Wei Kong

Jilin University, Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China

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Publications (117)340.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with two methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1053675 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plant proteins have been drawing increasing attention owing to their safety, abundance and relatively low cost in comparison with animal proteins. The development of plant protein-based delivery vehicles may lead to the provision of novel pharmaceutical products to patients. Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm that was approved as a generally recognised as safe excipient in 1985 by the US FDA for use in pharmaceutical film coatings. Over the past few decades, numerous studies have been carried out to illustrate zein's potential for novel applications in the biomedical field. This paper reviews the present status of zein-based nanofibres, with emphasis on their fabrication and biomedical applications, particularly for drug delivery. Their benefits and limitations are also discussed to provide further insight into zein's potential as a promising biomaterial.
    Current pharmaceutical design 05/2015; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0125701. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125701 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rbx1 and Rbx2 are essential components of Cullin-RING E3 Ligases. Vif is generally believed to preferentially recruit the Cul5-Rbx2 module to induce proteasomal degradation of antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G, although some investigators have found that the Cul5-Rbx1 module is recruited. Here, to investigate the function of the two Rbx proteins in the Vif-Cul5 complex, we analyzed the performance of Cul5-Rbx1/Cul5-Rbx2 module in the activity of Vif E3 ligase and evaluated the interactions between Rbx1/Rbx2 and Cul5. We found that either Rbx1 or Rbx2 could promote ubiquitination of APOBE3G (A3G) in vitro. We also found that both Rbx1 and Rbx2 could bind Cul5 in cells and Rbx2 could dose-dependently inhibit the interaction of Rbx1 with Cul5. Furthermore, only the decrease of endogenous Rbx2 but not Rbx1 could impair the Vif-induced A3G degradation in cells. These findings indicate that Rbx1 and Rbx2 can both activate Cul5-Vif E3 ligase in vitro, but they may undergo a more delicate selection mechanism in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2015; 461(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.04.077 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Viruses 04/2015; 7(4):1558-1577. DOI:10.3390/v7041558 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid antigen expressed in insect cell has been proposed as a candidate subunit vaccine for the prevention of hepatitis E. However, the expression and purification of HEV virus-like particles (VLPs) from insect cells have not been explored. We aimed to optimize the procedure to obtain HEV VLPs. In this study, two conformations of the HEV capsid proteins were expressed in insect cells, virus-like particles (VLPs) and non-VLPs, and they were purified separately. The physicochemical properties and the humoral immune responses induced by the two forms were analyzed and compared. We found that HEV VLPs were more immunogenic in mice than HEV non-VLPs. Therefore, we optimized the conditions that yielded high VLPs expression in insect cell cultures and developed an efficient purification method. The results suggest that the distinction and isolation of VLPs from non-VLPs are essential to generate a more immunogenic vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/bab.1379 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm, which was approved as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) excipient in 1985 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for film coating of pharmaceuticals, e.g., tablets. Despite its long-term application in tablet production, effects of zein coating on tablet properties are still not fully understood. Moreover, many studies have also been conducted to illustrate its potential as an active ingredient of direct compressed tablets and film-based delivery carriers. In addition, the use of zein as a functional film coating material for new biomedical applications was also widely investigated in recent reports, which involved medical devices, nanoparticles, quantum dots and nanofibers. In this review, the present status of zein in the form of a thin film and uniform layer for use as a biomedical material is discussed. In addition, studies related to the behaviors and properties of zein films are also summarized and analyzed based on published works to gain mechanistic insights into the relationship between zein film and various improved profiles. This review will benefit future prospects of the use of zein film in drug delivery and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Controlled Release 03/2015; 206. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.03.030 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to find common immune mechanism across different kinds of vaccines. A meta-analysis of microarray datasets was performed using publicly available microarray Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Array Express data sets of vaccination records. Seven studies (out of 35) were selected for this meta-analysis. A total of 447 chips (145 pre-vaccination and 302 post-vaccination) were included. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) program was used for screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional pathway enrichment for the DEGs was conducted in DAVID Gene Ontology (GO) database. Twenty DEGs were identified, of which 10 up-regulated genes involved immune response. Six of which were type I interferon (IFN) related genes, including LY6E, MX1, OAS3, IFI44L, IFI6 and IFITM3. Ten down-regulated genes mainly mediated negative regulation of cell proliferation and cell motion. Results of a subgroup analysis showed that although the kinds of genes varied widely between days 3 and 7 post vaccination, the pathways between them are basically the same, such as immune response and response to viruses, etc. For an independent verification of these 6 type I IFN related genes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected at baseline and day 3 after the vaccination from 8 Enterovirus 71(EV71) vaccinees and were assayed by RT-PCR. Results showed that the 6 DEGs were also upregulated in EV71 vaccinees. In summary, meta-analysis methods were used to explore the immune mechanism of vaccines and results indicated that the type I IFN related genes and corresponding pathways were common in early immune responses for different kinds of vaccines.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 03/2015; 11(3):739-745. DOI:10.1080/21645515.2015.1008884 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 gp120/gp41 is heavily modified by n-linked carbohydrates that play important roles either in correct folding or in shielding vulnerable viral protein surfaces from antibody recognition. In our previous work, 25 potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) of a CRF07_BC isolate of HIV-1 were individually mutated, and the resulting effects on infectivity and antibody-mediated neutralization were evaluated. In order to further understand the functional role of these PNGS, we generated double and multiple mutants from selected individual PNGS mutants. The effects were then evaluated by examining infectivity and sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) and serum antibodies from HIV-1 positive donors. Infectivity results showed that, among the twelve combined PNGS mutants, only 197M.1 (N197D/N301Q) lost infectivity completely, while all others (except for 197M.6) showed reduced viral infectivity. In terms of neutralization sensitivity to known nMAbs, we found that adding N463Q mutation to all the gp120 mutants containing N197D significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to VRC01 and VRC03, suggesting N197 and N463 have a strong synergistic effect in regulating the neutralizing sensitivity of HIV-1 to the anti-CD4bs nMAbs VRC01/VRC03. Structural analysis based on the available structures of gp120 alone and in complex with CD4 and various nMAbs elucidates a molecular rationale for this experimental observation. The data indicate that N463 plays an important role in regulating the CD4bs MAbs VRC01/VRC03 sensitivity in the genetic background of N197D mutation of gp120, which should provide valuable information for a better understanding of the interplay between HIV-1 and VRC01/03.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2015; 69(3). DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000595 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence shows that grains may play a role in disease prevention beyond the simple provision of energy and nutrients. It has been reported that some components contained in grains exert their functional effects on viral and bacterial infections and protect against various cancers. However, until now, hardly any intervention studies have investigated the effects of grains or grain based extracts on the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. In this study, the antiviral function of a zymolytic grain based extract (ZGE) was detected in vitro and in rats, and the antiviral mechanism was investigated. Results showed that ZGE had an inhibition effect on HIV-1 infection in vitro with low cytotoxic effects. The study of the mechanism demonstrated that this functional food possibly acted on the viral surface structure protein gp120 which is responsible for cell binding, as well as on the postattachment stage of the virus. The sera of model rats administrated with this food by gavage presented anti-infection abilities against HIV-1 in vitro during a serum concentration associated period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the application of ZGE on the control of viral load, which may contribute to future anti-HIV treatment with less adverse effects.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:642327. DOI:10.1155/2015/642327 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Fitness costs and slower disease progression are associated with a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutation T242N in Gag in HIV-1-infected individuals carrying HLA-B*57/5801 alleles. However, the impact of different context in diverse HIV-1 strains on the fitness costs due to the T242N mutation has not been well characterized. To better understand the extent of fitness costs of the T242N mutation and the repair of fitness loss through compensatory amino acids, we investigated its fitness impact in different transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses.ResultsThe T242N mutation resulted in various levels of fitness loss in four different T/F viruses. However, the fitness costs were significantly compromised by preexisting compensatory amino acids in (Isoleucine at position 247) or outside (glutamine at position 219) the CTL epitope. Moreover, the transmitted T242N escape mutant in subject CH131 was as fit as the revertant N242T mutant and the elimination of the compensatory amino acid I247 in the T/F viral genome resulted in significant fitness cost, suggesting the fitness loss caused by the T242N mutation had been fully repaired in the donor at transmission. Analysis of the global circulating HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database showed a high prevalence of compensatory amino acids for the T242N mutation and other T cell escape mutations.Conclusions Our results show that the preexisting compensatory amino acids in the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains could significantly compromise the fitness loss due to CTL escape mutations and thus increase challenges for T cell based vaccines.
    Retrovirology 11/2014; 11(1):101. DOI:10.1186/s12977-014-0101-0 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, infectivity of a trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) is titrated by determining the 50% egg infectious dose assay (EID50) or plaque forming units (PFU), which requires specific monoclonal antibodies to neutralize two strains while estimating the titer of the non-neutralized strain. Compared to this time-consuming, laborious, subjective and variable process, reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) technology has advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and reduced contamination, thus has been applied widely for detecting pathogens and measuring viral titers. In this study, the critical harvest time was determined to be 18 h post-infection (hpi) for type A influenza and 12 hpi for type B influenza, but no significant difference between titers at 12 hpi and 18 hpi for the type B strain was observed. In conclusion, trivalent LAIVs can be titrated simultaneously within 24 h by this one-step RT-qPCR assay, which yielded titers comparable to those obtained by the traditional EID50 assay. Therefore, the RT-qPCR assay may be used as a highly specific, sensitive, precise and rapid alternative to the EID50 assay for titering LAIVs.
    Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 11/2014; 10(12):e34453. DOI:10.4161/hv.34453 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BST-2 blocks the particle release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1, and this antiviral activity is dependent on the topological arrangement of its four structural domains. Several functions of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of BST-2 have been previously discussed, but the exact role of this domain remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncation and commonly-used tags addition into the CT region of human BST-2 on its intracellular trafficking and signaling as well as its anti-HIV-1 function. The CT-truncated BST-2 exhibited potent inhibition on Vpu-defective HIV-1 and even wild-type HIV-1. However, the N-terminal HA-tagged CT-truncated BST-2 retained little antiviral activity and dramatically differed from its original protein in the cell surface level and intracellular localization. Further, we showed that the replacement of the CT domain with a hydrophobic tag altered BST-2 function possibly by preventing its normal vesicular trafficking. Notably, we demonstrated that a positive charged motif "KRXK" in the conjunctive region between the cytotail and the transmembrane domain which is conserved in primate BST-2 is important for the protein trafficking and the antiviral function. These results suggest that although the CT of BST-2 is not essential for its antiviral activity, the composition of residues in this region may play important roles in its normal trafficking which subsequently affected its function. These observations provide additional implications for the structure-function model of BST-2.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111422. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111422 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An N-terminal deuterohemin-containing hexapeptide (DhHP-6) was designed as a short peptide cytochrome c (Cyt c) mimetic to study the effect of N-terminal charge on peptide fragmentation pathways. This peptide gave different dissociation patterns than normal tryptic peptides. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) with an ion trap mass spectrometer, the singly charged peptide ion containing no added proton generated abundant and characteristic bn-44 ions instead of bn-28 (an) ions. Studies by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and isotope labeling indicate that elimination of 44 Da fragments from b ions occurs via two different pathways: (1) loss of CH3CHO (44.0262) from a Thr side chain; (2) loss of CO2 (43.9898) from the oxazolone structure in the C-terminus. A series of analogues were designed and analyzed. The experimental results combined with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations on the proton affinity of the deuteroporphyrin demonstrate that the production of these novel bn-44 ions is related to the N-terminal charge via a charge-remote rather than radical-directed fragmentation pathway.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 10/2014; 25(12). DOI:10.1007/s13361-014-0994-9 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIVA) antagonize antiviral family APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of the host through viral Vif proteins. The mechanism by which Vif of human, simian or feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV/FIV) suppresses the corresponding host A3s has been studied extensively.ResultsHere, we determined that bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif proteins utilize the Cullin (Cul)-ElonginB (EloB)-ElonginC (EloC) complex (BIV Vif recruits Cul2, while MVV Vif recruits Cul5) to degrade Bos taurus (bt)A3Z2-Z3 and Ovis aries (oa)A3Z2-Z3, respectively, via a proteasome-dependent but a CBF-ß-independent pathway. Mutation of the BC box in BIV and MVV Vif, C-terminal hydrophilic replacement of btEloC and oaEloC and dominant-negative mutants of btCul2 and oaCul5 could disrupt the activity of BIV and MVV Vif, respectively. While the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN could block BIV Vif-mediated degradation of btA3Z2-Z3, it had minimal effects on oaA3Z2-Z3 degradation induced by MVV Vif, indicating that Zn is important for the activity of BIV Vif but not MVV Vif. Furthermore, we identified a previously unreported zinc binding loop [C-x1-C-x1-H-x19-C] in the BIV Vif upstream BC box which is critical for its degradation activity.ConclusionsA novel zinc binding loop was identified in the BIV Vif protein that is important for the E3 ubiquination activity, suggesting that the degradation of btA3Z2-Z3 by BIV and that of oaA3Z2-Z3 by MVV Vif may need host factors other than CBF-ß.
