Ahmad Bahonar

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Ostān-e Eşfahān, Iran

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Publications (43)38.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Health volunteers can have a great effect by training the population about prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lifestyle modification. This study evaluated the health volunteers' knowledge following the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) that was performed between 2000 and 2006.
    International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 01/2014; 3:59.
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    ABSTRACT: Brewer's yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer's yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02 independent sample t-test). There was a significant difference in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity at the end of the study between the two groups after removing the effects of baseline values (respectively P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, analysis of covariance). Changes in body mass index, 24h food record, insulin resistance were not significant. Dietary supplementation with brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    International journal of preventive medicine 10/2013; 4(10):1131-1138.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Brewer’s yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer’s yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In a randomized double‑blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer’s yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). Results: The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02 independent sample t‑test). There was a significant difference in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity at the end of the study between the two groups after removing the effects of baseline values (respectively P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, analysis of covariance). Changes in body mass index, 24h food record, insulin resistance were not significant. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    International journal of preventive medicine 10/2013; 14(10):1131-1138.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in which antioxidant capacity changes. Omega-3 fatty acids have extensive biological effects including their advantage on lipoprotein metabolism, platelet function, cytokine production, clotting, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. This clinical trial enrolled 71 women with type 2 diabetes in two case (treated with omega-3 capsules) and control (treated with placebo) groups. In the first stage, participants filled out a demographics questionnaire including age, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference.Their blood sample was taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant capacity. Then the case group received intervention for 8 weeks and weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured and a blood sample was taken again. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. The mean difference of antioxidant capacity before and after intervention was significant (P < 0.001). Antioxidant capacity increased in the case group and reduced in the control group. With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega-3 supplements.
    International journal of preventive medicine 05/2013; 4(Suppl 2):S234-8.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in which antioxidant capacity changes. Omega‑3 fatty acids have extensive biological effects including their advantage on lipoprotein metabolism, platelet function, cytokine production, clotting, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of omega‑3 fatty acid supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This clinical trial enrolled 71 women with type 2 diabetes in two case (treated with omega‑3 capsules) and control (treated with placebo) groups. In the first stage, participants filled out a demographics questionnaire including age, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference.Their blood sample was taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant capacity. Then the case group received intervention for 8 weeks and weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured and a blood sample was taken again. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. Results: The mean difference of antioxidant capacity before and after intervention was significant (P < 0.001). Antioxidant capacity increased in the case group and reduced in the control group. Conclusions: With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega‑3 supplements
    International journal of preventive medicine 03/2013; 14(sup):s234-s238.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objective:The study was carried out to assess the relationship between nut consumption and lipid profile among Iranian adults.Subject/methods:The study was based on data from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program across three counties in central Iran in 2007. A cross-sectional survey of 9660 randomly selected adults aged 19 years were chosen based on sex, age and settlement distributions in each community. Nutritional behaviors were assessed by validated qualitative 48-item food frequency questionnaires, which covered regular intakes of four types of nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression tests were utilized to determine odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval of hyperlipidemia according to nut consumption patterns in unadjusted and three-adjusted models.Results:The results showed a significant link between high nut consumption and lower total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and apo B/apo A ratio (P<0.05) in female subjects and lower TG, LDL-C and apoB/apoA ratio in male subjects (P<0.05). The frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with dyslipidemia, especially for those who had consumed nuts 4 times weekly (0.67 (0.57-0.79)). After adjusting for sex, age and other potential confounders, ORs increased enormously. Except for low apo A and high LDL-C, more frequent nut consumption (4 times per week) had a significant inverse effect on other dyslipidemia risk factors in all four models.Conclusions:We concluded that frequent consumption of nuts, particularly 4 times a week, may result in lower dyslipidemia occurrences and may exert cardioprotective effects.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 20 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.21.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 02/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the outcome of a comprehensive, community-based healthy lifestyle program on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was a comprehensive action-oriented, multi-component intervention with a quasi-experimental design and reference area. IHHP targeted the population-at-large (n = 2,180,000) in three districts in central Iran. Data from independent sample surveys before (2000 - 2001) and after (2007) this program were used to compare differences in the intervention area and reference area over time after controlling for age, education level and income. The samples in 2000 - 2001 and 2007 included 6175 and 4719 participants in intervention area, and 6339 and 4853 in reference area, respectively. Multiple interventional activities were performed based on the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increased physical activity, tobacco control and coping with stress. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high LDL-C decreased significantly in the intervention area versus the reference area in both sexes. However the reduction in overweight and obesity was significant only in females (P < 0.05 for all). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. In the intervention area, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased from 23.5% to 12.5% among females without any changes in females in the reference area (p < 0.0001). In males, hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly in both intervention area (18.5% to 9.6%) and reference area (14.4% to 9.8%; p = 0.005). Mean triglyceride levels had a significant decrease in the intervention area and a non-significant decrease in the reference area (p < 0.0001). A comprehensive healthy lifestyle program comprising preventive and promotional activities that considers both population and high risk approaches can be effective in controlling cardiometabolic risk factors in a middle-income country.
