E Andorno

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino di Genova, Genova, Liguria, Italy

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Publications (82)182.13 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver retransplantation is the only treatment for patients with hepatic graft failure. Due to the shortage of organs, it is essential to optimize its use. Between 1998–2010, our center performed retransplantations on 48 (12.8%) patients (re-OLT). The data are compared with those for a group of 374 patients who did not receive retransplantations (NO re-OLT). The re-OLT vs NO re-OLT groups did not significantly differ in mean age of recipients (47 vs 51 years), indications for transplantation (hepatitis C virus cirrhosis 54% vs 56%, alcoholic cirrhosis 25% vs 17%, hepatocellular carcinoma 14% vs 22%), mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease (25 vs 20), mean total cold ischemia time (385 vs 379 minutes), or mean age of donors (52 vs 49 years). The main causes of retransplantation were primary graft nonfunction (64%), arterial thrombosis (8%), biliary complications (6%), and hepatitis C virus recurrence (4%). The difference in overall patient survival was not statistically significant. The patient's survival at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years for RE-OLT vs NO-reOLT was 56% vs 63%, 53% vs 60%, 46% vs 57%, and 44% vs 53%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified Model for End-stage Liver Disease ≥23 as a predictor factor of retransplantation (P = .04). Other variables predicting outcome included age of donors (≥65 years vs younger group), age of recipients (≥50 years vs younger group), cold ischemia (≥600 vs <600 minutes), and transplantation indications (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, alcohol, and others). The retransplantation performed between 8–15 days appeared to have worse results than those in other periods (0–7 days, 16–30 days, 1–6 months, >6 months). The incidence of re-OLT in the series (12.8%) was comparable to that in the literature, and primary graft nonfunction in the study represents the main cause of retransplantation. Our analysis showed that the indication of the first transplant and the age of the donor were not risk factors for re-OLT. Liver retransplantation is a concrete alternative lifesaver for patients with graft failure.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2014; 46(7):2290–2292. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.07.039
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Worldwide, organ shortage is a major limiting factor to transplantations. One possible way to face graft scarcity is splitting full livers into hemilivers; this procedure would allow transplantation in 2 adult recipients with the use of a single organ from a deceased donor. Objective The goal of this study was to describe an adult-to-adult split liver operative protocol and share it between centers interested in exploring this procedure. Materials and Methods A literature review was first conducted to elaborate on the present protocol; second, selection criteria for suitable deceased donors were identified. The technical aspects of performing the procurement were also analyzed; finally, the recipient selection criteria and the transplantation criteria were determined. Results The donor characteristics should be consistent with the following: age ≤55 years; weight ≥70 kg; body mass index <28 kg/m2; intensive care unit stay <7 days; sodium level <160 mEq/L if the intensive care unit stay is >2 days; maximum transaminase value 3 times normal; hemodynamic stability; negative for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus; macrosteatosis <20%; macroscopic adequacy; and absence of anatomic anomalies requiring complex reconstruction. The procurement hospital should provide the preoperative computed tomography scan, liver dissector, and the intraoperative ultrasound. Indication for in situ or ex situ splitting depends on the hepatic vein outflow anatomy. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio should be ≥1%, and the graft-to-recipient spleen size ratio should be ≥0.6. United Network for Organ Sharing status 1 and 2A recipients are excluded, as are patients with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Hemiliver transplants are performed as in living-donor liver transplantation, and portal hyperflow is corrected by splenic artery ligation, splenectomy, and portal infusion of vasoactive drugs. Conclusions The present protocol was proposed to test the validity of the full-left full-right split liver procedure. A retrospective analysis found that 130 transplantations were suitable for this procedure according to the present protocol in the period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011 (65 donors). We believe that these numbers could be greatly increased once this procedure is proven feasible and safe within the proposed criteria.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2014; 46(7):2279–2282. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.07.066
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2014; 46:S80. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(14)60233-4
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic thermoablation (LTA) and laparoscopic resection (LR) as neoadjuvant therapy before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From June 2005 to November 2010, 50 consecutive patients affected by HCC with liver cirrhosis were treated with LTA under ultrasound guidance or LR. Of them, 10 patients (mean age, 58.3 ± 5.59 years; male:female, 8:2) underwent OLT. They were mostly Child-Pugh class A (80%). A LTA of 12 nodules was achieved in 7 patients and an LR of 3 HCC nodules in the other 3 subjects. The mean length of surgery was 163 minutes (range; 60-370). The mean hospital stay was 6.1 days. Transient mild postoperative liver failure was reported in 1 case. Complete tumor necrosis was observed in 10 thermoablated nodules (83.3%) via spiral computerized tomographic scan at 1 month after treatment; the resected patients showed absence of recurrence. All patients underwent OLT after a mean interval of 7 months. The histology of the native liver showed complete necrosis in 9/12 thermoablated nodules (75%); a recurrence at surgical site occurred in 1 patient in the resection group. Laparoscopic ultrasound can be used in potential OLTs candidates to accurately stage HCC in advanced cirrhosis with minimal morbidity. LTA and LR proved to be safe and effective techniques for HCC patients, representing a valid "bridge" to OLT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2013; 45(7):2669-71. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.07.014
