[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, secreted from osteocytes/osteoblasts, plays major roles in phosphate (Pi)-mediated stimulation of PTH secretion and consequently in regulation of serum Pi. Osteocyte/osteoblast dysfunction develops in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).Objective:Our objective was to examine whether increases in serum FGF-23 and PTH after oral Pi stimulation are impaired in type 2 DM.Design and Methods:The subjects were 10 DM and 10 non-DM patients without chronic kidney disease stage 3-5. Serum FGF-23, intact PTH (iPTH), and Pi were measured serially after oral Pi administration at a daily dose of 2.0 g.Results:Pi administration caused significant increases of FGF-23 by 2 h and iPTH by 4 h in non-DM patients. These increases were attenuated in DM patients. After 2 d of Pi stimulation, serum FGF-23 and iPTH remained elevated in non-DM patients but not in DM. In all subjects, initial changes of serum FGF-23 (0-2 h) and iPTH (0-4 h) were positively correlated (r = 0.528) and showed significant negative correlations with later changes in serum Pi (2-4 h) (r = -0.457 and r = -0.673, respectively). Serum Pi (2-4 h) significantly increased in DM patients, consistent with the lack of change in serum FGF-23 and iPTH, whereas serum Pi did not change significantly in non-DM patients.Conclusion:These results show that increases of serum FGF-23 and PTH in response to Pi stimulation are impaired in type 2 DM and that serum Pi is significantly increased thereafter. This may be a mechanism underlying advanced atherosclerosis in type 2 DM.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2012; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Endocrine and metabolic abnormalities may affect the survival of hemodialysis patients. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an adrenal androgen with anabolic properties, is known to be lowered in ill patients and predicts poor outcome in the general population and in those with cardiac disease. The aims of this study were to examine a possible change in the DHEA-S level in dialysis patients and its association with survival in this population.Methods
This was an observational cohort study in 494 prevalent hemodialysis patients (313 men and 181 women) in urban area of Osaka, Japan. The main exposure was the baseline DHEA-S level in December 2004 and the key outcome was all-cause mortality during the subsequent 5 years. Also, DHEA-S levels were compared between the hemodialysis patients and 122 matched healthy controls.ResultsThe median (inter-quartile range) DHEA-S levels were 771 (447-1351) and 414 (280-659) ng/mL for male and female dialysis patients, respectively, and these values were significantly lower by 40-53% than the healthy control levels. Among the hemodialysis patients, DHEA-S was lower in women, those with older age, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, lower serum albumin and higher C-reactive protein. During the follow-up, we recorded 101 deaths. A low DHEA-S level was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality independent of potential confounders in male, but not in female, hemodialysis patients.Conclusions
The serum DHEA-S level is decreased in hemodialysis patients and associated with mortality in men. These results support the growing observational evidence that uremia-induced endocrine alterations including decreased sex hormones may be linked to adverse clinical outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although poor glycemic control is known as an independent predictor of mortality in diabetic hemodialysis patients, it is often difficult for some patients to perform standard self injection insulin therapy. Some practical methods are needed for such patients. We evaluated the usefulness of a new regimen of insulin therapy, namely thrice-weekly insulin injection with nurse's support (TWINS) using insulin NPH or glargine at the end of each hemodialysis sessions in 5 outpatients on hemodialysis with type 2 diabetes mellitus showing HbAlc levels > or = 8.0% (JDS). HbA1c levels were successfully decreased in all patients from 9.3 +/- 1.1% to 6.9 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SD) in six months without hypoglycemia symptoms. These preliminary results suggest that this regimen can be one of the practical choices in poor-controlled diabetes patients on regular hemodialysis who have difficulty in self injection of insulin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures.
Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 04/2012; 16(2):127-33. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetuin was first isolated from bovine serum in 1944. It is now most commonly known as either fetuin-A or alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), the protein product of Ahsg gene. A prominent feature of this protein is the functional diversity exerted in human physiology and pathophysiology. Fetuin-A plays a role in bone metabolism, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM), and central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as ischemic stroke (IS) and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, emerging evidence suggests involvement of fetuin-A in the cardiovascular system. However, there are many discordant findings on the associations between fetuin-A and vascular diseases. In other words, it is unknown whether fetuin-A is an exacerbating or a protective factor in the cardiovascular system. One reason for the seemingly inconsistent behavior is the dual functionality of fetuin-A in vascular diseases where it can act as an atherogenic factor or as a vascular calcification inhibitor. In addition, the existence of confounding factors such as DM and renal dysfunction can veil the primary association between fetuin-A and clinical parameters. Considering these issues, we discuss the role of fetuin-A for atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in this review.
Advances in clinical chemistry 01/2012; 56:175-95. · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor muscle quality provides a clinically relevant measure for mortality in general population, particularly in the elderly people. Our previous reports indicating poorer muscle quality in diabetes mellitus (DM) hemodialysis patients than in non-DM counterparts prompted us to examine the association between two parameters in hemodialysis patients, independent of DM prevalence.
The study was performed from 1997 to 2005. Grip dynamometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used to measure handgrip strength (HGS) and arm lean mass (ALM), respectively, with the muscle quality defined as the ratio of HGS to ALM.
During the mean follow-up period of 77 months, 90 out of 272 patients died. The patients were divided into higher and lower groups based on the values of muscle quality. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the higher group revealed lower mortality than the lower group. Cox regression hazards analysis identified higher muscle quality as a significant independent predictor for better survival in hemodialysis patients (HR; 0.889, 95% CI 0.814-0.971; P<0.05), after adjustment for age, sex and the prevalence of DM. Since DM prevalence is a major factor for poorer muscle quality, another analysis was performed after restriction of the subjects to non-DM patients. The result also indicated that muscle quality provides a relevant measure independent of the presence of DM to predict the mortality in hemodialysis patients (HR; 0.849, 95% CI 0.759-0.950; P<0.05).
The study suggested that muscle quality provides a good marker for survival in hemodialysis patients, independently of the presence DM, age and serum albumin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, little proteomic information has been available from the glomeruli of diabetic patients, possibly due to the clinical limitations of renal biopsy in diabetic patients and insufficient quantities of such specimens for proteome analysis. The purpose of the present study was to identify altered protein expression profiles in diabetic glomeruli using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) kidney tissues from diabetic patients.
Glomeruli were laser microdissected from FFPE autopsy kidney tissues from 10 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 10 non-diabetic control patients and underwent proteome analysis using QSTAR Elite liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and iTRAQ technology. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 93 autopsy samples from diabetic patients with and without nephropathy (n = 45 and n = 48, respectively).
Thirty-one renal and urological disease-related proteins displayed a differential abundance in glomerular samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy compared with non-diabetic control patients. Among them, we found that nephronectin, which functions in the assembly of extracellular matrix, showed clearly positive immunoreactivity in diabetic glomeruli. The numerical fraction of nephronectin-positive glomerular cross sections was increased significantly in diabetic patients with nephropathy compared to those without nephropathy (32.1 ± 31.5 versus 4.14 ± 5.65%, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between this numerical fraction of nephronectin-positive glomerular cross sections and the glomerular sclerosis index (ρ = 0.881, P < 0.0001, n = 93).
The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that nephronectin may be associated with the development of diabetic glomerulosclerosis and that proteome analysis with FFPE kidney tissues from diabetic patients with nephropathy is useful in understanding diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis are mainly caused by the dysfunction of arterial components, namely, vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and the extracellular matrix. Endothelial dysfunction is well established as a predictive surrogate marker of cardiovascular events; however, little is known regarding the clinical implications of vascular smooth muscle dysfunction for cardiovascular disease and microangiopathy. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the association of arterial dysfunction with micro-/macroangiopathy and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in 181 type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM; age ± SD, 64 ± 10 years; duration of diabetes, 12 ± 10 years).
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NMD) were assessed to evaluate endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, respectively, by using a novel ultrasound device, UNEXEF18G (Unex Co. Ltd., Japan).
