Kiyoshi Hayashi

National Food Research Institute, Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (60)152.35 Total impact

  • Ryota Fujii, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a simple and easy protocol to introduce random mutations into plasmid DNA: error-prone rolling circle amplification. A template plasmid is amplified via rolling circle amplification with decreased fidelity in the presence of MnCl2 and is used to transform a host strain resulting in a mutant library with several random point mutations per kilobase through the entire plasmid. The primary advantage of this method is its simplicity. This protocol does not require the design of specific primers or thermal cycling. The reaction mixture can be used for direct transformation of a host strain. This method allows rapid preparation of randomly mutated plasmid libraries, enabling wider application of random mutagenesis.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1179:23-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Ryota Fujii, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Although proteins can be artificially improved by random insertion and deletion mutagenesis methods, these procedures are technically difficult. Here we describe a simple method called random insertional-deletional strand exchange mutagenesis (RAISE). This method is based on gene shuffling and can be used to introduce a wide variety of insertions, deletions, and substitutions. RAISE involves three steps: DNA fragmentation, attachment of a random short sequence, and reconstruction. This yields unique mutants and can be a powerful technique for protein engineering.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1179:151-8. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial laminaribiose phosphorylase (LBP(bac)) was first identified and purified from cell-free extract of Paenibacillus sp. YM-1. It phosphorolyzed laminaribiose into α-glucose 1-phosphate and glucose, but did not phosphorolyze other glucobioses. It slightly phosphorolyzed laminaritriose and higher laminarioligosaccharides. The specificity of the degree of polymerization of the substrate was clearly different from that of the enzyme of Euglena gracilis (LBP(Eug)): LBP(bac) was more specific to laminaribiose than LBP(Eug). It showed acceptor specificity in reverse phosphorolysis similar to LBP(Eug). Cloning of the gene encoding LBP(bac) (lbpA) has revealed that LBP(bac) is a member of the glucoside hydrolase family 94, which includes cellobiose phosphorylase, cellodextrin phosphorylase, and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose phosphorylase. The genes that encode the components of an ATP-binding cassette sugar transporter specific to laminarioligosaccharides were identified upstream of lbpA, suggesting that the role of LBP(bac) is to utilize laminaribiose generated outside the cell. This role is different from that of LBP(Eug), which participates in the utilization of paramylon, the intracellular storage 1,3-β-glucan.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 02/2012; 76(2):343-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Biocatalysis and Biomolecular Engineering, 07/2010: pages 31 - 42; , ISBN: 9780470608524
  • Satoru Nirasawa, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Three chimeric genes were constructed by gene shuffling of aminopeptidases from Aeromonas caviae and Vibrio proteolyticus. Although expressed chimeric enzymes formed inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli, the introduction of two amino acid mutations into the chimeric genes by site-saturated mutagenesis and a random mutation on error-prone PCR resulted in solubilization of the chimeric enzyme. In addition, active chimeric enzyme showed a different thermostability and thermoactivity to parental enzymes.
    Biotechnology Letters 03/2008; 30(2):363-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two regions in xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 (XynA), an alkaliphilic xylanase, were identified to be responsible for its activity at basic pH by comparing the dissociation constants of the XynA proton donor Glu residue (pK(e2) and pK(es2)) with those of xylanase B from Clostridium stercorarium F9 (XynB) and their mutants constructed by substituting either Ser137/Asn127 of XynA/XynB or the 4th loop, designed based on the structural difference close to the proton donor. The substitution of XynB at Asn127 into Ser increased pK(e2) by 0.37. The effect is explained that the positive charge of His126 likely affects the proton donor via Asn127 and a water molecule in XynB, resulting in a decrease in pK(e2), whereas such interactions were not observed with Ser. The substitution of XynB at the 4th loop into XynA (XynB Loop4A) increased the pK(e2) and pK(es2) values by 0.29 and 0.62, respectively. The effect of the 4th loop in XynA is likely due to a hydrogen bond between Asp199 in the loop and Tyr239, which interacts with both the proton donors Glu195 and Arg204, with flexibility of the loop. Both the mutations independently affected the increases in pK(e2).