    Archives of Iranian medicine 01/2013; 16(1):4-11. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the outcome of a comprehensive, community-based healthy lifestyle program on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was a comprehensive action-oriented, multi-component intervention with a quasi-experimental design and reference area. METHODS: IHHP targeted the population-at-large (n = 2,180,000) in three districts in central Iran. Data from independent sample surveys before (2000 - 2001) and after (2007) this program were used to compare differences in the intervention area and reference area over time after controlling for age, education level and income. The samples in 2000 - 2001 and 2007 included 6175 and 4719 participants in intervention area, and 6339 and 4853 in reference area, respectively. Multiple interventional activities were performed based on the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increased physical activity, tobacco control and coping with stress. RESULTS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high LDL-C decreased significantly in the intervention area versus the reference area in both sexes. However the reduction in overweight and obesity was significant only in females (P < 0.05 for all). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. In the intervention area, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased from 23.5% to 12.5% among females without any changes in females in the reference area (p < 0.0001). In males, hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly in both intervention area (18.5% to 9.6%) and reference area (14.4% to 9.8%; p = 0.005). Mean triglyceride levels had a significant decrease in the intervention area and a non-significant decrease in the reference area (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive healthy lifestyle program comprising preventive and promotional activities that considers both population and high risk approaches can be effective in controlling cardiometabolic risk factors in a middle-income country.
    Arch Iran Med. 01/2013; 16(1):4-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70 ± 36.42, 46.89 ± 38.91, and 53.38 ± 48.23, resp., (P = 0.017)). There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P < 0.001). The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P = 0.018). Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.
    International journal of hypertension. 01/2013; 2013:523682.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area. The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA. Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase. Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress. Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study. In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05). In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01). In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01), while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01). This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 08/2012; 17(8):732-740. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visfatin is a new adipocytokine which is largely secreted by visceral adipose tissue and its effects in the development of diabetes and inflammatory reactions are similar to insulin. It acts synergistically with insulin in increasing glucose cellular uptake, stimulating glucose transfer to the muscle and adipose tissue, as well as in preventing hepatic glucose production. Its insulin-like effects are mediated through direct connection and activation of insulin receptors without any change or competition with the insulin. This case-control study was conducted among 64 women consisting of 32 diabetic patients, and 32 age-matched healthy controls. The case group consisted of 32 post-menopausal diabetic women, aged 45-65 years. Those patients were eligible who had a history of at least five years of type II diabetes, without any complications of diabetes, and who were treated only by oral glucose-lowering medications. Those individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) test of 3+ and above were excluded from the study. Results were compared with age- and sex- matched controls. Average visfatin level was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls (4.3 ± 1.06ng/dl vs. 3.15 ± 0.74ng/dl, respectively< 0.001). The mean values of anthropometric indexes and lipid profile were not significantly different between diabetic patients and controls This study documented an inverse relationship between circulating level of visfatin and fasting blood glucose. This finding may suggest the role of increased visfatin level and increase in synthesis and secretion of the cytokines from adipocytes. These findings may be useful for primary and secondary preventive issues in diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals.
    International journal of preventive medicine 05/2012; 3(5):326-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Visfatin is a new adipocytokine which is largely secreted by visceral adipose tissue and its effects in the development of diabetes and inflammatory reactions are similar to insulin. It acts synergistically with insulin in increasing glucose cellular uptake, stimulating glucose transfer to the muscle and adipose tissue, as well as in preventing hepatic glucose production. Its insulin-like effects are mediated through direct connection and activation of insulin receptors without any change or competition with the insulin. Methods: This case-control study was conducted among 64 women consisting of 32 diabetic patients, and 32 age-matched healthy controls. The case group consisted of 32 post-menopausal diabetic women, aged 45-65 years. Those patients were eligible who had a history of at least five years of type II diabetes, without any complications of diabetes, and who were treated only by oral glucose-lowering medications. Those individuals with C-reactive protein (CRP) test of 3+ and above were excluded from the study. Results were compared with age-and sex-matched controls. Results: Average visfatin level was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls (4.3 ± 1.06ng/dl vs. 3.15 ± 0.74ng/dl, respectively< 0.001). The mean values of anthropometric indexes and lipid profile were not significantly different between diabetic patients and controls. Conclusion: This study documented an inverse relationship between circulating level of visfatin and fasting blood glucose. This finding may suggest the role of increased visfatin level and increase in synthesis and secretion of the cytokines from adipocytes. These findings may be useful for primary and secondary preventive issues in diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals.
    International journal of preventive medicine 05/2012; 13(5):326-331.