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (OLT) can entail a high risk of blood loss requiring transfusions, which increase morbidity and mortality. In recent years many efforts have been spent to improve the surgical and anesthetic management to decrease transfusion rates during OLT. Preoperative predictors for transfusion in OLT, remain uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed the 219 OLT performed from 2005 to 2011 focusing on blood product (BP) transfusions. Statistical analysis sought the impact of transfusions on OLT outcomes to identify possible independent predictors of higher BP requirements. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 86.6% and 76.45% for patients and 81.0% and 71.8% for grafts respectively. The mean intra- and perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates were 12.3 ± 11.7 U and 15.5 ± 13.0 U respectively. A statistical analysis demonstrated a significant influence of BP transfusion on post-OLT complications and survivals. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to be the only independent predictor of perioperative RBC transfusions. Our results confirmed the link between intra- and perioperative transfusions and outcome of OLT patients. MELD score resulted the only independent variable associated with increased perioperative RBC transfusions.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2013; 45(7):2684-8. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.07.006
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    ABSTRACT: Full-right-full-left split liver transplantation divides a donor liver into two grafts to be transplanted in adult-size patients. Major technical and organizational difficulties have limited its application to few single center series. We retrospectively analyzed the long-term results of the first multicenter series of this procedure with graft sharing. Between November 1998 and January 2005, 43 transplants were performed by five centers from 23 full-right-full-left in situ split liver procedures; 65% of the grafts were shared. A total of 31 (72%) patients had complications above grade II; 3 (6.9%) were retransplanted. Hospital mortality was 23% with sepsis as the main cause. Six patients died in the long term, two of them for a road accident. A total of 27 patients are alive after a median follow-up of 3200 days (2035-4256). Actuarial survival at 1 and 10 years were 72.1%, 62.6% and 65.1%, 57.9%, respectively for patients and grafts. These figures are similar to those reported for adult living donor liver transplantation by the European Registry over a similar period. Multicenter collaboration in sharing of these grafts is feasible and can help facing the organizational limits, thus increasing diffusion of full-right-full-left split liver transplantation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 05/2012; 12(8):2198-210. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04071.x
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2012; 44:S104. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(12)60283-7
  • Tissue Antigens 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney-pancreas transplantation is a valid therapeutic option for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, vascular complications associated with pancreas transplantation are not uncommon. Herein we have reported a 32-year-old woman with a history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. She underwent liver transplantation for acute hepatitis. After 7 years, the patient developed end-stage kidney disease beginning hemodialysis and being listed for a kidney-pancreas transplantation, which was successfully performed when she was 29 years old with enteric diversion (Roux intestinal loop reconstruction). Five years after kidney-pancreas transplantation, she was admitted to our hospital with serious intestinal bleeding and poor liver function. The ultrasound showed a pattern like a arteriovenous fistula near the head of the pancreas. Computed Tomography was not diagnostic; an arteriogram showed the presence of a mesenteric varix and a mesenteric-caval shunt through the duodenum of the pancreatic graft. The liver biopsy and portal pressure gradient showed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. To obtain time a waiting a new liver, the patient underwent percutaneous embolization of the mesenteric varix through jugular access. The procedure was uneventful. The patient was successfully transplanted 2 months later. Pancreas function was always satisfactory.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2010; 42(6):2162-3. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.05.109
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    ABSTRACT: After hepatic resection and transplantation with a partial graft, death and regeneration of the hepatocytes coexist in the liver. However, when the functional liver mass is inadequate to ensure a proper balance between regeneration vs functional and metabolic demands, small-for-size syndrome develops. We assessed the early effects of extended hepatic resection on liver function in a rat model. Six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 80% resection of the liver, and 6 rats served as a control group. At 6 hours after resection, blood samples were obtained from the hepatic vein for measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and hepatic venous oxygen saturation (Shvo(2)), and for standard liver function tests including determination of concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total bilirubin. The remnant lobe was removed for GSH assay and histopathologic analysis. In the resection group, values were significantly higher for ALT (P = .002), AST (P = .002), and Shvo(2) (P = .01), whereas a significant decrease was observed for blood GSH (P = .009) but not liver GSH. Also in the resection group, we observed characteristic hepatocyte vacuolization with a gradient from periportal acinar zone 1 to the centrolobular area, the presence of hemorrhagic necrosis, and several leukocyte adhesions. The Shvo(2) and GSH data suggest early alteration of oxygen metabolism, as demonstrated by the reduction in oxygen uptake and decreased liver GSH secretion, with preservation of hepatic GSH. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative injury seem to have a crucial role in early onset of liver damage.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1061-5. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.116
