per year, p=.008). Bone loss among HIV-infected middle-aged women was modest, and possibly mitigated by PI use. Methadone use was associated with BMD decline, and should be considered when evaluating women for osteoporosis risk.
    Maturitas 09/2011; 70(3):295-301. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV infection has been associated with development of prediabetes and diabetes. Optimum screening practices for these disorders in HIV-infected populations remain unclear. We screened 377 adults, with or at-risk for HIV infection, for incident hyperglycaemia (prediabetes or diabetes) using two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) a median of 18.6 months apart. We determined proportion of incident cases detected by fasting and 120-min plasma glucose levels. Independent predictors of incident hyperglycaemia were identified using logistic regression. The baseline OGTT was consistent with diabetes in 7% of participants and with prediabetes in 31%. Among 352 normoglycaemic and prediabetic participants at baseline, 19 (5%) developed diabetes on follow-up. Among participants normoglycaemic at baseline, an additional 38 (16%) developed prediabetes. Overall 52% of incident hyperglycaemia cases were detected by fasting plasma glucose alone, 33% by a 120-min glucose level alone and 15% by both. Factors independently associated with incident hyperglycaemia included age ≥50 years and body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2). Neither HIV infection nor highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use were associated with increased risk of diabetes. Incident hyperglycaemia is common among older adults with or at-risk for HIV infection. HIV-infected individuals with classic diabetes risk factors should be screened for hyperglycaemia regardless of HAART use. OGTTs might be the preferred screening strategy in HIV-infected individuals at high risk for developing hyperglycaemia.
    Antiviral therapy 01/2011; 16(2):181-8. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To define the characteristics of effective mentor-protégé relationships in a Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) and to assess the agreement among mentors and protégés regarding those attributes. The authors administered an anonymous survey to protégés who completed the Albert Einstein College of Medicine's CRTP during its first seven years (2000-2006) and their mentors. Statements included aspects of mentoring thought to be important within the program, such as availability (Statement 1) and oversight of the thesis process (Statements 2-4). Additional statements were related both to career development (e.g., looking out for the best interests of the scholar and assisting in negotiations for a faculty position after program completion [Statements 5 and 6]) and to the expectation that the mentor would continue to be a resource for the protégé in years to come (Statement 7). The authors assessed overall agreement among mentors and protégés, using matched pair analysis. Overall response was 70.7% (133/188), with fewer matched pairs (n = 50, 50%). Seventy-five percent of respondents agreed strongly or somewhat with all statements. Analysis indicated significant agreement with Statements 2, 4, 6, and 7. Median scores from protégés did not differ whether their mentor responded (paired) or not (unpaired); however, mentor-protégé pairs had significantly greater agreement with Statements 3-7 than unpaired mentors and protégés (P < .01). Mentors and protégés seemed to agree that mentors within a CRTP demonstrated effective mentor attributes, including fostering a long-term relationship with the protégé.
    Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 06/2010; 85(6):1067-72. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because translational research is not clearly defined, developers of translational research programs are struggling to articulate specific program objectives, delineate the knowledge and skills (competencies) that trainees are expected to develop, create an appropriate curriculum, and track outcomes to assess whether program objectives and competency requirements are being met. Members of the Evaluation Committee of the Association for Clinical Research Training (ACRT) reviewed current definitions of translational research and proposed an operational definition to use in the educational framework. In this article, the authors posit that translational research fosters the multidirectional and multidisciplinary integration of basic research, patient-oriented research, and population-based research, with the long-term aim of improving the health of the public. The authors argue that the approach to designing and evaluating the success of translational training programs must therefore be flexible enough to accommodate the needs of individual institutions and individual trainees within the institutions but that it must also be rigorous enough to document that the program is meeting its short-, intermediate-, and long-term objectives and that its trainees are meeting preestablished competency requirements. A logic model is proposed for the evaluation of translational research programs.
    Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 03/2010; 85(3):470-5. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present even prior to the menopausal transition. All of these risks, present at midlife, augur poorly for future health and describe a substantially increased burden of disease likely to accrue to HIV-infected women as they enter older age groups. Further compounding the adversity faced by the HIV infected, the demographics of women most vulnerable to this disease include adverse social and economic influences, both of which worsen their long-term prognosis. For example, drug use and poverty are related to more severe menopausal symptoms and chronic stress is related to worse psychological and cardiovascular risk. An understanding of how menopause interacts with HIV infection is therefore most important to alert the clinician to perform surveillance for common health problems in postmenopausal women, and to address directly and appropriately symptomatology during the menopausal transition.
