[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential toxicologic and oncogenic effects of spinosad, a natural fermentation product with insecticidal properties, were investigated. The 13-week toxicity study consisted of groups of 10 CD-1 mice/sex provided diets containing 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.045, or 0.12% spinosad (Study 1). The 0.12% group was terminated on Test Day 44 due to mortality and overt clinical signs of toxicity. An 18-month chronic oncogenicity study consisted of groups of 50 CD-1 mice/sex provided diets containing 0, 0.0025, 0.008, or 0.036% spinosad (Study 2). Two interim groups of 10 mice/sex/group were terminated after 3 and 12 months. Females given 0.036% were terminated on Day 455 due to markedly lower body weights and feed consumption, as well as excessive mortality. Because of the early termination of the female high-dose group, additional groups of 10 male and female mice (12-month interim necrospy) and 50 male and female mice (18-month necropsy) were provided diets containing 0, 0.0008, or 0.024% spinosad (Study 3) to fully assess potential chronic toxicity and oncogenicity. Standard toxicologic parameters were evaluated consistent with existing regulatory guidelines. The primary effect in the 13-week and 18-month studies was intracellular vacuolation of histiocytic and epithelial cells in numerous tissues and organs at doses of > or = 0.015%. The histological vacuolation corresponded to ultrastructural lysosomal lamellar inclusion bodies. This alteration was consistent with phospholipidosis, a condition that results from accumulation of polar lipids in lysosomes. Lesions with no apparent direct relation to vacuolation were hyperplasia of the glandular mucosa of the stomach, skeletal muscle myopathy, bone marrow necrosis, and anemia with associated splenic hematopoiesis. The incidence of tumors in mice given spinosad was not increased relative to controls at any dose level. The no observed effect level for the 13-week study was 0.005% (6 mg/kg/day) spinosad, and for the chronic toxicity/oncogenicity study was 0.008% (11 mg/kg/day) spinosad for male and female CD-1 mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered 1, 3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) via their diets for up to 2 years, at dose levels of 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 mg 1,3-D/kg body wt/day for rats and 0, 2.5, 25, or 50 mg 1,3-D/kg body wt/day for mice. The test material was stabilized in the feed by microencapsulation in a starch/sucrose matrix (80/20%). Rats given 12.5 or 25 mg/kg/day, and mice given 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, had decreased body weights and body weight gains. There were no effects on survival or clinical pathology parameters for rats or mice. Histopathologic effects attributed to treatment in rats consisted of basal cell hyperplasia of the nonglandular mucosa of the stomach in males and females given 12.5 or 25 mg/kg/day for 12 and 24 months and an increased number of hepatocellular adenomas in males given 12.5 or 25 mg/kg/day and females given 25 mg/kg/day for 24 months. The increase in hepatocellular adenomas was statistically identified by pairwise comparison only in males given 25 mg/kg/day. An increased incidence of eosinophilic foci of altered cells in the liver was also noted in all treated groups of rats at 24 months. The latter observation, however, was considered of equivocal toxicological significance because of the common spontaneous occurrence of liver foci in aged Fischer 344 rats. The only histologic change attributed to treatment in mice was decreased size of hepatocytes in males given 50 mg/kg/day for 12 months. The decreased size of hepatocytes was consistent with decreased cytoplasmic glycogen content and corresponded to decreased liver weights. This effect was not present at 24 months. There was no oncogenic response observed in mice. The low-dose level of 2.5 mg/kg/day was interpreted as the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic chronic toxicity of 1,3-D in the Fischer 344 rat. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for chronic systemic toxicity was 2.5 mg/kg/day in the B6C3F1 mouse.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 09/2000; 32(1):1-13. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential toxicologic effects to dogs of 1,3-dichloropropene (1, 3-D), a soil fumigant used for the control of nematodes, were investigated. The 13-week subchronic toxicity study consisted of male and female beagle dogs (4/sex/dose group) given approximately 0, 5, 15, or 41 mg 1,3-D/kg body wt/day (approximately equivalent amounts of cis and trans isomers) via their diets. The 1-year chronic toxicity study consisted of male and female beagle dogs (4/sex/dose group) provided diets delivering approximately 0, 0.5, 2. 5, or 15 mg/kg body wt/day. The test material was stabilized in the feed by microencapsulation in a starch/sucrose matrix (80/20). In both the 13-week and the 1-year studies, the primary effect of 1,3-D in male and female dogs ingesting a dosage of >/=15 mg/kg/day was hypochromic, microcytic anemia. The anemia was regenerative, with increased erythropoietic activity characterized by polychromasia of erythrocytes and increased numbers of reticulocytes in peripheral blood. In the 13-week study, the anemia in dogs given 41 mg/kg/day progressively worsened over time, while the anemia in dogs given 15 mg/kg/day remained relatively constant between 42 and 90 days of dosing. Partial reversal of the anemia of high-dose animals occurred during a 5-week recovery period following the 13-week dosing regimen. In the 13-week study, terminal fasted body weights of males given 15 or 41 mg/kg/day were decreased 3 and 28%, respectively, and body weights of females given 5, 15, or 41 mg/kg/day were decreased 4.5, 12, and 24%, respectively, relative to controls. Males given 5 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks had no change in body weights relative to controls. In the 1-year study, the hypochromic microcytic anemia in dogs given 15 mg/kg/day remained relatively constant in severity between 3 and 12 months of treatment. Histopathologic alterations associated with anemia in the 1-year study consisted of increased hematopoiesis of the bone marrow and increased extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen. Body weights of males given 15 mg/kg/day were 5-12% lower than controls during the first 13 weeks of the study and 13-19% lower than controls during the remaining 9 months. Body weights of females given 15 mg/kg/day were 5-14% lower than controls over the majority of the dosing period. Males and females given 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 1 year had no change in body weights relative to controls. A no-observed-effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/day was established for male and female dogs from the 1-year study.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 12/1999; 30(3):233-43. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (10/sex/ dose group) were given 0, 5, 15, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day (rats) or 0, 15, 50, 100, or 175 (mice) mg/kg/day racemic 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), respectively, via their diets for 13 weeks. Satellite groups of rats (recovery = 10 rats/sex/group) ingesting 0 or 100 mg/kg/ day 1,3-D were provided control feed for an additional 4 weeks to examine recovery. The test material was stabilized in the feed by microencapsulation in a starch/sucrose matrix (80/20). The body weights of male and female rats ingesting > or = 5 and > or = 15 mg/kg/ day, respectively, and of all treatment groups of mice were decreased relative to controls. The terminal body weights of high dose group rats and mice were decreased approximately 13-16%. A number of changes in serum biochemical parameters and decreases in organ weights accompanied the depressed body weights of these animals. Histologically, the only treatment-related change observed was a slight degree of basal cell hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis in the nonglandular portion of the stomachs of a majority of male and female rats ingesting > or = mg/kg/day. After the 4-week recovery period, most treatment-related changes were noted to be reversible in nature. No treatment-related histopathological changes were observed in the tissues of treated mice. Based upon relatively slight depressions in body weights at the lowest dosages tested, the no-observed-adverse-effect levels for male rats and both sexes of mice were determined to be 5 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/ day, respectively. A no-observed-effect level of 5 mg/kg/day was established for female rats.
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 08/1996; 32(2):224-32.