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies showed that smoking follows an upward trend in Asian countries as compared with other countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension. This study was conducted on 6123 men residing in central Iran (Isfahan and Markazi Provinces) that participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart Project (IHHP). Subjects were randomly selected using cluster sampling method. All the subjects were studied in terms of their history of cardiovascular disease, demographic characteristics, smoking, blood pressure, physical examination, pulse rate, respiratory rate, weight, height, waist circumference, and blood measurements including LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar and 2-hour post prandial test. While 893 subjects suffered from hypertension, 5230 subjects were healthy. The hypertension prevalence was 2.5 times more in urban areas compared to rural areas that showed a significant difference as it increased to 3.5 times smoking factor was considered. The prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and also cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension were significantly higher than healthy people. Furthermore, they were higher in smokers with hypertension and those exposed to the cigarette smoke than nonsmokers. Smoking and passive smoking had an increasing effect on the prevalence of risk factors of atherosclerosis and consequently the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension.
    ARYA atherosclerosis. 01/2012; 8(2):90-5.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a condition normally detected in people with type II diabetes. It eventually leads to cardiovascular diseases in the patient. Visfatin is an adipocytokine which is secreted from adipose tissue and can affect the inflammatory reaction and also serum lipid levels. Additionally, omega-3 inhibits the accumulation of fat and formation of insulin resistance. The current study tried to investigate the effects of omega-3 on blood pressure compared to placebo and the relationship between serum visfatin levels and blood pressure. METHODS: A total number of 71 women with type II diabetes were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either omega-3 capsules or placebo capsules. In the first step, a questionnaire consisting age, height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was filled out for each subject. Blood samples were then collected for laboratory tests. The next step was to conduct 8 weeks of intervention. All variables, except age, were measured again after the intervention. Hip circumference was considered as the maximum circumference of the buttocks. Waist circumference was measured by placing a tape horizontally across the abdomen at the end of a normal exhalation. Laboratory tests included the assessment of visfatin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations. Lipid profile, i.e. low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol, was also assessed. Using SPSS18, data obtained from the study was analyzed by a variety of appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: There was a significant change in mean differences of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure showed a significant reduction in the omega-3 group compared to the placebo group. However, no significant changes were observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after the intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, a daily consumption of omega-3 is suggested for patients with type II diabetes.
    ARYA Atherosclerosis Journal. 01/2012; 8(1):27-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a condition normally detected in people with type II diabetes.It eventually leads to cardiovascular diseases in the patient. Visfatin is an adipocytokine which issecreted from adipose tissue and can affect the inflammatory reaction and also serum lipidlevels. Additionally, omega-3 inhibits the accumulation of fat and formation of insulinresistance. The current study tried to investigate the effects of omega-3 on blood pressurecompared to placebo and the relationship between serum visfatin levels and blood pressure. A total number of 71 women with type II diabetes were randomly assigned to2 groups to receive either omega-3 capsules or placebo capsules. In the first step, aquestionnaire consisting age, height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and systolic anddiastolic blood pressure was filled out for each subject. Blood samples were then collected forlaboratory tests. The next step was to conduct 8 weeks of intervention. All variables, except age,were measured again after the intervention. Hip circumference was considered as the maximumcircumference of the buttocks. Waist circumference was measured by placing a tape horizontallyacross the abdomen at the end of a normal exhalation. Laboratory tests included the assessmentof visfatin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations. Lipid profile, i.e. lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol,was also assessed. Using SPSS18, data obtained from the study was analyzed by a variety ofappropriate statistical tests. There was a significant change in mean differences of systolic and diastolic bloodpressure. Blood pressure showed a significant reduction in the omega-3 group compared to theplacebo group. However, no significant changes were observed in systolic and diastolic bloodpressure before and after the intervention (P > 0.05). Based on the results of this study, a daily consumption of omega-3 is suggestedfor patients with type II diabetes.
    ARYA atherosclerosis. 01/2012; 8(1):27-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of mortality all around the world. Obesity is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this respect, we decided to examine the effect of the subgroups of weight on cardiovascular risk factors. This cross-sectional study was done in 2006 using the data obtained by the Iranian Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) and based on classification of obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the samples were tested based on the Framingham risk score, Metabolic Measuring Score (MMS) and classification of obesity. Chi-square and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. 12514 people with a mean age of 38 participated in this study. 6.8% of women and 14% of men had university degrees (higher than diploma). Obesity was seen in women more than men: 56.4% of women and 40% of men had a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. 13% of the subjects had FBS > 110 and13.9% of them were using hypertensive drugs. In this study, we found that all risk factors, except HDL cholesterol in men, increased with an increase in weight. This finding is also confirmed by the Framingham flowfigure for men and women. One of every two Americans, of any age and sex, has a Body Mass Index of (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2. Obesity associated CVD and other serious diseases. Many studies have been done in different countries to find the relationship between obesity and CVD risk factors. For example, in the U.S.A and Canada they found that emteropiotic parameters, blood presser and lipids increased by age(of both sexes). Moreover, another study done in China, which is a country in Asia like Iran, shows that BMI has an indirect effect on HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. This data is consistent with the results of the current study. However, In China they found that this relationship in men is stronger than women, but our study reveals the opposite.
    ARYA atherosclerosis. 01/2012; 8(2):82-9.