    Maturitas 09/2009; 64(3):160-4. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the association of alcohol consumption and depression, and their effects on HIV disease progression among women with HIV. The study included 871 women with HIV who were recruited from 1993-1995 in four US cities. The participants had physical examination, medical record extraction, and venipuncture, CD4+T-cell counts determination, measurement of depression symptoms (using the self-report Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale), and alcohol use assessment at enrollment, and semiannually until March 2000. Multilevel random coefficient ordinal models as well as multilevel models with joint responses were used in the analysis. There was no significant association between level of alcohol use and CD4+ T-cell counts. When participants were stratified by antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, the association between alcohol and CD4+ T-cell did not reach statistical significance. The association between alcohol consumption and depression was significant (p<0.001). Depression had a significant negative effect on CD4+ T-cell counts over time regardless of ART use. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has a direct association with depression. Moreover, depression is associated with HIV disease progression. Our findings have implications for the provision of alcohol use interventions and psychological resources to improve the health of women with HIV.
    AIDS Care 07/2009; 21(7):834-41. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals may be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. Although this is partially attributable to metabolic factors, HIV-associated inflammation may play a role. To investigate associations of HIV disease with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) levels and atherosclerosis burden. A cross-sectional analysis. : Serum MCP-1/CCL2, fasting lipids, and glucose tolerance were measured in 98 HIV-infected and 79 demographically similar uninfected adults. Eighty-four participants had MRI of the carotid arteries and thoracic aorta to measure atherosclerosis burden. Multivariate analyses were performed using linear regression. Mean MCP-1/CCL2 levels did not differ between HIV-infected and uninfected participants (P = 0.65). Among HIV-infected participants, after adjusting for age, BMI, and cigarette smoking, HIV-1 viral load was positively associated with MCP-1/CCL2 (P = 0.02). Multivariate analyses adjusting for sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, cigarette smoking, MCP-1/CCL2, and protease inhibitor use found that HIV infection was associated with greater mean thoracic aorta vessel wall area (VWA, P < 0.01) and vessel wall thickness (VWT, P = 0.03), but not with carotid artery parameters. Compared with being uninfected, having detectable HIV-1 viremia was associated with greater mean thoracic aorta VWA (P < 0.01) and VWT (P = 0.03), whereas being HIV-infected with undetectable viral load was associated with greater thoracic aorta VWA (P = 0.02) but not VWT (P = 0.15). There was an independent positive association of MCP-1/CCL2 with thoracic aorta VWA (P = 0.01) and VWT (P = 0.01). HIV-1 viral burden is associated with higher serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2 and with atherosclerosis burden, as assessed by thoracic aorta VWA and VWT.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2009; 23(8):941-9. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dramatic improvement in the survival of the HIV population has occurred with the ascendance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the foreseeable future, HIV-infected women who acquired disease during the peak years of the epidemic are expected to survive to experience menopause and even years beyond. The HIV epidemic may be viewed as 'mature', as its earlier victims become part of the geriatric population. Research about the process of menopause in HIV-infected women and, conversely, about HIV infection in women undergoing menopause is currently limited. Existing research suggests that the process of menopause is affected by HIV infection, inasmuch as infected women appear to experience menopause at an earlier age, with greater symptomatology, and with different reproductive hormone profiles compared with HIV-uninfected women. HIV infection also appears to affect bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease and cognition, with some age-related interactions. Lifestyle and demographic factors have pervasive importance for both HIV infection and the menopause in women. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the menopausal process in HIV-infected women, and the common conditions in postmenopausal women that are likely to be affected by HIV infection. Clinicians should appreciate the potential role of HIV infection in caring for menopause-aged women.