The FMD and NMD were 6.4 ± 3.9% and 13.4 ± 6.6%, respectively. No significant differences in FMD were noted between T2DM with and without micro- or macroangiopathy; however, NMD in T2DM patients with micro- and macroangiopathy was significantly lower than that in T2DM patients without angiopathy. NMD decreased with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage (p = 0.005), but not FMD (p = 0.071). On multiple regression analysis, significant independent contributors to FMD were age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum total cholesterol, while those for NMD were age, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference.
The relationship of vascular complications and cardiovascular risk factors with NMD is different from that with FMD in type 2 diabetic patients.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 12/2011; 19(3):276-84. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher serum alkaline phosphatase predicts lower mortality in chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients without liver dysfunction because it reflects high bone turnover. The purpose of our study was to compare the significance of serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) with that of other bone markers in prediction of all-cause mortality(ACM) in male hemodialysis patients.
The study was performed for 5 years. Serum BAP, intact osteocalcin (iOC), ß-CrossLaps (CTX), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured in 196 male hemodialysis patients without radiographic fracture. Their day-to-day variation during 5 consecutive days and diurnal variation were determined in 13 healthy males.
The patients were divided into higher and lower groups based on serum levels of bone markers(mean±SD: iPTH 218.6±214.5 pg/ml, BAP 23.6±12.2 U/L, iOC 42.8±45.2 ng/ml, CTX 1.71±1.23 nmol/L BCE). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the higher BAP group had significantly higher ACM than the lower BAP group (P=0.013), whereas mortality did not differ between the higher and lower groups in other markers. Cox regression hazard analysis identified higher log BAP as a significant independent predictor [hazard ratio(HR) 8.32(95%CI:1.18-58.98)] for ACM after adjustment for various factors including pre-existing cardiovasucular disease, presence of DM. The significant association of mortality with serum BAP alone, in contrast with other markers including CTX [HR0.64 (95%CI:0.16-2.47)], iOC [HR0.97(95%CI:0.36-2.64)], iPTH [HR0.84(95%CI:0.44-1.60)], it may be due to the narrower day-to-day variation and the absence of diurnal variation in serum BAP compared to other markers.
Higher serum BAP may be a predictor of ACM in male hemodialysis patients.
Life sciences 12/2011; 90(5-6):212-8. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) is a marker of newly formed type I collagen. However, its role in hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia has not yet been established. Metabolic bone markers were examined in patients with oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), and in healthy controls. OOM and XLH patients were found to have hypophosphatemia secondary to elevated levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). OOM patients had reduced levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25D) compared with XLH patients and healthy controls, despite attenuation of the reduction in these levels in the XLH patients secondary to active vitamin D supplementation. In contrast to patients with XLH, OOM patients showed a significant increase in serum PINP, which is suggestive of accelerated bone matrix formation. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the BAP/PINP ratio were also increased in OOM but not in XLH patients, suggesting the presence of a disturbance in bone mineralization in OOM. Long-term supplementation of active form vitamin D and inorganic phosphate (IP) may have attenuated the defect in bone mineralization in the XLH patients, resulting in the normalization of PINP, BAP, and the BAP/PINP ratio. The present results suggest that, as with BAP, PINP is an appropriate metabolic bone marker in the assessment of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM), or tumor-induced osteomalacia, is a rare disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and osteomalacia. It arises due to the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) from causative tumors. Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Although the presence of MEPE mRNA has been reported in some OOM tumors, little is known about the prevalence of MEPE expression in OOM tumors. In this study, the expression of MEPE and FGF-23 in OOM tumors was investigated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Eleven causative OOM tumors were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for MEPE and FGF-23 expression. Hemangiopericytomas and giant cell tumors, pathological diagnoses that are common in cases of OOM, were obtained from non-osteomalacic patients and analyzed as controls. The gene expression level of FGF23 and MEPE in OOM tumors was 10(4)- and 10(5)-times higher, respectively, than in non-OOM tumors. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that FGF-23 protein was expressed in all OOM tumors, and MEPE was expressed in 10 out of 11 OOM tumors. Thus, MEPE expression was common in OOM tumors, similar to FGF-23. These results indicate that, in addition to the hypophosphatemic effects of FGF-23, MEPE or the MEPE-derived acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated motif peptide may contribute to decreased bone mineralization in OOM patients.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 07/2011; 30(1):93-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We performed myeloablative bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor during the patient's first complete remission. After engraftment, he developed acute graft-versus-host disease involving the gastrointestinal tract on day 32. Steroids and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated from day 39. His symptoms improved and the dose of immunosuppressants was tapered and then discontinued on day 421. On day 491, he developed nephrotic syndrome (NS). Based on renal biopsy, membranous nephropathy was diagnosed. There were no apparent symptoms or abnormal laboratory data suggestive of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Steroid therapy was initiated from day 518 and proteinuria improved significantly. NS is very rare following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). When there is no concomitant cGVHD, as in this case, allo-HSCT-associated NS is difficult to distinguish from idiopathic NS.
[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 07/2011; 52(7):556-62.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silent cerebral lacunar infarction (SCI) and periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) have been reported to be markers of ischemic cerebral small-vessel disease and risk factors for future cerebrovascular events in the general population. The relationship between CKD and SCI/PVH is examined.
In this cross-sectional study, brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system in 324 predialysis CKD patients and in 60 normal subjects.
SCI was found in 103 CKD patients (31.8%), and PVH was found in 174 CKD patients (53.7%). SCI/PVH were more prevalent in patients with higher blood pressure, advanced age and decreased kidney function. There was a significant association between the prevalence of SCI/PVH and the CKD stage, with greater prevalence of SCI/PVH as the CKD stage advanced (p < 0.0001). PVH grade also advanced as the CKD stage advanced. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was a significant factor associated with the presence of SCI/PVH, independent of any other factors. There was a strong association between the prevalence of SCI/PVH (p < 0.0001).
In CKD patients, decreased kidney function is a significant factor associated with SCI/PVH, both of which are significantly associated with each other. These results suggest that CKD patients with SCI/PVH are at greater risk of future cerebrovascular events.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 06/2011; 34(6):430-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-six years have elapsed since the discovery of fetuin in 1944, but its importance in mammalian physiology has only recently been appreciated. Fetuin, first isolated from fetal bovine serum and now most commonly known as either fetuin-A, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (recommended name by UniprotKB and PIR), or α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, functions as an important component of diverse normal and pathological processes, including vascular calcification and bone metabolism regulation, insulin resistance, protease activity control, keratinocytes migration, and breast tumor cell proliferative signaling. Fetuin-A has also been identified as a biomarker for neurodegenerative disease. Here, we summarize recent publications focusing on the structural and functional properties of fetuin-A. The emerging importance of fetuin-A for both diagnosis and therapeutics has come to the attention of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, we will discuss the status of patents based on fetuin-A.
Recent Patents on Endocrine Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery 05/2011; 5(2):124-46.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trace element disturbance is often observed in hemodialysis patients. While trace element concentrations have been reported in blood samples from hemodialysis patients, they have not been well investigated in scalp hair. In the present study, 22 trace elemental concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in the scalp hair of 80 male hemodialysis patients and compared with those of 100 healthy male subjects. In hemodialysis patients, the concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, magnesium, chromium, manganese, iron, selenium, molybdenum, iodine, vanadium, and cobalt were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, while lead, mercury, copper, germanium, and bromine were significantly lower than those in the former group. No significant differences were observed for lithium, aluminum, cadmium, zinc, boron, or nickel. There were significant positive correlations between the duration of hemodialysis and the magnesium and manganese concentrations. There was a significant negative correlation between cadmium concentration and the duration of hemodialysis. There were significant positive correlations between dialysis efficacy (Kt/V) and magnesium, manganese, zinc, and selenium concentrations. In conclusion, trace element concentrations of the scalp hair are different between hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Essential trace elements, such as magnesium, manganese, zinc, and selenium, may be affected by the duration of hemodialysis and Kt/V.
Biological trace element research 01/2011; 143(2):825-34. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate proteins associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy, a major cause of the end-stage renal disease, we analyzed protein expression in isolated glomeruli from spontaneous type 2 diabetic (OLETF) rats and their age-matched control littermates (LETO) in the early and proteinuric stages of diabetic nephropathy using QSTAR Elite LC-MS/MS. Among the 191 and 218 proteins that were altered significantly in the OLETF rats, twenty-four were actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins implicated in the formation of stress fibers, and the impairment of actin polymerization, intermediate filaments and microtubules. Importantly, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2 (SORBS2), which is involved in the formation of stress fibers, was significantly upregulated in both stages of diabetic nephropathy (1.49- and 1.97-fold, resp.). Immunohistochemical and quantitative-PCR analyses revealed upregulation of SORBS2 in podocytes of glomeruli of OLETF rats. Our findings suggested that SORBS2 may be associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy possibility by reorganization of actin filaments.
Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2011; 2011:979354. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was originally isolated as an inducer of apoptosis. Recent cross-sectional and prospective studies suggest an inverse association of serum TRAIL levels with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and with an adverse outcome in patients with CAD or heart failure. However, it is unknown whether TRAIL can inversely reflect the progression of atherosclerosis from its early stage. We therefore examined the association between TRAIL measured by ELISA and intima-media thickness (IMT) in carotid and femoral arteries evaluated by ultrasonography as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis in 416 type 2 diabetic patients without any symptoms of CAD and heart failure. Concurrently, the existence of calcified plaque (CP) was examined. There was no significant association between TRAIL and carotid IMT (ρ=-0.096, p=0.052) or femoral IMT (ρ=-0.025, p=0.610), although TRAIL was associated with carotid IMT in a subset of patients with macrovascular diseases (ρ=-0.174, p=0.034). No difference in TRAIL levels was found between two groups with or without CP. TRAIL may not be a good candidate as a biomarker to evaluate early-stage atherosclerotic lesions.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 01/2011; 91(3):316-20. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a common complication in haemodialysis patients. Recently, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been reported as a simple and accurate tool to assess nutritional status of haemodialysis patients. Our objective was to examine the association between GNRI and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients.
We examined the GNRI of 490 maintenance haemodialysis patients (60 ± 12 years, 293 males and 197 females) and followed up these patients for 60 months. Predictors for all-cause death were examined using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional analyses.
The GNRI was 98.0 ± 6.0, and was significantly and negatively correlated with age and haemodialysis duration. During the 60-month follow-up period, 129 patients died. According to the highest positive likelihood and risk ratios, the cutoff value of GNRI for mortality was set at 90. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with a GNRI <90 (n = 50) had a significantly lower survival rate, compared to those with GNRI ≥90 (n = 440) (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that GNRI was a significant predictor for mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.962, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.931-0.995, P < 0.05], after adjustment for age, gender, C-reactive protein, presence of diabetes and haemodialysis duration.
These results demonstrated that GNRI is a significant predictor for mortality in haemodialysis patients. The simple method of GNRI is considered to be a clinically useful marker for the assessment of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*-weighted MRI) is highly sensitive for detecting cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). CMBs have been reported to be a risk factor for future cerebrovascular events and a marker of cerebral small vessel disease in the general population. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The relationship between CKD and CMBs, which has not been clarified to date, is examined.
In this cross-sectional study, T2*-weighted MRI of brain was performed with a 1.5-T MRI system in 162 CKD patients (CKD stages 1-5, excluding CKD stage 5(D)) and 24 normal subjects.
CMBs were found in 35 CKD patients (25.6%), but not in control subjects. CMBs were more prevalent in male patients, in those with higher blood pressure, advanced age and poor kidney function. There was a significant association between the prevalence of CMBs and the CKD stage, with higher prevalence of CMBs as the CKD stages advanced (P < 0.01). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was a significant factor associated with the prevalence of CMBs, independent of age, gender and hypertension. There was no significant relationship between CMBs and the presence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia.
Decreased renal function is a significant risk factor for CMBs, independent of the presence of hypertension. Poor kidney function could be associated with future cerebrovascular events.