    Journal of Biochemistry 06/2007; 141(5):709-17. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-Glucosidase from Thermotoga maritima is a 721 amino acid protein consisting of structurally distinct non-homologous region connecting the N- and C-terminal domains. To investigate the functional role of the non-homologous region in co-refolding, the gene was split at four sites (370, 403, 419 and 435) of the non-homologous region, cloned and separately expressed in E. coli generating eight peptide fragments (N370, N403, N419, N435, 371C, 404C, 420C and 436C). All eight fragments were recovered as insoluble inclusion bodies and found to be catalytically inactive. No catalytic activity was observed when these eight fragments were refolded individually. However, the catalytic activity was recovered when the two fragments derived from N- and C-terminal peptides were co-refolded together. Truncation of almost all amino acid residues in non-homologous region resulted in extremely low catalytic activity, which strongly suggests that non-homologous region is very important for the proper refolding of the peptides to reconstitute the catalytic activity. We succeeded in refolding the protein into an active form after splitting the gene at non-homologous region, denaturing and co-refolding the two domains. These results demonstrates the importance of structural elements that are not involved in the active site play an important role in protein folding to assemble the active site elements.
    Enzyme and Microbial Technology - ENZYME MICROB TECHNOL. 01/2007; 40(4):732-739.
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    ABSTRACT: Cellobiose phosphorylase, a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 94, catalyses the reversible phosphorolysis of cellobiose into alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose with inversion of the anomeric configuration. The substrate specificity and reaction mechanism of cellobiose phosphorylase from Cellvibrio gilvus have been investigated in detail. We have determined the crystal structure of the glucose-sulphate and glucose-phosphate complexes of this enzyme at a maximal resolution of 2.0 A (1 A=0.1 nm). The phosphate ion is strongly held through several hydrogen bonds, and the configuration appears to be suitable for direct nucleophilic attack to an anomeric centre. Structural features around the sugar-donor and sugar-acceptor sites were consistent with the results of extensive kinetic studies. When we compared this structure with that of homologous chitobiose phosphorylase, we identified key residues for substrate discrimination between glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in both the sugar-donor and sugar-acceptor sites. We found that the active site pocket of cellobiose phosphorylase was covered by an additional loop, indicating that some conformational change is required upon substrate binding. Information on the three-dimensional structure of cellobiose phosphorylase will facilitate engineering of this enzyme, the application of which to practical oligosaccharide synthesis has already been established.
    Biochemical Journal 09/2006; 398(1):37-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four derivatives of 2(II)-deoxycellobiose were synthesized from d-glucal and acceptor sugars (d-glucose, d-xylose, d-mannose, and 2-deoxy-d-arabino-hexose) using a cellobiose phosphorylase from Cellvibrio gilvus. The enzyme was found to be an effective catalyst to synthesize the beta-(1-->4) linkage of 2-deoxy-d-arabino-hexopyranoside. The acceptor specificity for the d-glucal reaction was identical to that for the alpha-d-glucose 1-phosphate reaction, but the activity of d-glucal was approximately 500 times less than that of alpha-d-glucose 1-phosphate, using 10mM substrates.
    Carbohydrate Research 03/2006; 341(4):545-9. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Ryota Fujii, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: A simple protocol to introduce random mutations, named error-prone rolling circle amplification (RCA), is described. A template plasmid is amplified by RCA in the presence of MnCl2 and used for transformation of a host strain to give a mutant library with three to four random point mutations per kilobase throughout the entire plasmid. The prime advantage of this method is its simplicity. This protocol requires neither the design of specific primers nor the exploration of thermal cycling conditions. It takes just 10 min to prepare the reaction mixture, followed by overnight incubation and transformation of a host strain. This method permits rapid preparation of randomly mutated plasmid libraries, and will enable the wider adoption of random mutagenesis.