    Menopause International 01/2009; 14(4):163-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with menopause status and vasomotor symptoms among middle-aged, impoverished women. The baseline interview and laboratory data from a study on menopause were used for a cross-sectional analysis of HCV antibody and HCV-RNA levels and their relationship to menopause status and symptoms, using logistic regression. For HCV-infected and HCV-uninfected women, menopause status was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Of 559 participants, 48% were black, 38.6% were Hispanic, and 267 (47.8%) were HCV seropositive; of these, 189 (72.1%) had detectable HCV-RNA levels. The median age was 43 years [interquartile range (IQR), 40-46 years]; 50.2% of the women were premenopausal, 31.8% were perimenopausal, and 18% were postmenopausal. Median age at natural menopause was 46 years (IQR, 42.25-49 years) in HCV-infected women compared with 47 years (IQR, 40.25-48 years) in uninfected controls. Women infected with HCV were more likely to be postmenopausal than were uninfected women (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.77). Human immunodeficiency virus status (ORadj, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04-2.75), drug use (ORadj, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.42-3.86), and nulliparity (ORadj, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.42-5.29) were independently associated with natural menopause, whereas being more physically active (ORadj, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95) was inversely associated with menopause. Women infected with HCV were more likely than uninfected women to report vasomotor symptoms (ORadj, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.18). Hepatitis C virus infection is independently associated with natural menopause, controlling for age. In addition, HCV was associated with vasomotor symptoms. Further studies are warranted to better understand the menopausal transition in HCV-infected women.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 12/2008; 16(2):401-6. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is prevalent among HIV-infected persons, but have focused primarily on men who have sex with men. To determine factors associated with CAM use in an inner city population, individuals (n = 93) recruited from two established cohort studies were interviewed between October and November 2004. The interview assessed the use of dietary supplements and other CAM therapies, reasons for CAM use, and use of prescription medications. Study participants were 52% male and 47% HIV infected. Median age was 50 years, and 60% reported illicit drug use ever. CAM use during the prior 6 months was reported by 94%, with 48% reporting daily use of a dietary supplement. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and soy were used more often by HIV-infected than uninfected persons (p < 0.05). Prevention of illness was the most common reason for dietary supplement use (27%). HIV-infected persons were more likely than uninfected persons (95% versus 67%) to report use of both dietary supplements and prescription medications within the past 6 months (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, CI 1.3, 7.7) was the only factor associated with daily dietary supplement use whereas gender, race/ethnicity, working in the last year, homelessness, and financial comfort were not associated. CAM use among persons with or at risk for HIV infection due to drug use or high-risk heterosexual behaviors is common, and is used almost exclusively as an adjunct and not an alternative to conventional health care.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2008; 22(10):811-6. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been hypothesized to influence the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. This premise is based largely on laboratory models showing that IGF-I stimulates thymic growth and increases lymphocyte numbers and that IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 has an opposing effect, inhibiting hematopoietic stem cell development. We studied 1422 HIV-infected women enrolled in a large cohort that entailed semiannual follow-up (initiated in 1994). Baseline serum samples were tested for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to determine their associations with incident clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and CD4+ T cell count decline prior to April 1996 (before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]). Low IGF-I levels (Ptrend= .02) and high IGFBP-3 levels (Ptrend= .02) were associated with rapid CD4+ T cell count decline. Only IGFBP-3, however, was significantly associated with AIDS incidence (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest quartile, 2.65 [95% confidence interval, 1.30-5.42]; Ptrend= .02) in multivariable models. These findings suggest that serum levels of IGFBP-3 (and possibly IGF-I) are associated with the rate of HIV disease progression in women and, more broadly, that interindividual heterogeneity in the IGF axis may influence HIV pathogenesis. If correct, the IGF axis could be a target for interventions to slow HIV disease progression and extend the time before use of HAART becomes necessary.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2008; 197(2):319-27. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA. Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal. Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16-2.57) than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of > 3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events-being a witness to a murder, and the death ofa child-were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.93, respectively). Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes. HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2008; 3(3):561-6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased cardiovascular risk has been linked to HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy, but the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) status on indices of cardiovascular risk has not been routinely assessed in the HIV-infected population. The objective of this study was to analyze associations of HCV, HIV, and combination antiretroviral therapy with lipid levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) among older men. We measured fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, and high-sensitivity CRP serum levels in a cross-sectional study of 108 HIV-infected and 74 HIV-uninfected at-risk older men. One hundred ten men (60%) had detectable HCV RNA, with no difference by HIV status (p = 0.25). The majority (88%) of men with HCV infection had a history of injection drug use. Among all men, HCV infection was independently associated with lower total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.01), and CRP (p = 0.001). Among HIV-infected men, HCV infection was associated with lower total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001), and CRP (p = 0.004). HCV infection was associated with lower triglycerides among men on protease inhibitors (PI) (p = 0.02) and non-PI combination antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.02), but not among antiretroviral-naïve men. These findings demonstrate an association of lower serum lipid and CRP levels with HCV infection and suggest that HCV status should be assessed as an important correlate of cardiovascular risk factors in studies of older men with or at risk for HIV.
    AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 08/2007; 21(7):479-91. · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • AIDS 04/2007; 21(6):785-6. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether long-term drug treatment with on-site medical care is associated with diminished inpatient and outpatient service use and expenditures, we linked prospective interview data to concurrent Medicaid claims of drug users in a methadone program with comprehensive medical services. Patient care was classified as follows: long-term (>/=6 months) drug treatment with on-site usual source of medical care (linked care), long-term drug treatment only, or neither. Multivariate analyses adjusted for visit clustering within patients (n = 423, with 1,161 person-years of observation). After adjustment, linked care participants had more outpatient visits (p < .001), fewer emergency department (ED) visits (24% vs. 33%, p = .02) and fewer hospitalizations (27% vs. 40%, p = .002) than the "neither" group. Ambulatory care expenditures in the linked group were increased, whereas expenditures for other services were similar or reduced. Long-term drug treatment with on-site medical care was associated with increased ambulatory care, less ED and inpatient care, and no net increase in expenditures.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 03/2007; 32(2):143-51. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with insulin resistance and abnormal glucose tolerance in a cohort of older adults with or at risk of HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 267 HIV-infected and 179 at-risk-uninfected adults without a history of diabetes mellitus. HCV antibody assays and RNA levels were performed to assess HCV status. Antiretroviral use, family history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, and sociodemographic data were obtained using standardized interviews. Fasting insulin levels and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to assess two outcomes, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and abnormal glucose tolerance [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes]. Of 446 participants, 265 (59%) were HCV seropositive; of these, 199 (75%) had detectable HCV-RNA levels. Insulin resistance was greater among HCV-seropositive compared with seronegative participants, adjusting for body mass index, Hispanic ethnicity, age greater than 55 years, sedentary behavior (watching television > 4 h/day), HIV status, HAART, and protease inhibitor (PI) use. Ninety-eight participants (22%) had abnormal glucose tolerance (69 with IGT and 29 with diabetes). Among HIV-infected participants, 25% were on non-PI HAART and 52% were on PI HAART, but HAART and PI use were not associated with insulin resistance or abnormal glucose tolerance. Among obese participants, abnormal glucose tolerance was more common in HCV-seropositive than seronegative individuals, whereas among non-obese participants there was no association. The potential impact of HCV co-infection and obesity on glucose metabolism should be recognized in clinical care, and addressed in future research studies of HIV-infected individuals.
    AIDS 03/2007; 21(5):633-41. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of factors associated with negative body image among 550 older men with or at-risk for HIV infection, including demographics, depression, illicit drug use, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. Overall, 31 per cent of participants reported negative body image, which was independently associated with increased BMI, self-rated fair/poor health, depression, and erectile dysfunction, but not HIV status. Screening for and treating depression, sexual dysfunction, and obesity in older men should be considered.
    AIDS Care 03/2007; 19(2):235-41. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the utility of booster testing and to identify factors associated with a positive booster test, two-step tuberculin testing was performed in drug users recruited from methadone treatment. Participants also received a standardized interview on demographics and testing for HIV and CD4+ lymphocyte count. Of 619 enrollees completing the protocol, 174 (28%) had a positive PPD and 24 of the remaining 445 (5%) had a positive booster test. On multivariate analysis, boosting was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 2.38/decade, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-4.22), history of using crack cocaine (ORadj 2.61, 95% CI 1.10-6.18) and a history of working as a home health aide (ORadj 4.23, 95% CI 1.39-12.86). Two-step tuberculin skin testing increased the proportion of participants with latent tuberculosis infection from 22% to 25%. Given the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis, booster testing should be considered when drug users are screened for tuberculosis infection.
    Journal of Addictive Diseases 02/2007; 26(2):71-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
979.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 1987–2011
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Women's Health
      • • Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Epidemiology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1988–2008
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2007
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Medicine (RWJ Medical School)
      Newark, NJ, United States
  • 1991–1996
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Intervention and Support
      Druid Hills, GA, United States