Cavan Reilly

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (36)344.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy can reduce HIV-1 to undetectable levels in peripheral blood, but the effectiveness of treatment in suppressing replication in lymphoid tissue reservoirs has not been determined. Here we show in lymph node samples obtained before and during 6 mo of treatment that the tissue concentrations of five of the most frequently used antiretroviral drugs are much lower than in peripheral blood. These lower concentrations correlated with continued virus replication measured by the slower decay or increases in the follicular dendritic cell network pool of virions and with detection of viral RNA in productively infected cells. The evidence of persistent replication associated with apparently suboptimal drug concentrations argues for development and evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies that will fully suppress viral replication in lymphatic tissues. These strategies could avert the long-term clinical consequences of chronic immune activation driven directly or indirectly by low-level viral replication to thereby improve immune reconstitution.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Live-attenuated SIV vaccines (LAVs) have been the most effective to date in preventing or partially controlling infection by wild-type SIV in non-human primate models of HIV-1 transmission to women acting by mechanisms of protection that are not well understood. To gain insights into mechanisms of protection by LAVs that could aid development of effective vaccines to prevent HIV-1 transmission to women, we used in situ tetramer staining to determine whether increased densities or changes in the local distribution of SIV-specific CD8 T cells correlated with the maturation of SIVΔnef vaccine-induced protection prior to and after intra-vaginal challenge with wild-type SIVmac251. We evaluated the immunodominant Mamu-A1*001:01/Gag (CM9) and Mamu-A1*001:01/Tat (SL8) epitope response in genital and lymphoid tissues, and found that tetramer+ cells were present at all time points examined. In the cervical vaginal tissues, most tetramer+ cells were distributed diffusely throughout the lamina propria or co-localized with other CD8 T cells within lymphoid aggregates. The distribution and densities of the tetramer+ cells at the portal of entry did not correlate with the maturation of protection or change after challenge. Given these findings, we discuss the possibility that changes in other aspects of the immune system, including the quality of the resident population of virus-specific effector CD8 T cells could contribute to maturation of protection, as well as the potential for vaccine strategies that further increase the size and quality of this effector population to prevent HIV-1 transmission.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81623. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 09/2012; 9(2). · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract contributes to approximately 50% of COPD exacerbations. Even during periods of stable lung function, the lung harbors a community of bacteria, termed the microbiome. The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. The COPD lung microbiome, like the healthy lung microbiome, appears to reflect microaspiration of oral microflora. Here we describe the COPD lung microbiome of 22 patients with Moderate or Severe COPD compared to 10 healthy control patients. The composition of the lung microbiomes was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sequences were analyzed using mothur, Ribosomal Database Project, Fast UniFrac, and Metastats. Our results showed a significant increase in microbial diversity with the development of COPD. The main phyla in all samples were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Principal coordinate analyses demonstrated separation of control and COPD samples, but samples did not cluster based on disease severity. However, samples did cluster based on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators. Metastats analyses demonstrated an increased abundance of several oral bacteria in COPD samples.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47305. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress HIV-1 replication and normalize the chronic immune activation associated with infection, but restoration of naïve CD4+ T cell populations is slow and usually incomplete for reasons that have yet to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that damage to the lymphoid tissue (LT) fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network contributes to naïve T cell loss in HIV-1 infection by restricting access to critical factors required for T cell survival. We show that collagen deposition and progressive loss of the FRC network in LTs prior to treatment restrict both access to and a major source of the survival factor interleukin-7 (IL-7). As a consequence, apoptosis within naïve T cell populations increases significantly, resulting in progressive depletion of both naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. We further show that the extent of loss of the FRC network and collagen deposition predict the extent of restoration of the naïve T cell population after 6 month of HAART, and that restoration of FRC networks correlates with the stage of disease at which the therapy is initiated. Because restoration of the FRC network and reconstitution of naïve T cell populations are only optimal when therapy is initiated in the early/acute stage of infection, our findings strongly suggest that HAART should be initiated as soon as possible. Moreover, our findings also point to the potential use of adjunctive anti-fibrotic therapies to avert or moderate the pathological consequences of LT fibrosis, thereby improving immune reconstitution.