    Retrovirology 09/2014; 11(1):77. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1535827771128175 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) have caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and young children. This disease has become a serious public health problem, as no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been approved for EV71 and CA16 infections. In this study, we compared four monovalent vaccines, including formalin-inactivated EV71 virus (iEV71), EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) (vEV71), formalin-inactivated CVA16 virus (iCVA16) and CVA16 VLPs (vCVA16), along with two bivalent vaccines, including equivalent doses of formalin-inactivated EV71+CVA16 virus (iEV71+iCVA16) and EV71+CVA16 VLPs (vEV71+vCVA16). The IgG titers and neutralization antibodies titers demonstrated that there are no immune interference exists between the two immunogens of EV71 and CVA16. IgG subclass isotyping revealed that IgG1 and IgG2b were induced primarily in all vaccine groups. Furthermore, cross-neutralization antibodies were elicited in mouse sera against other sub-genotypes of EV71 and CVA16. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the immune sera from vaccinated animals could confer passive protection to newborn mice against lethal challenge with 14 LD50 of EV71 and 50 LD50 of CVA16. Our results indicated that bivalent vaccination is promising for HFMD vaccine development. With the advantage of having a better safety profile than inactivated virus vaccines, VLPs should be used to combine both EV71 and CVA16 antigens as a candidate vaccine for prevention of HFMD virus transmission.
    Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 10(10):e29823. DOI:10.4161/hv.29823 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of infectious disease and complications worldwide, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis. New generation protein-based pneumococcal vaccines are recognized as alternative vaccine candidates. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by all clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. Our research group previously developed a highly detoxified Ply mutant designated Plym2 by replacement of two animo acids (C428G and W433F). Exhibiting undetectable levels of cytotoxicity, Plym2 could still elicit high titer neutralizing antibodies against the native toxin. However, evaluation of the active immunoprotective effects of Plym2 by subcutaneous immunization and lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae in mice did not yield favorable results. In the present work, we confirmed the previous observations by using passive immunization and systemic challenge. Results of the passive immunization were consistent with those of active immunization. Further experiments were conducted to explain the inability of high titer neutralizing antibodies against Ply to protect mice from S. pneumoniae challenge. Pneumococcal Ply is known to be the major factor responsible for the induction of inflammation that benefits the host. Proinflammatory cytokines facilitate the clearance of invaders by the recruitment and activation of leukocytes at the early infection stage. We demonstrated that Plym2 could induce proinflammatory cytokines similarly to wild-type Ply. A systemic infection model was used to clarify that Plym2 lacking cytolytic activity could protect mice from intraperitoneal challenge directly, while antibodies to the mutant had no effect. Therefore, the protective function of Plym2 may be due to its induction of proinflammatory cytokines. When used in the systemic infection model, Plym2 antibodies may block the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by Ply. These findings demonstrate that a Ply-based vaccine would not be an effective primary vaccine component, but it may be beneficial as an adjuvant to stimulate cytokine production.
    Immunological investigations 07/2014; DOI:10.3109/08820139.2014.930478 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability‑based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 μM. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.
    Viruses 07/2014; 6(7):2778-2795. DOI:10.3390/v6072778 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100545. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100545 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eliciting efficient broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is an important goal that has yet to be achieved for human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development, although they are rarely produced in virus-infected individuals. In particular, inducing specific neutralizing antibodies to the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER) has proven a difficult task. In this study, we introduce Norovirus P particles as a new platform to display the MPER epitope of HIV-1 as a vaccine with the aim of enhancing immune responses. The results showed that HIV-1 chimeric P particles were capable of inducing MPER-specific antibody responses in immunized guinea pigs, although only weakly neutralizing activity could be detected. These findings are consistent with other previous studies which have also focused on the well-studied 2F5 and 4E10 BnAbs. Our findings provide an alternate strategy for design of vaccines against HIV-1. However, great challenges remain in the effort to develop vaccines that can induce efficient HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 06/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
340.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • Jilin University
      • College of Life Sciences
      Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China
  • 2013
    • Changchun University of Technology
      Huinan, Jilin Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Peking University
      • School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2008
    • 302 Military Hospital of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Changchun University of Science and Technology
      Changchun, Fujian, China
  • 2002–2003
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States