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    ABSTRACT: Patients diagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) are routinely managed medically and not considered suitable for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The eligibility for OLT in these patients has been questioned due to the social stigma associated with alcohol abuse, based on the fact that AAH is "self-induced" with an unacceptably high recidivism rate. Many centers in Europe and the United States require abstinence periods between 6 and 12 months before OLT listing. AAH outcomes in the literature are poor, in particular due to patient noncompliance during the immediate 3 months preceeding OLT. Between January 1997 and December 2007, 246 patients were evaluated in our center for alcoholic liver disease: 133 (54%) were listed for OLT (I-OLT), including 110 (83%) who underwent transplantation and 8 (6%) still listed as well as 15 (11%) removed from consideration. One hundred thirteen (46%) patients had no indication for OLT (NO I-OLT), including 18 (16%) who died, 81 (71%) still monitored, and 14 (12%) lost to follow-up. Patient survival rates post-OLT were 79%, 74%, 68%, and 64% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Explant (native liver) pathologic examination revealed AAH in 8 (7.2%) patients who underwent OLT. In this group, patient survival and the post-OLT recidivism rate were statistically identical to the overall group of transplant recipients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2009; 41(4):1253-5. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.03.092
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    ABSTRACT: In many Western countries a "minimum volume rule" policy has been adopted as a quality measure for complex surgical procedures. In Italy, the National Transplant Centre set the minimum number of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) procedures/y at 25/center. OLT procedures performed in a single center for a reasonably large period may be treated as a time series to evaluate trend, seasonal cycles, and nonsystematic fluctuations. Between January 1, 1987 and December 31, 2006, we performed 563 cadaveric donor OLTs to adult recipients. During 2007, there were another 28 procedures. The greatest numbers of OLTs/y were performed in 2001 (n = 51), 2005 (n = 50), and 2004 (n = 49). A time series analysis performed using R Statistical Software (Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria), a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics, showed an incremental trend after exponential smoothing as well as after seasonal decomposition. The predicted OLT/mo for 2007 calculated with the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing applied to the previous period 1987-2006 helped to identify the months where there was a major difference between predicted and performed procedures. The time series approach may be helpful to establish a minimum volume/y at a single-center level.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2009; 41(4):1286-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.03.081
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    ABSTRACT: Torque Teno Virus (TTV), a nonenveloped human virus of the Circoviridae family, is hepatotropic, causing liver damage, cirrhosis, and, rarely, fulminant hepatitis. It prevails in 10% to 75% of blood donors due to environmental differences, independent of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and in fulminant hepatitis non-A-G. Reports about the efficacy of clinical alpha interferon are rare. In July 2007, a 65-year-old man who was serologically negative for A-E viruses presented with acute liver failure due to a ruptured hepatic artery aneurysm and underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Immunosuppression was based on cyclosporine and steroids. At postoperative day 20, there was persistent hypertransaminasemia with otherwise normal liver function. A percutaneous hepatic biopsy documented pattern suggestive of a viral etiology. Multiple tests for hepatotropic viruses in the donor and the recipient from the pre- and post-OLT periods remained negative. Only the TTV qualitative test, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on patient sera, was positive. Immunosuppressive therapy was not changed; no antiviral therapy was undertaken. At 6 months posttransplantation, transaminase levels spontaneously normalized and the clinical situation was unchanged. No complications were observed; the patient is in good clinical condition. No graft rejection was observed. In histologically proven non-A-E viral hepatitis, it is important to consider TTV as an incidental pathogenic agent. It may be useful to extend virological tests to TTV among transplant recipients and donors and to gain further knowledge about this virus.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2009; 41(4):1378-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.03.047
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2009; 41. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(09)60272-3
  • Liver Transplantation 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Since February 2002, the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) proposed to adopt a modified version of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) to assign priority on the waiting list for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). In this study, we evaluated the impact of MELD score on liver allocation in a single center series of 198 liver recipients (mean age of patients, 52.21+/-8.92 years), considering the relationship between clinical urgency derived from MELD score (overall MELD, 18.7+/-6.83; MELD <15 in 69 patients, MELD >or=15 in 129 patients) and geographical distribution of cadaveric donors (inside/outside Liguria Region, 125/73). The waiting time for OLT was 230+/-248 days, whereas the 3-month and 1-year patient survivals were 87.37% and 79.79%, respectively. No difference was observed for MELD score retrospectively calculated for patients who underwent OLT before February 2002 (n=71) compared with MELD score calculated for patients who received a liver thereafter (18.26+/-6.68 vs 18.94+/-6.92; P= .504). No significant difference was found in waiting time before and after adoption of MELD score (213+/-183 vs 238+/-278 days; P= .500), or by stratifying patients for MELD <15/>or=15 (225+/-234 vs 232+/-256 days; P= .851). Using the geographical distribution of donors as a grouping variable (outside vs inside Liguria Region), no significance occurred for MELD score (19.68+/-7.42 vs 18.17+/-6.42; P= .135) or waiting time (211+/-226 vs 242+/-261 days; P= .394). In our series, more OLTs were performed among sicker patients and no differences were found in the management of livers procured from cadaveric donors outside or inside Liguria Region. However, further efforts are needed to reduce the waiting time among patients with higher MELD scores.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2008; 40(6):1903-5. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.05.016

Publication Stats

372 Citations
182.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino di Genova
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009
    • University of Toulouse
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1998–2009
    • Università degli Studi di Genova
      • Dipartimento di Medicina sperimentale (DIMES)
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 2000–2001
    • Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy