[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10−6), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (−0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10−4). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major issue of in the treatment of diabetes is the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is detected both centrally and peripherally in the porto-hepatic area. The portal locus for hypoglycemic detection was originally described using the "local irrigation of the liver" approach in a canine model. Further work using portal vein denervation in a rodent model characterized portal hypoglycemic sensing in detail. However, recent controversy about the relevance of rodent findings to large animals and humans prompted us to investigate the effect of portal denervation on the hypoglycemic response in the canine, a species with multiple similarities to human glucose homeostasis. Hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed in male canines, before and after portal vein denervation (DEN) or sham surgery (CON). Insulin (30 pmol/kg/min) and glucose (variable) were infused to slowly decrease systemic glycemia to 50 mg/dl over 160 min. The average plasma glucose during clamp steady state was: 2.9±0.1 mmol DEN-PRE; 2.9 ±0.2 mmol DEN-POST; 2.9±0.1 mmol CON-PRE and 2.8±0.0 mmol CON-POST. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin between DEN and CON, PRE and POST experiments. The epinephrine response to hypoglycemia was reduced by 62% in DEN but not in CON. Steady state cortisol was 46% lower post DEN but not post CON. Our study shows, in a large animal model, that surgical disconnection of the portal vein from the afferent pathway of the hypoglycemic counterregulatory circuitry results in a substantial suppression of the epinephrine response and a significant impact on cortisol response. These findings directly demonstrate an essential role for the portal vein in sensing hypoglycemia and relating glycemic information to the central nervous system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate quantification of insulin resistance is essential for determining efficacy of treatments to reduce diabetes risk. Gold standard methods to assess resistance are available (e.g. hyperinsulinemic clamp or minimal model), but surrogate indices based solely on fasting values have attractive simplicity. One such surrogate, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), is widely applied despite known inaccuracies in characterizing resistance across groups. Of greater significance is whether HOMA-IR can detect changes in insulin sensitivity induced by an intervention. We tested the ability of HOMA-IR to detect high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in 36 healthy canines, using clamp and minimal model analysis of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) to document progression of resistance. The influence of pancreatic function on HOMA-IR accuracy was assessed using the acute insulin response during the IVGTT (AIRG). Diet-induced resistance was confirmed by both clamp and minimal model (p<0.0001), and measures were correlated with each other (p=0.001). In striking contrast, HOMA-IR ([fasting insulin (μU/ml) x fasting glucose (mM)] / 22.5) did not detect reduced sensitivity induced by fat feeding (p=0.22). In fact, 13 of 36 animals showed an artifactual decrease in HOMA-IR (i.e. increased sensitivity). The ability of HOMA-IR to detect diet-induced resistance was particularly limited under conditions when insulin secretory function (AIRG) is less than robust. In conclusion, HOMA-IR is of limited utility for detecting diet-induced deterioration of insulin sensitivity quantified by glucose clamp or minimal model. Caution should be exercised when using HOMA-IR to detect insulin resistance when pancreatic function is compromised.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We describe the GUARDIAN (Genetics UndeRlying DIAbetes in HispaNics) consortium, along with heritability estimates and genetic and environmental correlations of insulin sensitivity and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI). Design and Methods: GUARDIAN is comprised of seven cohorts, consisting of 4336 Mexican-American individuals in 1346 pedigrees. Insulin sensitivity (SI ), MCRI, and acute insulin response (AIRg) were measured by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in four cohorts. Insulin sensitivity (M, M/I) and MCRI were measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in three cohorts. Heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated within the family cohorts (totaling 3925 individuals) using variance components. Results: Across studies, age and gender-adjusted heritability of insulin sensitivity (SI , M, M/I) ranged from 0.23-0.48 and of MCRI from 0.35-0.73. The ranges for the genetic correlations were 0.91 to 0.93 between SI and MCRI; and -0.57 to 0.59 for AIRg and MCRI (all P<0.0001). The ranges for the environmental correlations were 0.54 to 0.74 for SI and MCRI (all P<0.0001); and -0.16 to -0.36 for AIRg and MCRI (P <0.0001-0.06). Conclusions: These data support a strong familial basis for insulin sensitivity and MCRI in Mexican Americans. The strong genetic correlations between MCRI and SI suggest common genetic determinants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-independent glucose disposal (referred to as glucose effectiveness [GE]) is crucial for glucose homeostasis and, until recently, was thought to be invariable. However, GE is reduced in type 2 diabetes and markedly decreased in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Strategies aimed at increasing GE should therefore be capable of improving glucose tolerance in these animals. The gut-derived hormone FGF19 has previously been shown to exert potent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice. In ob/ob mice, we found that systemic FGF19 administration improved glucose tolerance through its action in the brain and that a single, low-dose i.c.v. injection of FGF19 dramatically improved glucose intolerance within 2 hours. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data obtained during a frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test showed that the antidiabetic effect of i.c.v. FGF19 was solely due to increased GE and not to changes of either insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. The mechanism underlying this effect appears to involve increased metabolism of glucose to lactate. Together, these findings implicate the brain in the antidiabetic action of systemic FGF19 and establish the brain's capacity to rapidly, potently, and selectively increase insulin-independent glucose disposal.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a powerful risk factor for Type 2 diabetes and a constellation of chronic diseases, and is most commonly associated with obesity. We examined if factors other than obesity are more substantial predictors of insulin sensitivity under baseline, non-stimulated conditions.
Metabolic assessment was performed in healthy dogs (n=90). Whole-body sensitivity from euglycemic clamps (SICLAMP ) was the primary outcome variable, and was measured independently by IVGTT (n=36). Adiposity was measured by MRI (n=90), and glucose-stimulated insulin response was measured from hyperglycemic clamp or IVGTT (n=86 and 36, respectively).
SICLAMP was highly variable (5.9 to 75.9 dl/min per kg per μU/ml). Despite narrow range of body weight (mean, 28.7±0.3 kg), adiposity varied ~8-fold and was inversely correlated with SICLAMP (p<0.025). SICLAMP was negatively associated with fasting insulin, but most strongly associated with insulin clearance. Clearance was the dominant factor associated with sensitivity (r=0.53, p<0.00001), whether calculated from clamp or IVGTT.
These data suggest that insulin clearance contributes substantially to insulin sensitivity, and may be pivotal in understanding the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We propose that hyperinsulinemia due to reduction in insulin clearance is responsible for insulin resistance secondary to changes in body weight.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective: To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Methods: The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results and conclusion: The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium has been identified as an important component in diabetes-associated complications, which include many cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy. Additionally, insulin's actions on the endothelium are now seen as a major factor in the metabolic effects of the hormone by increasing access to insulin sensitive tissues. Endothelial function is impaired in diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, which could reduce insulin access to the tissue, and thus reduce insulin sensitivity independently of direct effects at the muscle cell. As such, the endothelium is a valid target for treatment of both the impaired glucose metabolism in diabetes, as well as the vascular based complications of diabetes. Here we review the basics of the endothelium in insulin action, with a focus on the skeletal muscle as insulin's major metabolic organ, and how this is affected by diabetes. We will focus on the most recent developments in the field, including current treatment possibilities.
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 01/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
We aimed to identify factors that are independently associated with the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) and to examine the association of MCRI with incident type 2 diabetes in nondiabetic Hispanics and African Americans.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We investigated 1,116 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study with baseline examinations from 2000 to 2002 and follow-up examinations from 2005 to 2006. Insulin sensitivity (S(I)), acute insulin response (AIR), and MCRI were determined at baseline from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. MCRI was calculated as the ratio of the insulin dose over the incremental area under the curve of insulin. Incident diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic medication use by self-report.RESULTSWe observed that S(I) and HDL cholesterol were independent positive correlates of MCRI, whereas fasting insulin, fasting glucose, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and AIR were independent negative correlates (all P < 0.05) at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up, 71 (6.4%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. Lower MCRI was associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, HDL cholesterol, indexes of obesity and adiposity, and insulin secretion (odds ratio 2.01 [95% CI 1.30-3.10], P = 0.0064, per one-SD decrease in log(e)-transformed MCRI).CONCLUSIONS
Our data showed that lower MCRI predicts the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate racial/ethnic differences in pancreatic triglyceride (TG) levels and their relationship to β-cell dysfunction in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied black, Hispanic, and white adults who completed three research visits: screening and an oral glucose tolerance test; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests for evaluation of β-cell function and insulin resistance; and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for evaluation of pancreatic and hepatic TG levels. RESULTS Pancreatic TG levels were higher in Hispanics and whites than in blacks (P = 0.006). Hepatic TG levels were highest in Hispanics (P = 0.004). Compensatory insulin secretion and disposition index were higher in blacks (P = 0.003 and P = 0.024, respectively). Insulin sensitivity was comparable between Hispanics and blacks and was lower than in whites (P = 0.005). In blacks, compensatory insulin secretion increased steeply with small increments in pancreatic TG levels (R(2) = 0.45, slope = 247). In whites, the range of pancreatic TG levels was higher, and the slope was less steep than in blacks (R(2) = 0.27, slope = 27). In Hispanics, pancreatic TG levels were similar to those of whites, but compensatory insulin secretion was described by a combination of pancreatic and hepatic TG levels and visceral fat mass ( R(2) = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS In a multiethnic sample of adults with mild obesity and without diabetes, we found striking ethnic differences in the levels of pancreatic TGs and in the relationship between pancreatic TGs and β-cell dysfunction. Our data implicate pancreatic TG content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a noninvasive novel biomarker for pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, especially in the Hispanic population.
Diabetes care 09/2012; 35(11):2377-83. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated association. Genome-wide analyses of these data are consistent with a long tail of additional common variant loci explaining much of the variation in susceptibility to T2D. Exploration of the enlarged set of susceptibility loci implicates several processes, including CREBBP-related transcription, adipocytokine signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diabetes pathogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.