    PLoS Pathogens 01/2012; 8(1):e1002437. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One pathological hallmark of HIV-1 infection is chronic activation of the immune system, driven, in part, by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The host attempts to counterbalance this prolonged immune activation through compensatory mediators of immune suppression. We recently identified a gene encoding the proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 in microarray studies of HIV-1 infection in lymphatic tissue (LT) and show in this study that increased expression of IL-32 in both gut and LT of HIV-1-infected individuals may have a heretofore unappreciated role as a mediator of immune suppression. We show that: 1) IL-32 expression is increased in CD4(+) T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells in vivo; 2) IL-32 induces the expression of immunosuppressive molecules IDO and Ig-like transcript 4 in immune cells in vitro; and 3) in vivo, IL-32-associated IDO/Ig-like transcript 4 expression in LT macrophages and gut epithelial cells decreases immune activation but also may impair host defenses, supporting productive viral replication, thereby accounting for the correlation between IL-32 levels and HIV-1 replication in LT. Thus, during HIV-1 infection, we propose that IL-32 moderates chronic immune activation to avert associated immunopathology but at the same time dampens the antiviral immune response and thus paradoxically supports HIV-1 replication and viral persistence.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(11):6576-84. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hallmark of HIV-1 and SIV infections is CD4(+) T cell depletion. Both direct cell killing and indirect mechanisms related to immune activation have been suggested to cause the depletion of T cells. We have now identified a mechanism by which immune activation-induced fibrosis of lymphoid tissues leads to depletion of naive T cells in HIV-1 infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The T regulatory cell response to immune activation increased procollagen production and subsequent deposition as fibrils via the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and chitinase 3-like-1 activity in fibroblasts in lymphoid tissues from patients infected with HIV-1. Collagen deposition restricted T cell access to the survival factor IL-7 on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network, resulting in apoptosis and depletion of T cells, which, in turn, removed a major source of lymphotoxin-β, a survival factor for FRCs during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. The resulting loss of FRCs and the loss of IL-7 produced by FRCs may thus perpetuate a vicious cycle of depletion of T cells and the FRC network. Because this process is cumulative, early treatment and antifibrotic therapies may offer approaches to moderate T cell depletion and improve immune reconstitution during HIV-1 infection.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2011; 121(3):998-1008. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract has been implicated in chronic activation of the immune system during progressive HIV-1 infection by ill-defined mechanisms. We recently identified a gene encoding syndecan-1 (SYN1) in microarray studies of HIV-1 infection in lymphatic tissues and show here that increased expression of SYN1 in the gut of HIV-1-infected individuals is associated with increased microbial translocation. We further show that: (1) microbial access to SYN1 in the intestinal epithelium could be mediated by compromised barrier function through the upregulation of claudin-2; (2) increases in SYN1 and microbial translocation are associated with systemic immune activation; and (3) SYN1 expression and microbial translocation are inversely correlated with peripheral blood CD4 T-cell counts. We thus propose a new mechanism in which claudin-2 and SYN1 work in concert to enhance microbial translocation across the intestinal epithelial barrier to contribute to chronic immune activation and CD4 T-cell depletion.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2010; 55(3):306-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much effort has been spent recently in identifying host factors required for HIV-1 to effectively replicate in cultured human cells. However, much less is known about the genetic factors in vivo that impact viral replication in lymphatic tissue, the primary anatomical site of virus-host interactions where the bulk of viral replication and pathogenesis occurs. To identify genetic determinants in lymphatic tissue that critically affect HIV-1 replication, we used microarrays to transcriptionally profile and identify host genes expressed in inguinal lymph nodes that were associated determinants of viral load. Strikingly, ∼95% of the transcripts (558) in this data set (592 transcripts total) were negatively associated with HIV-1 replication. Genes in this subset 1) inhibit cellular activation/proliferation (e.g., TCFL5, SOCS5 and SCOS7, KLF10), 2) promote heterochromatin formation (e.g., HIC2, CREBZF, ZNF148/ZBP-89), 3) increase collagen synthesis (e.g., PLOD2, POSTN, CRTAP), and 4) reduce cellular transcription and translation. Potential anti-HIV-1 restriction factors were also identified (e.g., NR3C1, HNRNPU, PACT). Only ∼5% of the transcripts (34) were positively associated with HIV-1 replication. Paradoxically, nearly all of these genes function in innate and adaptive immunity, particularly highlighting heightened gene expression in the IFN system. We conclude that this conventional host response cannot contain HIV-1 replication and, in fact, could well contribute to increased replication through immune activation. More importantly, genes that have a negative association with virus replication point to target cell availability and potentially new viral restriction factors as principal determinants of viral load.