[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC) compared with lamotrigine (Lam) for long-term treatment of bipolar I depression, this 25-wk, randomized, double-blind study compared OFC (6/25, 6/50, 12/25, or 12/50 mg/d, n=205) with Lam titrated to 200 mg/d (n=205) in patients with bipolar I disorder, depressed. A protocol-specified analysis of 7-wk outcomes was previously reported. Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) (primary), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores. OFC-treated patients had significantly greater improvement than Lam-treated patients over 25 wk on CGI-S (p=0.008), MADRS (p=0.005), and YMRS (p<0.001) scores, and from baseline across visits from week 5 (titration complete) to the end of the study on CGI-S (p=0.043), MADRS (p=0.017), and YMRS (p=0.001) scores. Of patients in remission after the 7-wk acute phase, there was no significant difference between treatment groups in the incidence of relapse (MADRS >15, p=0.528). Rate of treatment-emergent mania was not significantly different by treatment (p=0.401). OFC-treated patients had more frequent (p<0.05) somnolence, increased appetite, dry mouth, sedation, weight gain, and tremor; Lam-treated patients had more frequent insomnia. There was a significant difference in incidence of treatment-emergent cholesterol > or = 240 (p<0.001) and in weight gain of > or = 7% (p<0.001) in favour of the Lam group. Patients with bipolar I depression had significantly greater symptom improvement over 25 wk on OFC compared with Lam. There was no treatment difference in incidence of relapse. OFC-treated patients had more treatment-emergent adverse events and greater incidence of weight gain and hypercholesterolaemia.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2008; 12(6):773-82. DOI:10.1017/S1461145708009735 · 4.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from a published double-blind randomized trial comparing olanzapine versus haloperidol in acute mania were used to address the response and tolerability of Latin American patients. Primary efficacy end point was the remission rate (Young Mania Rating Scale score <or=12 and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of <or=8). Patients were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. The mean modal doses (milligrams per day) were similar in Latin American (OL) (14.2; n = 51) and white (OC) (15.1; n = 120) patients treated with olanzapine, and in Latin American (HL) (7.1; n = 48) and white (HC) (8.5; n = 113) patients treated with haloperidol. At week 6, remission rates were similar among the OL and HL patients (64.7% vs. 68.8%) but were higher in the OC than in HC (49.2% vs. 32.7%; P = 0.012). Significantly more HL than OL patients experienced extrapyramidal symptoms such as akathisia and tremor. Tremor was significantly higher in HL than in HC patients, whereas a significant increase in the Barnes Akathisia Scale and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores was observed in HC versus HL. Somnolence and weight gain were significantly higher in OL than in OC patients, and more OL and OC patients experienced weight gain in comparison with the HL and HC groups, respectively. The incidence of nonfasting glucose levels above normal levels did not statistically differ between groups. In conclusion, in contrast to our findings among white patients, the Latin American patients who have acute mania did not differ in overall response to olanzapine or haloperidol. The pattern of adverse events differed between treatment groups. Prospective clinical trials in Latin American bipolar populations are justified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaps remain between rating scale changes obtained in a clinical trial and what those results mean in clinical practice.
To better understand the relevance of results from a clinical trial we examined the relationship between rating scale measures and the clinicians' assessment of illness severity.
Data from a randomized double-blind 8-week study of bipolar I depression were examined post hoc in patients who received placebo (PLA, n = 355), olanzapine (n = 351) (OLZ, 5 to 20 mg/d), or olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (n = 82) (OFC, 6 and 25, 6 and 50, or 12 and 50 mg/d). Principal components analysis identified related symptoms (factors) from Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item scores. Regression analysis examined baseline to endpoint changes in factor scores and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores. Mixed-effects model repeated measures analysis assessed differences between treatment groups.
MADRS factors identified were: sadness, negative thoughts, detachment, and neurovegetative symptoms. Factor and CGI scores were significantly reduced from baseline to endpoint (LOCF) in the combination therapy group as compared with placebo (p < .01). Changes in factor scores were highly correlated (p < .001) with changes in the CGI. Over 80% of this treatment effect was attributable to indirect effects of improvements in the MADRS factors, the remaining difference could not be explained even when changes in the YMRS and HAMA scores were included in the analytical model.
The changes in MADRS factors were closely aligned with the clinician's assessment of overall depression severity, which may suggest a high degree of clinical relevance for differences observed between treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure to recognize bipolar disorder in patients who experience a major depressive episode may lead to inappropriate treatment and poorer outcomes. Clinical features that could distinguish bipolar from unipolar depression would facilitate more appropriate treatment selection.
The authors used data from nonpsychotic outpatients participating in three large multicenter clinical trials conducted in the United States for the treatment of major depressive episodes to compare 477 subjects with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 1,074 with major depressive disorder.
Bipolar depression was associated with family history of bipolar disorder, an earlier age at onset, a greater previous number of depressive episodes, and eight individual symptom items on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Fears were more common in patients with bipolar disorder, whereas sadness; insomnia; intellectual (cognitive), somatic (muscular), respiratory, genitourinary complaints; and depressed behavior were more common in patients with unipolar depression. A logistic regression model correctly classified 86.9% of the subjects.
Bipolar depression and major depressive disorder exhibit subtle differences in presentation, which may help guide the initial diagnosis.
American Journal of Psychiatry 03/2006; 163(2):225-31. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.225 · 12.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid cycling in bipolar disorder has been associated with greater morbidity. We examine whether rapid cycling affects treatment response to olanzapine or divalproex in acute mania.
A post hoc analysis of a 47-week, randomized, double-blind study compared olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex sodium (500-2500 mg/day) for bipolar manic or mixed episodes (N=251). Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores > or = 20 were required for inclusion. Patients were classified at study entry as "rapid cyclers" if they experienced > or = 4 episodes within the last year. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze YMRS change from baseline.
A significant three-way interaction (cycling frequency by medication by visit) was found when modeling change in YMRS total scores. For patients with bipolar I disorder identified as rapid cyclers, mania improvement across the trial did not differ significantly between treatment groups (p=0.181). Among non-rapid cyclers, olanzapine-treated patients had significantly greater YMRS improvement than divalproex-treated patients across the trial (p<0.001) and at most time points. Among olanzapine-treated patients, non-rapid cyclers experienced numerically greater YMRS improvement than rapid cyclers throughout the trial; statistically significant differences occurred at weeks 11, 15 and 39. In contrast, among divalproex-treated patients, YMRS scores were significantly better in rapid cyclers than non-rapid cyclers during the first two study weeks but were comparable thereafter. A similar pattern was seen in Clinical Global Impressions-Mania Severity scores. Hamilton Depression scores in rapid versus non-rapid cycling patients differed at some time points but not over the entire trial and differences by cycling status were not treatment-specific.
Apart from the post hoc nature of the analyses, there were high dropout rates in both groups, and cycle frequency was not taken into account.
Rapid cycling patients did less well over long-term treatment than non-rapid cycling patients. Among rapid cycling patients, olanzapine and divalproex appear similarly effective against manic symptoms; however, among non-rapid cycling patients, olanzapine-treated patients experienced superior mania improvement. Olanzapine-treated, non-rapid cyclers experienced greater mania improvement than rapid cyclers. The converse was true of divalproex-treated patients early in treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few controlled studies examine the treatment of depressive features in mania.
To evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine, in combination with lithium or valproate, for treating depressive symptoms associated with mania.
Secondary analysis of a 6-week, double-blind, randomised study of olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) or placebo combined with ongoing valproate or lithium open treatment for 344 patients in mixed or manic episodes. This analysis focused on a dysphoric subgroup with baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) total scores of 20 or over contrasted with non-dysphoric patients.
In the dysphoric subgroup (n=85) mean HRSD total score improvement was significantly greater in olanzapine co-therapy patients than in those receiving placebo plus lithium or valproate (P<0.001). Substantial contributors to this superiority included the HRSD Maier sub-scale (P=0.013) and the suicide item (P=0.001). Total Young Mania Rating Scale improvement was also superior with olanzapine co-therapy.
In patients with acute dysphoric mania, addition of olanzapine to ongoing lithium or valproate monotherapy significantly improved depressive symptom, mania and suicidality ratings.
The British Journal of Psychiatry 01/2005; 185:472-8. DOI:10.1192/bjp.185.6.472 · 7.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to develop and validate an excitement subscale from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to allow the investigation of mania-like excitement symptoms in clinical trials of patients with schizophrenia using the PANSS and to provide clinicians with a short assessment tool for these states.
Baseline PANSS data from six double-blind, randomized registration trials of olanzapine, three in schizophrenia and three in acute bipolar mania, were used in these post-hoc analyses. Schizophrenia study data were pooled and randomly split in half. Exploratory principal component factor analysis was performed on half of the data. Factors were extracted based on minimum eigenvalue criteria (eigenvalue> or =1); loadings were determined using an equamax rotation. Confirmatory principal component factor analysis was performed on the other half of the data, retaining the original number of factors. Principal component factor analysis was also done for the pooled bipolar studies. Change in the new mania-like factor scores was then correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS) scores in each bipolar study.
