[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene-transfected tumour cells were used to cure mice bearing lung metastases by the parental, non-transduced mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA-pc). Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) administrations of mitomycin C (MitC)-treated interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) transfectants induced a 90% inhibition in the number of lung metastases. Therapeutic effect required an intact T-cell response, as shown by the lack of efficacy in nude mice. Autocrine stimulation by IFN-gamma induces specific modifications in the phenotype of transfectants that acquire a high metastatic ability and show a high expression of IFN-responsive genes; these two features were exploited to design two experimental protocols to obtain an improvement of the therapeutic effect. The increased metastatic ability of IFN-gamma transfectants was used to deliver IFN-gamma selectively to the lungs of mice bearing TSA-pc pulmonary metastases. A significant therapeutic effect was obtained when TSA-pc experimental metastases were treated by repeated intravenous (i.v.) injections of MitC IFN-gamma transfectants. Since i.v. administrations of IFN-gamma transfectants did not induce immune memory, the therapeutical effect appeared to depend on the inflammatory-like response activated by local IFN release. To exploit the autocrine stimulation of IFN-sensitive genes an IFN-gamma transfectant clone was subjected to a second transfection with an allogeneic class I MHC gene (H-2K(b) or H-2D(h)). IFN-gamma plus MHC double transfectants maintained IFN-gamma release, showed a very high expression of the MHC gene products, stimulated both macrophages and T cells, and were less tumorigenic in immunocompetent mice than the parent IFN-gamma clone. Therapeutic efficacy of double transfectant IFN-gamma plus H-2D(b) cells against TSA-pc was superior to single transfectants, showing that the reaction elicited by genetically engineered cells can be selectively tuned to increase therapeutic efficacy.
British Journal of Cancer 12/1996; 74(10):1564-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impressive inhibition of tumor growth has been observed after transduction of cytokine genes into tumor cells. Secreted cytokines do not affect the proliferation of a tumor directly but activate a host immune reaction strong enough to overcome its oncogenic capacity. However, the reaction mechanisms activated are difficult to interpret; because these mechanisms have been derived from experiments with different tumors, comparisons are hindered. To compare the reactive mechanisms induced by each cytokine, BALB/c mice were challenged with the parental cells of the syngeneic spontaneous mammary adenocarcinoma TSA, or with TSA cells engineered to release IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and TNF alpha, and the tumor growth area was studied histologically, ultrastructurally, and immunohistochemically. These observations were integrated with data on the growth and rejection patterns of TSA cells in mice depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, CD4+, or CD8+ lymphocytes. The rejection of TSA-IL2 and TSA-TNF alpha cells was associated with the massive presence of neutrophils, that of TSA-IL4 and TSA-IL7 cells with neutrophils and very small areas of colliquative necrosis, and that of TSA-IFN alpha and TSA-IL10 cells with extensive areas of ischemic-coagulative necrosis and some neutrophils. TSA-IFN gamma cells displayed a delay in growth, but were not rejected. Their growth areas comprised necrotic zones of ischemic necrosis devoid of neutrophils. The selective depletion experiments demonstrated that rejection of engineered TSA cells depends on several leukocyte populations. The weight of each population varied with the secreted cytokine, although neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes constantly played the major role. Employment of the same tumor line engineered with the genes of different cytokines showed that each cytokine evokes a distinct reaction and that tumor inhibition results from a complex mechanism in which neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes and ischemic necrosis are of primary importance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four groups of female Balb/c mice were inoculated in the left hind footpad with 30 microliters of RPMI 1640 medium containing 10(7) Leishmania major amastigotes/ml. One group was injected sc with 200 microliters of RPMI 1640 containing 180 micrograms of pefloxacin for 20 days, a second group with the same amount of medium containing 100 units of recombinant murine interferon gamma (rmIFN-gamma). The third group was treated with the association, while the fourth group received plain medium in an identical regimen. Pefloxacin or IFN-gamma significantly decreased the size of primary lesions, while their association was significantly more efficient in this respect, in reducing the incidence of metastatic lesions, and in clearing parasites from the spleen. We also investigated the effect of pefloxacin on the activation of mouse spleen cells by Concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro, without detecting any interference on the proliferative response or IFN-gamma production.
The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 02/1996; 19(1):39-46. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of cytokines and costimulatory molecule gene-engineered tumor cells to enhance tumor immunogenicity and elicit curative responses against established tumors and tumor recurrences has become an attractive prospect. The immunotherapy data obtained in many experimental tumor systems using these engineered cells are reviewed here to provide a realistic assessment of the potential and limits of this technique.
Cytokines and molecular therapy 01/1996; 1(4):225-48.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cDNA coding for mouse IL-10 (mIL-10) was transduced into the parental cells of a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of BALB/c mice (TSA-pc), and clones secreting small, medium, and large quantities of IL-10 were selected. In vivo, both low and high producer clones do not display an enhanced ability to grow in H-2 and non-H-2 incompatible mice. Instead, the intensity of their rejection increases in function of the amount of mIL-10 released. After an initial growth period in syngeneic mice, high producer clones undergo complete rejection due to the combined action of CD8+ lymphocytes, NK cells, and neutrophils. After this rejection, mice are immune to a subsequent challenge with TSA-pc. This memory rests on a strong lytic activity of CD8+ CTL and granulocytes. Following the rejection, mice also develop anti-TSA Ab that guide the granulocytes in TSA-pc memory reaction. A direct comparison shows that although TSA clones engineered to release IL-2 activate CTL and no anti-TSA Ab, those engineered to release IL-4 activate a strong Ab response but not CTL. The kind of cytokine released by the tumors appears to determine the type of response. However, IL-10 high producer cells do not deviate the immune memory, neither toward a Th1 nor a Th2. Both the CTL activity and the Ab responses induced by IL-10 high producer cells are the strongest so far observed in the TSA system.
The Journal of Immunology 10/1995; 155(6):3112-23. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse mammary carcinoma TS/A, of BALB/c (H-2d) origin, was transfected with the murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene (Int. J. Cancer 55: 320, 1993). We used IFN-gamma transfectants as recipients for a second round of transfections with murine allogeneic class I histocompatibility (H-2b) genes that are modulated by IFN. Transfectants with either gene alone, as well as parent TS/A cells (TS/A-pc), were used as controls. Only double transfectants expressed high levels of the allogeneic H-2b genes, while in H-2b single transfectants the expression was very low (but was induced by treatment with exogenous IFN-gamma). The tumorigenic potential of IFN-gamma or H-2b single transfectants was reduced in comparison to TS/A-pc. IFN-gamma+H-2Kb double transfectants were almost nontumorigenic, while IFN-gamma+H-2Db clones gave rise to tumors in about one-half of mice. The experimental metastatic ability of all IFN-gamma+H-2b double transfectants was very low. IFN-gamma single transfectants were known to induce a strong macrophage response in the host. The expression of allogeneic H-2 antigens added a T-lymphocyte-mediated response that accounted for the lower tumorigenicity of double transfectants. These results show that it is possible to steer the immune response evoked by tumor cells for therapeutic purposes. Moreover, the high H-2 expression obtained in IFN-gamma+H-2b double transfectants suggests that single IFN-gamma transfectants are ideal recipients for all IFN-sensitive genes. This approach can be used also for other general-purpose inducers of gene expression.
Human Gene Therapy 07/1995; 6(6):743-52. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonmammalian cytosine deaminase (CD) enzyme converts the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the toxic metabolite 5-fluorouracil. Parental cells of a mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA-pc) of BALB/c mice were transfected with the CD gene (TSA-CD), and the ability of 5-FC to hamper their growth was evaluated. A quantity amounting to 0.5 mg of 5-FC/0.3 ml of medium inhibits the proliferation of TSA-CD cells, but not that of TSA-pc, nor that of TSA-pc transfected with neomycin-resistance gene only (TSA-neo). In BALB/c mice, 800 mg 5-FC/kg of body weight injected daily i.p. for 30 days causes total regression of incipient (1-day-old), and established (3- and 7-day-old) TSA-CD tumors, and of 3-day-old experimental lung metastases, but does not impair TSA-pc nor TSA-neo cell growth. Because in CD8+ T lymphocyte- and granulocyte-depleted mice 5-FC no longer impairs TSA-CD growth, immune mechanisms appear to play an important role in this regression. Following, regression, all mice are resistant to subsequent s.c. or i.v. lethal challenges with TSA-pc. The induction of this immune memory is dependent on CD4+ lymphocytes, whereas its effector phase depends on both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The memory elicited in tumor-bearing mice by the 5-FC-dependent regression of TSA-CD tumors cures a significant number of mice with 4-day-old TSA-pc metastases, but does not impair the growth of 4-day-old solid s.c. tumors. The reliability of this regression and the subsequent establishment of an efficient immune memory against poorly immunogenic TSA-pc offer the prospect that CD-transduced tumor cells and 5-FC can be used as components of a live antitumor vaccine.
The Journal of Immunology 06/1995; 154(10):5302-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells transduced with cytokine genes are currently used to enhance the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of these molecules in cancer therapy. The sustained release of cytokine thus obtained can perturb many homeostatic systems of the host. We have previously shown that the murine mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A transfected with the murine gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) gene stimulates a strong immune response that impairs tumor growth. Mice bearing tiny tumors have serum IFN-gamma levels constantly exceeding 100 IU/ml. Therefore, we asked which systemic effects can be triggered in mice by such transfectants. BALB/c mice bearing tumors produced by clone 16.6000 cells (which release 6,000 IU/ml of IFN-gamma in culture) were compared to normal mice and to mice with tumors produced by parent cells transfected with the neomycin resistance gene (NEO cells, no IFN-gamma release). Histological studies revealed a marked hyperplasia of small bowel in mice bearing 16.6000 tumors; the villi and crypts of these mice were > 1.5 times longer than those of normal mice and of mice bearing NEO tumors. In vivo administration of bromodeoxyuridine evidenced a 2.5-3 times increase in the proliferative score of the intestinal crypts of mice bearing 16.6000 tumors compared to control mice. No intestinal alterations were observed in nude mice bearing 16.6000 tumors. T lymphocytes thus appear to play a causal role in this phenomenon.
International Journal of Cancer 06/1995; 61(3):425-30. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PBMC from individuals both exposed and non-exposed to leishmaniae proliferative and produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with Leishmania antigens. We studied the kinetics of the proliferative response of PBMC from non-exposed individuals and from patients recovering from visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum, using heat-killed stationary-phase promastigotes of L. infantum as stimulating agent. The kinetics of both groups followed a similar temporal pattern, with higher values in the patient's group. Moreover, we observed that in both groups the activation was dose-dependently inhibited following the addition of gamma 123 anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody. These results indicate the need for IFN-gamma in the activation process of PBMC induced by Leishmania antigens and stress the role of IFN-gamma in the immune response to leishmaniasis. The relevance of the elucidation of the immune response mechanism in human leishmaniasis for therapy and vaccination is briefly discussed.
The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 02/1995; 18(1):53-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retroviral infection was used to introduce the cDNA coding for mouse IL-4 into the parental cells of a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of BALB/c mice (TS/A-pc). Four clones releasing between 5 to 40 U of IL-4 (10(5) cells) in 48 h culture were selected. The secretion of IL-4 does not affect their in vitro growth, whereas their ability to form tumor in vivo inversely correlates with the amount of IL-4 secreted. Although morphologic observation suggested that the rejection of clone D5.40 cells (releasing 40 U of IL-4) depends on eosinophil cytolysis, lymphocyte depletion experiments showed that this required CD8+ lymphocyte guidance. Mice that had rejected D5.40 cells were immune to a subsequent challenge with TS/A-pc. This memory rests on the interaction between noncytotoxic lymphocytes, eosinophils, and IgG1 and IgE anti-TS/A Abs. Comparison of these memory mechanisms with those elicited by IL-2 gene-transduced TS/A cells shows that the kind of cytokine released by the tumor cells determines the type of response. This Th2 memory seems to be more efficient in protecting against a subsequent challenge of TS/A-pc than the Th1-type memory elicited by IL-2 gene-transduced TS/A cells.
The Journal of Immunology 01/1995; 153(12):5659-73. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of vaccinations with cytokine-gene-transduced tumor cells, BALB/c mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5) parental cells of a syngeneic adenocarcinoma cell line (TSA-pc). No protection was observed in mice immunized 30 days earlier with 1 x 10(5) nonreplicating mitomycin-C-treated TSA-pc alone, or with Corynebacterium parvum or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA). Ten to 30% of mice immunized with nonreplicating cells engineered to produce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene were protected. Fifty % of mice immunized with replicating TSA-pc admixed with C. parvum and 80-100% of mice immunized with replicating tumor cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, or gamma-interferon gene were protected. No cure was afforded by TSA cells admixed with C. parvum or CFA, nor by TSA cells engineered with IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene injected starting 1 day after TSA-pc challenge. Complete tumor regression, however, was obtained in 10-20% of mice treated with TSA cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, or IL-10 and in 30% of those treated with TSA cells transduced with gamma-interferon gene.
Cancer Research 01/1995; 54(23):6022-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells from a spontaneous, invasive, and metastasizing mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (TS/A-pc) were transfected with a retroviral vector containing the mouse IFN-alpha 1 gene. TS/A clones secreting varying amounts of IFN-alpha 1 were isolated and their tumorigenicity was evaluated after s.c. or i.v. injection into immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Almost all of the IFN-alpha-secreting TS/A clones failed to grow in a high percentage of mice or formed small tumors after a long latency time, whereas TS/A-pc or transfection control cells always grew into large s.c. tumors. Rejection was mainly mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes and partially by polymorphonuclear cells, as demonstrated by selective immunosuppression experiments and histologic and ultrastructural data. After rejection, a significant portion of mice displayed an immune resistance to the subsequent challenge with TS/A-pc. When the metastatic ability of IFN-alpha-secreting clones was compared with that of previously characterized IFN-gamma-secreting TS/A clones, it was found that the expression of IFN-alpha into TS/A tumor cells resulted in a potent inhibition of metastases formation, whereas IFN-gamma expression either did not affect or even enhanced the metastatic behavior of TS/A cells. These results provide strong evidence for the usefulness of IFN-alpha-producing tumor cells for the development of gene therapy strategies and vaccines against metastatic tumors.
The Journal of Immunology 12/1994; 153(10):4604-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The local presence of cytokines can drastically alter tumor host immune relations and activate a nonspecific reaction that in some cases leads to induction of specific responses to otherwise nonimmunogenic tumors. The employment of cytokines in the creation of new antitumor vaccines is thus a tempting prospect. Analogous effects have been obtained with cytokines inoculated locally and cytokines released from tumor cells engineered to produce them. An account is given of some mechanisms whereby this cytokine-induced reaction results in increased tumor immunogenicity. However, the real value of this potential form of vaccine in inducing the regression of incipient or established tumors remains to be established.
Journal of immunotherapy with emphasis on tumor immunology: official journal of the Society for Biological Therapy 12/1993; 14(4):253-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential of interleukin 2-gene-transfected tumor cells to prevent tumor growth and cure established tumors was evaluated using cells from a spontaneous, invasive, and metastasizing mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells engineered to secrete interleukin 2 initially trigger a local inflammatory reaction that leads to inhibition of established parental adenocarcinomas, as well as an antigenically unrelated fibrosarcoma. The ensuing systemic immunity selectively inhibits subsequent parental cell challenges and cures established parental adenocarcinomas and their lung metastases, although less effectively as the neoplastic mass increases. Multiple injections of interleukin 2-gene-transfected tumor cells may thus be considered a new form of vaccination in the management of minimal residual disease and incipient metastases.
Cancer Research 12/1993; 53(21):5067-70. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells from the spontaneous metastatic TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma of a BALB/c mouse were transfected with the murine gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) gene. Six clones (IFN-gamma clones) releasing between 2 and 6,000 international units (IU) of IFN-gamma/ml culture medium, were compared to TS/A parental cells (TS/A-pc) and to cells transfected with neomycin resistance gene only (NEO cells). Autocrine IFN-gamma up-regulated membrane expression of H-2 class-I and Ly-6 glycoproteins, but did not alter cellular proliferation in vitro. All IFN-gamma clones gave rise to progressive tumors with a growth rate significantly slower than that of tumors induced by TS/A-pc and NEO cells, and inversely correlated with the amount of IFN-gamma secreted. TS/A-pc and NEO tumors displayed a marginal reactive infiltrate, whereas those formed by IFN-gamma clones were massively infiltrated mostly by macrophages. In T- and NK-deficient mice the growth of tumors formed by IFN-gamma clones was not enhanced. In vitro tests showed that IFN-gamma clone cells were markedly more lysed by macrophages than TS/A-pc and NEO cells, while they remained poorly sensitive to NK and LAK cells. These data as a whole suggest that the development of solid tumors by IFN-gamma clones is primarily hampered by macrophages and not by T-lymphocytes or NK cells. When spontaneous metastatic ability was compared, 2 IFN-gamma clones releasing 2-4 IFN-gamma IU/ml were significantly more metastatic, while most IFN-gamma clones appeared to be as metastatic as NEO cells. By contrast, following intravenous challenge, all IFN-gamma clones produced 5-10 times more experimental metastases than NEO cells. The higher metastatic ability of IFN-gamma clones was attributed to increased resistance to NK cells since, in NK-depleted BALB/c mice, metastatic spread of IFN-gamma clones was not enhanced, whereas a 50-fold increase in the number of metastases was found upon injection of NEO cells.
International Journal of Cancer 10/1993; 55(2):320-9. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that neutralization of physiologically secreted interferon(IFN)-gamma or blockade of its receptor during T lymphocyte activation inhibits both proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation, suggesting that IFN-gamma plays a crucial role in T lymphocyte induction and differentiation. In this study, the kinetics of the surface expression of the 90-kDa IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R) was followed during human mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) to alloantigens. IFN-gamma R mRNA is constitutively expressed on resting peripheral blood lymphocytes emerging from nylon wood column (NW-PBL) and its expression increases two- to threefold on alloactivated NW-PBL. IFN-gamma R protein is poorly expressed on the membrane of resting CD3+ cells, but up-modulates after 3-day MLR and sharply down-modulates at day 6. Both the p55 and the p75 chains of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) were shown to up-modulate in parallel with IFN-gamma R, whereas they were still highly expressed at day 6. After alloactivation, IFN-gamma and IL-2 secretion starts at 24 h, peaks at day 3 and decreases just when IFN-gamma R and IL-2R begin to up-modulate. Proliferation peaks at day 6. Lastly, stimulation with distinct cell populations showed that the intensity of lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-gamma R membrane up-modulation, and IFN-gamma and IL-2 secretion are regulated in a parallel manner, thus suggesting that they are interrelated. Taken as whole these results demonstrate that increased expression of IFN-gamma R on T lymphocytes can be a critical event during their activation, and strongly support the hypothesis that IFN-gamma/IFN-gamma R interaction provides a signal for its progression.
European Journal of Immunology 07/1993; 23(6):1226-31. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The state of the art with regard to the employment of various cytokine-based tumor immunotherapy strategies and their mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. As matters now stand, adoptive transfer of LAK cells or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes together with high doses of IL-2 constitutes the only immunologic way to hinder tumor growth in advanced stages of cancer. On the other hand, many experimental data show that the local presence of cytokines, either injected repeatedly at tumor site or released by cytokine-gene engineered tumor cells, arouses immunogenicity in apparently nonimmunogenic spontaneous tumors. By strengthening the notion that most tumors are potentially immunogenic, these findings offer substantial evidence to stress the potential use of cytokines as a component of new tumor vaccines.
Medical Oncology 02/1993; 10(1-2):53-9. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage-mediated retroviral transformation of host cells was studied in vivo utilizing the cloned murine macrophage-line GG2EE, generated by in vitro infection of bone marrow cells from C3H/HeJ mice (H-2k) with the acute transforming retrovirus J2 bearing the v-myc and v-raf oncogenes. Because GG2EE macrophages produce the J2 retrovirus, the development of secondary, J2 virus-induced tumors after the injection of the cell line into several strains of mice was evaluated. GG2EE cells proliferated and gave rise to histiocytic tumors in syngeneic mice and in allogeneic athymic Swiss mice. The inoculum of GG2EE cells in allogeneic DBA/2 mice (H-2d) and, to a lesser extent, in BALB/c (H-2d) and BALB/k (H-2k) mice gave rise to a small, solid mass at the injection site. Although the initial tumor was slowly rejected, secondary lymphomas belonging to the B or T cell lineage developed, leading to mouse death. Extensive phenotypic, functional, and chromosomal analyses proved that lymphomas were derived from host T and B cell transformation. Southern and Northern blot studies showed that J2 virus was integrated and expressed in lymphoma cells, demonstrating that the virus was transmitted to the host lymphocytes and suggesting that it was causal in lymphoma development. The existence of close and protracted interactions between GG2EE macrophages and allogeneic host lymphocytes and the presence of viral particles in the area of macrophage-lymphocyte contact were demonstrated by histologic and ultrastructural analysis. Rejection of J2 virus-infected lymphocytes in allogeneic mice suggested that host lymphocyte transformation was dependent upon the macrophage cell type. These results demonstrate that macrophage-derived J2 retrovirus transforms host lymphocytes in vivo in allogeneic mice and that a condition of host alloreactivity is critical for such event.
The Journal of Immunology 02/1993; 150(1):278-89. · 5.52 Impact Factor