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(9):5417-24. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional capacity of the adaptive immune system is dependent on the size and the diversity of the T cell population. In states of lymphopenia, T cells are driven to proliferate to restore the T cell population size. However, different T cell clones proliferate at different rates, and some T cells experience burst-like expansion called spontaneous lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP). These T cells are likely receiving stimulation from cognate Ags and are most responsible for inflammatory pathology that can emerge in lymphopenic states. Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) selectively inhibit spontaneous LIP, which may contribute to their ability to prevent lymphopenia-associated autoimmunity. We hypothesized that another potential negative consequence of unrestrained spontaneous LIP is constriction of the total T cell repertoire. We demonstrate that the absence of Foxp3(+) Tregs during the period of immune reconstitution results in the development of TCR repertoire "holes" and the loss of Ag-specific responsiveness to infectious microorganisms. In contrast, the presence of Tregs during the period of immune reconstitution preserves optimal TCR diversity and foreign Ag responsiveness. This finding contrasts with the generally accepted immunosuppressive role of Tregs and provides another example of Treg activity that actually enhances immune function.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2010; 184(9):4749-60. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Untreated HIV-1 infection progresses through acute and asymptomatic stages to AIDS. Although each of the three stages has well-known clinical, virologic, and immunologic characteristics, much less is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying each stage. In this study, we report lymphatic tissue microarray analyses, revealing for the first time stage-specific patterns of gene expression during HIV-1 infection. We show that although there is a common set of key genes with altered expression throughout all stages, each stage has a unique gene expression signature. The acute stage is most notably characterized by increased expression of hundreds of genes involved in immune activation, innate immune defenses (e.g., RIG-1, MDA-5, TLR7 and TLR8, PKR, APOBEC3B, 3F, 3G), adaptive immunity, and in the proapoptotic Fas-Fas ligand pathway. Yet, quite strikingly, the expression of nearly all acute stage genes return to baseline levels in the asymptomatic stage, accompanying partial control of infection. This transition from acute to asymptomatic stage is tied to increased expression of a diverse array of immunosuppressive genes (e.g., CLEC12B, ILT4, galectin-3, CD160, BCMA, FGL2, LAG3, GPNMB). In the AIDS stage, decreased expression of numerous genes involved in T cell signaling identifies genes contributing to T cell dysfunction. These common and stage-specific gene expression signatures identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying the host response and the slow, natural course of HIV-1 infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 183(3):1975-82. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there has been great progress in treating human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model point to opportunities at the earliest stages of infection in which a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3alpha (also known as CCL20), plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5(+ )cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruits CD4(+) T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate-a widely used antimicrobial compound with inhibitory activity against the production of MIP-3alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines-can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo it can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This new approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for the development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission.
    Nature 04/2009; 458(7241):1034-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the early stages of viral infection, outcomes depend on a race between expansion of infection and the immune response generated to contain it. We combined in situ tetramer staining with in situ hybridization to visualize, map, and quantify relationships between immune effector cells and their targets in tissues. In simian immunodeficiency virus infections in macaques and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections in mice, the magnitude and timing of the establishment of an excess of effector cells versus targets were found to correlate with the extent of control and the infection outcome (i.e., control and clearance versus partial or poor control and persistent infection). This method highlights the importance of the location, timing, and magnitude of the immune response needed for a vaccine to be effective against agents of persistent infection, such as HIV-1.
    Science 04/2009; 323(5922):1726-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low CD4+ increases risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of CD4+ recovery early after initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important in the ultimate duration of immune depletion. We examined CD4+ recovery among 850 participants in the Community Program for Clinical Research on AIDS Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies study with virologic suppression (ie, achieved an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL) with 8 months of initial ART and determined subsequent risk for AIDS, non-AIDS diseases (non-AIDS cancers and cardiovascular, end-stage renal, and liver diseases), or death using Cox regression during a median 5-year follow-up. Mean pretreatment CD4+ was 221 cells/microL; 18% (n = 149) had a poor CD4+ recovery (<50 cells/microL) after 8 months of effective ART, resulting in lower CD4+ over 5 years. Older age (hazard ratio 1.34/10 yrs, P = 0.003) and lower screening HIV RNA (hazard ratio 0.65 per log10 copies/mL higher, P = 0.001), but not screening CD4+, were associated with a poor CD4+ recovery. After 8 months of effective ART, 30 patients experienced the composite outcome of AIDS, non-AIDS, or death among participants with a poor CD4+ recovery (rate = 5.8/100 person-years) and 74 patients among those with an adequate recovery (>or=50 cells/muL; rate = 2.7/100 person-years) (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.24, P < 0.001). The risk of this composite outcome associated with a poor CD4+ recovery declined when ART was initiated at higher CD4+ counts (P < 0.01). Impaired immune recovery, despite effective ART, results in longer time spent at low CD4+, thereby increasing risk for a broad category of HIV-related morbidity and mortality conditions.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2008; 48(5):541-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by antiretroviral therapy, reconstitution of CD4+ cells is variable and incomplete, particularly in gut-associated lymphatic tissues (GALT). We have previously shown that immune activation and inflammation in HIV-infected and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected lymph nodes results in collagen deposition and disruption of the lymphatic tissue architecture, and this damage contributes to CD4+ cell depletion before treatment and affects the extent of immune reconstitution after treatment. In the present study, we compared collagen deposition and the extent of depletion and reconstitution of total CD4+ cells and subsets in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and inductive and effector sites in GALT. We show that CD4+ cell depletion in GALT correlates with the rapidity and greater magnitude of collagen deposition in this compartment, compared with that in peripheral lymph nodes, and that although treatment does not restore CD4+ cells to effector sites, treatment in the early stages of infection can increase CD4+ central memory cells in Peyer patches.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2008; 198(4):456-64. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primate lentiviruses are typically apathogenic in their evolutionarily coadapted host species but can be lethal when transferred to new host species. Why such infections are pathogenic in humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) but not in sooty mangabeys (SMs), a natural host, remains unclear. Studies of chronically infected animals point to the importance of diminished immune activation in response to the infection in SMs. In this study, we sought the causes and timing of the differences in immune activation in a comparative study of acute SIV infection in RMs and SMs. Surprisingly, we show that in acute infection immune activation is comparable in SMs and RMs but thereafter, SMs quickly resolve immune activation, whereas RMs did not. Early resolution of immune activation in SMs correlated with increased expression of PD-1 and with preservation of CD4(+) T cell counts and lymphatic tissue architecture. These findings point to early control of immune activation by host immunoregulatory mechanisms as a major determinant of the different disease outcomes in SIV infection of natural vs non-natural hosts.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2008; 180(10):6798-807. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used computational algorithms to find conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of transcripts that exhibited rapid decay in primary human T cells and found that the consensus sequence UGUUUGUUUGU, which we have termed a GU-rich element (GRE), was enriched in short-lived transcripts. Using a tet-off reporter system, we showed that insertion of GRE-containing sequences from c-jun, jun B, or TNF receptor 1B, but not mutated GRE sequences, into the 3'UTR of a beta-globin transcript conferred instability on the otherwise stable beta-globin transcript. CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) was identified as the major GRE-binding activity in cytoplasmic extracts from primary human T cells based on supershift and immunoprecipitation assays. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CUGBP1 in HeLa cells caused stabilization of GRE-containing transcripts, suggesting that CUGBP1 is a mediator of GRE-dependent mRNA decay. Overall, our results suggest that the GRE mediates coordinated mRNA decay by binding to CUGBP1.
    Molecular Cell 03/2008; 29(2):263-70. · 15.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enteropathic manifestations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in late infection are usually due to infection by other microbes, but in early infection the viruses themselves cause an enteropathy by heretofore undetermined mechanisms. Here we report that SIV induces massive apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells lining the small and large bowel, thus identifying apoptosis as the driving force behind the regenerative pathology of early infection. We found that apoptosis of gut epithelium paralleled the previously documented apoptosis and massive depletion of CD4 T cells in gut lamina propria, triggered by established mechanisms of gut epithelial cell apoptosis and, at peak, possibly by virus interactions with GPR15/Bob, an intestinal epithelial cell-associated alternative coreceptor for SIV and HIV-1. Apoptosis in early SIV infection is thus the common theme of the pathological processes that quickly afflict the innate as well as adaptive arms of the gut immune system.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2008; 197(3):420-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of numerous mammalian transcripts function as instability elements that promote rapid mRNA degradation. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an ARE-binding protein that promotes rapid mRNA decay through mechanisms that are poorly understood. A 31 nucleotide ARE sequences from the TNF-alpha 3' UTR promoted TTP-dependent mRNA decay when it was inserted into the 3' UTR of a beta-globin reporter transcript, indicating that this short sequence was sufficient for TTP function. We used a gel shift assay to identify a TTP-containing complex in cytoplasmic extracts from TTP-transfected HeLa cells that bound specifically to short ARE sequences. This TTP-containing complex also contained the 5'-3' exonuclease Xrn1 and the exosome component PM-scl75 because it was super-shifted with anti-Xrn1 or anti-PMscl75 antibodies. RNA affinity purification verified that these proteins associated specifically with ARE sequences in a TTP-dependent manner. Using a competition binding assay, we found that the TTP-containing complex bound with high affinity to short ARE sequences from GM-CSF, IL-3, TNF-alpha, IL-2, and c-fos, but did not bind to a U-rich sequence from c-myc, a 22 nucleotide poly U sequence or a mutated GM-CSF control sequence. High affinity binding by the TTP-containing complex correlated with TTP-dependent deadenylation and decay of capped, polyadenylated transcripts in a cell-free mRNA decay assay, suggesting that the TTP-containing complex was functional. These data support a model whereby TTP functions to enhance mRNA decay by recruiting components of the cellular mRNA decay machinery to the transcript.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2007; 100(6):1477-92. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, collagen deposition and fibrosis within the T cell zone disrupt the lymphatic tissue architecture, contributing to depletion of CD4(+) T cells and limiting immune reconstitution. We used relevant animal and in vitro models to investigate the kinetics and possible underlying mechanism(s) of this process. In the lymphatic tissue of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques, we observed parallel increases in immune activation, transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1-positive regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, and collagen type I deposition by 7 days after inoculation, consistent with the hypothesis that early immune activation elicits a countering T(reg) cell response associated with TGF beta 1 expression and collagen deposition. In support of this hypothesis and the possible role of fibrosis in viral pathogenesis, we show (1) spatial colocalization and temporal concordance in levels of TGF beta 1(+) T(reg) cells and collagen deposition; (2) TGF beta 1(+) inducible T(reg) cell stimulation of primary lymphatic tissue fibroblasts to produce collagen type I in vitro; and (3) high levels of immune activation, TGF beta 1(+) T(reg) cells, and collagen deposition in pathogenic SIV infection of macaques, in contrast to apathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys in which levels of immune activation, TGF beta 1(+) T(reg) cells, and collagen deposition were low. We thus conclude that the response of TGF beta 1(+) T(reg) cells to immune activation in early SIV/HIV infection is a double-edged sword: TGF beta 1(+) T(reg) cells normally have a positive effect by limiting immunopathological and autoreactive immune responses, but they also have a negative effect by dampening the antiviral immune response and, as we show here, causing deleterious effects on CD4(+) T cell homeostasis by inducing collagen deposition in lymphatic tissues.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 195(4):551-61. · 5.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
344.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2012
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2008
    • Hennepin County Medical Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
      Minneapolis, MN, United States