    Nature Protocol 02/2006; 1(5):2493-7. · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    Ryota Fujii, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Although proteins may be artificially improved by random insertion and deletion mutagenesis methods, these procedures are technically difficult, and the mutations introduced are no more variable than those introduced by the introduction of random point mutations. We describe here a three-step method called RAISE, which is based on gene shuffling and can introduce a wide variety of insertions, deletions and substitutions. To test the efficacy of this method, we used it to mutate TEM beta-lactamase to generate improved antibiotic resistance. Some unique insertion or deletion mutations were observed in the improved mutants, some of which caused higher activities than point mutations. Our findings indicate that the RAISE method can yield unique mutants and may be a powerful technique of protein engineering.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(4):e30. · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Bong-Jo Kim, Satya P. Singh, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of C-terminal domain of β-glucosidase (family 3 glycosidase) from Thermotoga maritima, a hyper-thermophilic bacterium was investigated by gene shuffling. The amino acid sequences of β-glucosidases from T. maritima and A. tumefaciens share high degree of homology (approximately 40%). However, despite such a high homology, both enzymes exhibited quite distinct characteristics in terms of their pH and temperature profile and substrate specificities. To investigate the functional role of the C-terminal domains of T. maritima and A. tumefaciens β-glucosidases, three chimeric genes were constructed by shuffling at three selected regions. Out of the three chimeric enzymes, only two (Tm533/626At and Tm630/727At) were catalytically active. Parental and the chimeric enzymes were subsequently characterized for the substrate specificities and their response towards pH and temperature. Our results revealed that C-terminal domain was catalytically important. The study clearly establishes the significance of gene shuffling in probing the structure and function relationship in hyper-thermophilic bacterium and evolving enzymes with altered features.
    Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 01/2006;
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    Hajime Shibuya, Satoshi Kaneko, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Random mutagenesis of the gene encoding family 11 xylanase was used to obtain alkalophilic mutants. The catalytic domain of the chimeric enzyme Stx15, which was constructed from Streptomyces lividans xylanase B and Thermobifida fusca xylanase A, was mutated using error-prone PCR and screened for halo formation on dye-linked xylan plates and activity toward soluble xylan. A positive mutant, M1011, was isolated, and it was found that mutation A49V was responsible for the alkalophilicity of the mutant. Mutation A49V increased the specific activity at pH 9.1 and the stability of mutant A49V was not significantly different from that of Stx15 at 60 degrees C. Both enzymes retained more than 90% of their relative activity from pH 4.7 to 9.1 after 1 h of incubation at 60 degrees C. Analysis of the kinetic parameters at various pH values showed that the A49V mutation reduced the Km in the alkaline pH range, resulting in the higher specific activity of the A49V mutant enzyme.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 09/2005; 69(8):1492-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Bong-Jo Kim, Selanere L Mangala, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: Four sites of the non-homologous region (coding amino acid residues of 347, 421, 466 and 533) of a gene were randomly selected for splitting to investigate the function of beta-glucosidase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the co-refolding of peptides into the catalytically active enzyme. As a result of gene splitting, four N- and C-terminal domain peptides were obtained as insoluble inclusion bodies. No catalytic activity was observed when these fragments refolded individually. However, a considerable amount of activity was restored when the two fragments derived from N- and C- terminal peptides were co-refolded together. The deletion of amino acid residues in the non-homologous region resulted in a complete loss of enzyme activity, which suggests that truncation of amino acids in this region strongly affects the co-refolding ability of the enzyme to maintain activity.
    FEBS Letters 07/2005; 579(14):3075-80. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An arginine residue in loop 4 connecting beta strand 4 and alpha-helix 4 is conserved in glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) xylanases. The arginine residues, Arg(204) in xylanase A from Bacillus halodurans C-125 (XynA) and Arg(196) in xylanase B from Clostridium stercorarium F9 (XynB), were replaced by glutamic acid, lysine, or glutamine residues (XynA R204E, K and Q, and XynB R196E, K and Q). The pH-k(cat)/K(m) and the pH-k(cat) relationships of these mutant enzymes were measured. The pK(e2) and pK(es2) values calculated from these curves were 8.59 and 8.29 (R204E), 8.59 and 8.10 (R204K), 8.61 and 8.19 (R204Q), 7.42 and 7.19 (R196E), 7.49 and 7.18 (R196K), and 7.86 and 7.38 (R196Q) respectively. Only the pK(es2) value of arginine derivatives was less than those of the wild types (8.49 and 9.39 [XynA] and 7.62 and 7.82 [XynB]). These results suggest that the conserved arginine residue in GH10 xylanases increases the pK(a) value of the proton donor Glu during substrate binding. The arginine residue is considered to clamp the proton donor and subsite +1 to prevent structural change during substrate binding.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/2005; 69(5):904-10. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a novel method of PCR-mediated mutagenesis employing DNA containing a natural abasic site and translesional Taq DNA polymerase. This method incorporated an adenine (80.8%) or guanine (7.7%) residue or led to a base deletion mutation (11.2%) opposite the abasic site. We conclude that the combination of DNA containing an abasic site and translesional Taq DNA polymerase is an easy and useful technique for PCR-mediated mutagenesis, having advantages different from those of conventional error-prone PCR.