Exploratory principal components analysis on the pooled schizophrenia data extracted five factors: negative, positive, excitement, cognitive, and depressive factors. The mania-like excitement factor was represented by four items (uncooperativeness, poor impulse control, excitement, and hostility), with only moderate loadings by tension and suspiciousness/persecution. Results were similar in the confirmatory analysis and the pooled bipolar studies. Change from baseline to endpoint for the mania-like factor correlated reasonably well (0.64-0.78) with change in Y-MRS scores in the bipolar studies. At baseline, bipolar patients scored higher than patients with schizophrenia on three of four PANSS mania-like factor items: poor impulse control, excitement, and hostility; the converse was true for most other PANSS items.
Factor analyses of the PANSS consistently uncovered an excitement factor including uncooperativeness, poor impulse control, excitement, and hostility items. This factor may be useful in examining manic symptoms in studies where the addition of a scale specific to mania would be burdensome and where symptoms of excitement are part of the clinical presentation.
Schizophrenia Research 07/2004; 68(2-3):331-7. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00087-2 · 3.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few double-blind trials have compared longer-term efficacy and safety of medications for bipolar disorder. The authors report a 47-week comparison of olanzapine and divalproex.
This 47-week, randomized, double-blind study compared flexibly dosed olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex (500-2500 mg/day) for manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (N=251). The only other psychoactive medication allowed was lorazepam for agitation. The primary efficacy instrument was the Young Mania Rating Scale; a priori protocol-defined threshold scores were > or =20 for inclusion, < or =12 for remission, and > or = 15 for relapse. Analytical techniques included mixed model repeated-measures analysis of variance for change from baseline, Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) for categorical comparisons, and Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to events of interest.
Over 47 weeks, mean improvement in Young Mania Rating Scale score was significantly greater for the olanzapine group. Median time to symptomatic mania remission was significantly shorter for olanzapine, 14 days, than for divalproex, 62 days. There were no significant differences between treatments in the rates of symptomatic mania remission over the 47 weeks (56.8% and 45.5%, respectively) and subsequent relapse into mania or depression (42.3% and 56.5%). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurring significantly more frequently during olanzapine treatment were somnolence, dry mouth, increased appetite, weight gain, akathisia, and high alanine aminotransferase levels; those for divalproex were nausea and nervousness.
In this 47-week study of acute bipolar mania, symptomatic remission occurred sooner and overall mania improvement was greater for olanzapine than for divalproex, but rates of bipolar relapse did not differ.
American Journal of Psychiatry 07/2003; 160(7):1263-71. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(01)80532-0 · 12.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A substantial number of patients with mania have significant concomitant depressive features, and they may respond differently to mood stabilizers than patients with pure mania. This post-hoc analysis explored the response characteristics of olanzapine versus placebo in bipolar I manic patients with dysphoric and nondysphoric mania (differentiated by baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] score of >20). Two similar, double-blind, randomized trials comparing olanzapine, 5-20 mg, to placebo were pooled for these analyses (N = 246). Mean changes in Young-Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS) and HAM-D scores during 3 weeks of treatment were examined. Twenty-eight percent of patients had dysphoric mania (olanzapine, n = 33; placebo, n = 35). Among these patients, olanzapine-treated patients had greater improvement within 1 week than did placebo-treated patients on both mania ratings (Y-MRS: -9.7 vs. -3.0 points; = 0.011) and depressive symptom ratings (HAM-D: -9.9 vs. -5.4 points; = 0.025). Among those manic subjects without prominent depressive symptoms (olanzapine, n = 91; placebo, n = 87), mean Y-MRS improvement from baseline to endpoint with olanzapine (-11.5 points) versus placebo (-6.13 points) was comparable to the improvement seen with olanzapine versus placebo in the dysphoric mania subgroup ( = 0.476, test of interaction). In acutely ill manic patients with significant depressive symptoms, olanzapine demonstrated a broad spectrum of efficacy, effectively treating both manic and depressive symptoms. The magnitude of the antimanic response appears similar, regardless of baseline depressive features. Additional experience with putative mood stabilizers and atypical agents in mixed mania should include an exploration of their efficacy in treating both manic and depressive mood symptoms.