    Journal of Biotechnology 04/2005; 116(3):227-32. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thermotoga maritima β-glucosidase consists of three structural regions with 721 amino acids: the N-terminal domain, middle non-homologous region and a C-terminal domain. To investigate the role of these domains in the co-refolding of two fragments into catalytically active form, five sites coding the amino acid residue at 244, 331 in the N-terminal domain, 403 in the non-homologous region, 476 and 521 in the C-terminal domain were selected to split the gene. All the 10 resultant individual fragments were obtained as insoluble inclusion bodies and found to be catalytically inactive. However, the catalytic activity was recovered when the two fragments derived from N-terminal and C-terminal peptides were co-refolded together. It is quite interesting to find that not only the complement polypeptides such as N476/477C but also the truncated combination (N476/522C, amino acid residues from 477 to 521 is truncated) and overlapped combination (N476/245C and N476/404C, amino acid residues from 245 to 476 and from 404 to 476 are overlapped) also gave catalytically active enzymes. Our results showed that folding motifs consisted of the complete N-terminal domain play an important role in the co-refolding of the polypeptides into the catalytically active form.
    Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-enzymatic - J MOL CATAL B-ENZYM. 01/2005; 37(1):101-108.
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant cellobiose phosphorylase from Cellvibrio gilvus has been prepared and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 10 mg ml(-1) purified enzyme, 1.5 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M MES buffer pH 7.0 and 5 mM glucose. A suitable crystal was obtained after 10 d incubation at 298 K. The crystal belongs to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 98.31, c = 104.04 A, beta = 102.73 degrees. X-ray diffraction data to 2.1 A resolution have been collected at KEK-PF BL-5A.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 11/2004; 60(Pt 10):1877-8. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio proteolyticus chitobiose phosphorylase (ChBP) belongs to glycosyl transferase family 36 (GT-36), and catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of chitobiose into alpha-GlcNAc-1-phosphate and GlcNAc with inversion of the anomeric configuration. As the first known structures of a GT-36 enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of ChBP in a ternary complex with GlcNAc and SO(4). It is also the first structures of an inverting phosphorolytic enzyme in a complex with a sugar and a sulfate ion, and reveals a pseudo-ternary complex structure of enzyme-sugar-phosphate. ChBP comprises a beta sandwich domain and an (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel domain, constituting a distinctive structure among GT families. Instead, it shows significant structural similarity with glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes, glucoamylases (GH-15), and maltose phosphorylase (GH-65) in clan GH-L. The structural similarity reported here, together with distant sequence similarities between ChBP and GHs, led to the reclassification of family GT-36 into a novel GH family, namely GH-94.
    Structure 07/2004; 12(6):937-47. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    Yuji Honda, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Kiyoshi Hayashi
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    ABSTRACT: The hydrolytic reaction of family 18 chitinase has been considered to occur via substrate assisted catalysis. To kinetically investigate the enzyme reaction mechanism, we synthesized compounds designed to reduce the polarization of the carbonyl in N-acetyl group, GlcNAc-GlcN(TFA)-UMB (2) and GlcNAc-GlcN(TAc)-UMB (3). Kinetic parameters in the hydrolysis of these compounds by chitinase A from Serratia marcescens (ChiA) were compared with those from the hydrolysis of (GlcNAc)2-UMB (1). The kcat of 2 was 3.4% of 1, but the Km of 2 was 10-fold that of 1. In contrast, the kcat of 3 was only 0.3% of that of 1, and the two reactions had an identical Km. The drastic decreases in kcat were probably due to the weak nucleophilic activity of the C2-N-trifluoroacetamide and N-thioacetamide groups at reducing ends of compounds 2 and 3, respectively. These results indicate that the anchimeric assistance of the C2 N-acetamide group at GlcNAc plays a key role in the hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by family 18 chitinases.
    FEBS Letters 07/2004; 567(2-3):307-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

473 Citations
152.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2012
    • National Food Research Institute
      Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Tottori University
      TTJ, Tottori, Japan
  • 2006
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • China Agricultural University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005
    • Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan