Andrew H Paterson

University of Georgia, Атина, Georgia, United States

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Publications (338)2201.8 Total impact

  • Andrew H Paterson, Jonathan F Wendel
    Nature Biotechnology 05/2015; 33(5):491-493. DOI:10.1038/nbt.3217 · 39.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2 and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen encoding genes, ~617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3 and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 million years ago (mya) and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species, to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus and Arabidopsis while Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen encoding genes.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 09/2014; 6(9). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evu189 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified quantitative trait loci influencing plant architecture that may be valuable in breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and/or cellulosic biomass production, and advancing resilience to changing climates. We describe a 3-year study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for vegetative branching of sorghum in a recombinant inbred line population of 161 genotypes derived from two morphologically distinct parents, S. bicolor × S. propinquum. We quantify vegetative branching based on morphological position and physiological status. Different sets of QTLs for different levels of branching were identified. QTLs discovered on chromosomes 1, 3, 7 and 8 affect multiple vegetative branching variables, suggesting that these regions may contain genes that control general axillary meristem initiation. Other regions that only influence one vegetative branching trait could contain genes that influence developmental processes contributing to divergent patterns of plant architecture. We investigate the relationship between vegetative branching patterns and dry biomass, and conclude that tillers with mature panicles and immature secondary branches each show consistent positive correlation with dry biomass. Among 19 branching-related genes from rice, eight sorghum homologs of seven rice genes are in syntenic blocks within branching-related QTL likelihood intervals. Five of these eight genes are within 700 kb of SNPs significantly associated with differences in branching in genome-wide association study of a diversity panel of 377 sorghum accessions, and three contain striking allelic variations between S. bicolor and S. propinquum that are likely to impact gene functions. Unraveling genetic determinants for vegetative branching may contribute to deterministic breeding of optimized genotypes for sustainable food and cellulosic biomass production in both optimal and marginal conditions, which are resilient to future climates that are more volatile and more stressful.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 08/2014; 127(11). DOI:10.1007/s00122-014-2384-x · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Yuannian Jiao, Andrew H Paterson
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of polyploidy in land plant evolution has led to an acceleration of genome modifications relative to other crown eukaryotes and is correlated with key innovations in plant evolution. Extensive genome resources provide for relating genomic changes to the origins of novel morphological and physiological features of plants. Ancestral gene contents for key nodes of the plant family tree are inferred. Pervasive polyploidy in angiosperms appears likely to be the major factor generating novel angiosperm genes and expanding some gene families. However, most gene families lose most duplicated copies in a quasi-neutral process, and a few families are actively selected for single-copy status. One of the great challenges of evolutionary genomics is to link genome modifications to speciation, diversification and the morphological and/or physiological innovations that collectively compose biodiversity. Rapid accumulation of genomic data and its ongoing investigation may greatly improve the resolution at which evolutionary approaches can contribute to the identification of specific genes responsible for particular innovations. The resulting, more 'particulate' understanding of plant evolution, may elevate to a new level fundamental knowledge of botanical diversity, including economically important traits in the crop plants that sustain humanity.
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is central to the evolution of many eukaryotic genomes, in particular rendering angiosperm (flowering plant) genomes much less stable than those of animals.Following repeated duplication/triplication(s), angiosperm chromosome numbers have usually been restored to a narrow range, as one element in a ‘diploidization’ process that re-establishes diploid heredity.In several angiosperms affected by WGD, we show that chromosome number reduction (CNR) is best explained by intra- and/or inter-chromosomal crossovers to form new chromosomes that utilize the existing telomeres of ‘invaded’ and centromeres of ‘invading’ chromosomes, the alternative centromeres and telomeres being lost. Comparison with the banana (Musa acuminata) genome supports a ‘fusion model’ for the evolution of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes 2 and 3, implying that the grass common ancestor had seven chromosomes rather than the five implied by a ‘fission model.’The ‘invading’ and ‘invaded’ chromosomes are frequently homoeologs, originating from duplication of a common ancestral chromosome and with greater-than-average DNA-level correspondence to one another. Telomere-centric CNR following recursive WGD in plants is also important in mammals and yeast, and may be a general mechanism of restoring small linear chromosome numbers in higher eukaryotes.
    New Phytologist 08/2014; 205(1). DOI:10.1111/nph.12985 · 6.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood] is needed for cultivation of peanut in major peanut-growing areas, but significant resistance is lacking in the cultivated species (Arachis hypogaea L.). Markers to two closely-linked genes introgressed from wild relatives of peanut have been identified previously, but phenotypic evidence for the presence of additional genes in wild species and introgression lines has eluded quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification. Here, to improve sensitivity to small-effect QTLs, an advanced backcross population from a cross between a Florunner component line and the synthetic amphidiploid TxAG-6 [Arachis batizocoi × (A. cardenasii × A. diogoi)]4× was screened for response to root-knot nematode infection. Composite interval mapping results suggested a total of seven QTLs plus three putative QTLs. These included the known major resistance gene plus a second QTL on LG1, and a potentially homeologous B-genome QTL on LG11. Additional potential homeologs were identified on linkage group (LG) 8 and LG18, plus a QTL on LG9.2 and putative QTLs on LG9.1 and 19. A QTL on LG15 had no inferred resistance-associated homeolog. Contrary to expectation, two introgressed QTLs were associated with susceptibility, and QTLs at some homeologous loci were found to confer opposite phenotypic responses. Long-term functional conservation accompanied by rapid generation of functionally divergent alleles may be a singular feature of NBS-LRR resistance gene clusters, contributing to the richness of resistance alleles available in wild relatives of crops. The significance for peanut evolution and breeding is discussed.
    Molecular Breeding 08/2014; 34(2):393-406. DOI:10.1007/s11032-014-0042-2 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Yuannian Jiao, Jingping Li, Haibao Tang, Andrew H Paterson
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    ABSTRACT: Unraveling widespread polyploidy events throughout plant evolution is a necessity for inferring the impacts of whole-genome duplication (WGD) on speciation, functional innovations, and to guide identification of true orthologs in divergent taxa. Here, we employed an integrated syntenic and phylogenomic analyses to reveal an ancient WGD that shaped the genomes of all commelinid monocots, including grasses, bromeliads, bananas (Musa acuminata), ginger, palms, and other plants of fundamental, agricultural, and/or horticultural interest. First, comprehensive phylogenomic analyses revealed 1421 putative gene families that retained ancient duplication shared by Musa (Zingiberales) and grass (Poales) genomes, indicating an ancient WGD in monocots. Intergenomic synteny blocks of Musa and Oryza were investigated, and 30 blocks were shown to be duplicated before Musa-Oryza divergence an estimated 120 to 150 million years ago. Synteny comparisons of four monocot (rice [Oryza sativa], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor], banana, and oil palm [Elaeis guineensis]) and two eudicot (grape [Vitis vinifera] and sacred lotus [Nelumbo nucifera]) genomes also support this additional WGD in monocots, herein called Tau (τ). Integrating synteny and phylogenomic comparisons achieves better resolution of ancient polyploidy events than either approach individually, a principle that is exemplified in the disambiguation of a WGD series of rho (ρ)-sigma (σ)-tau (τ) in the grass lineages that echoes the alpha (α)-beta (β)-gamma (γ) series previously revealed in the Arabidopsis thaliana lineage.
    The Plant Cell 07/2014; 26(7). DOI:10.1105/tpc.114.127597 · 9.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton fiber quality was quantitative trait, controlled by multiple genes. Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) effectively contributing to favorable fiber quality traits would provide the key basis for marker-assisted selection used in molecular breeding projects. Three upland cotton F2 populations were established with a common parent Chinese cultivar Yumian 1 and three American commercial cultivars/lines (Acala Maxxa, CA3084 and TAM94L-25), each of which had unique fiber quality characteristic that was favorable economically. Three whole genome genetic maps were constructed with 323, 302 and 262 SSR loci for population (Yumian 1 × Acala Maxxa), (Yumian 1 × CA3084), and (Yumian 1 × TAM 94L-25) respectively, spanning 1,617.2, 1,639.9 and 1,441.4 cM. Based on these genetic maps and three generation phenotypic data of fiber quality traits (F2, F2:3 and F2:4), 77 QTL were detected, including 19 for fiber length, 14 for fiber uniformity, 17 for micronaire, 10 for fiber elongation, and 17 for fiber strength. Among these QTL, 46 QTL were significant QTL and 31 were putative QTL, including that one QTL (qFL05.1) and four QTL (qFL23.1, qFM06.1, qFM06.2 and qFE25.1) were detected across three and two populations respectively; two QTL qFL10.1 (Yumian 1 × TAM 94L-25) and qFL15.1 (Yumian 1 × Acala Maxxa) were detected in three generations; qFM23.1, qFE18.1 and qFS21.2 detected in population (Yumian 1 × CA3084), qFE10.1, and qFS10.2 detected in population (Yumian 1 × TAM 94L-25), and qFS15.1 detected in population (Yumian 1 × Acala Maxxa), were all detected in two generations. Alleles underlying these stable QTL were valuable candidate gene for fine mapping, cloning, and favorable gene pyramiding projects. Our study also verified that QTL mapping of fiber quality traits using multiple populations with a common parent had higher efficiency compared to single population crossed with two parents and favorable alleles contributed to QTL effect could be conferred by parents with inferior fiber quality traits.
    Euphytica 07/2014; 198(1). DOI:10.1007/s10681-014-1082-8 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple polyploidizations with divergent consequences in the grass subtribe Saccharinae provide a singular opportunity to study in situ adaptation of a genome to the duplicated state, heretofore known primarily from paleogenomics. We show that allopolyploidy in a common Miscanthus-Saccharum ancestor ∼3.8 to 4.6 million years ago closely coincides in time with their divergence from the Sorghum lineage. Subsequent Saccharum-specific autopolyploidy may have created pseudo-paralogous chromosome groups with random pairing within a group but infrequent pairing between groups. High chromosome number may reduce differentiation among Saccharum pseudo-paralogs by increasing opportunities for recombinations, with the lower chromosome numbers of Miscanthus favoring the return to disomic inheritance. The widespread tendency of plant chromosome numbers to recursively return to a narrow range following genome duplication appears to be occurring now in Saccharum spontaneum based on rich polymorphism for chromosome number among genotypes, with past reductions indicated by condensations of two ancestral chromosomes in Miscanthus (now n = 19) and perhaps as many as 10 in the Narenga-Sclerostachya clade (n = 15).
    The Plant Cell 06/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1105/tpc.114.125583 · 9.58 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Table S1
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    ABSTRACT: Genome duplication is thought to be central to the evolution of morphological complexity, and some polyploids enjoy a variety of capabilities that transgress those of their diploid progenitors. Comparison of genomic sequences from several tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium species and genotypes with putative diploid A and D genome progenitor species revealed that unidirectional DNA exchanges between homeologous chromosomes were the predominant mechanism responsible for allelic differences between the Gossypium tetraploids and their diploid progenitors. HeGCE gradually subsided, declining to rates similar to random mutation during radiation of the polyploid into multiple clades and species. Despite occurring in a common nucleus, preservation of HeGCE is asymmetric in the two tetraploid subgenomes. At to Dt conversion is far more abundant than the reciprocal, is enriched in heterochromatin, is highly correlated with GC content and transposon distribution, and may silence abundant A-genome-derived retrotransposons. Dt to At conversion is abundant in euchromatin and genes, frequently reversing losses of gene function. The long-standing observation that the non-spinnable-fibered D genome contributes to the superior yield and quality of tetraploid cotton fibers may be explained by accelerated Dt to At conversion during cotton domestication and improvement, increasing dosage of alleles from the spinnable-fibered A genome. HeGCE may provide an alternative to (rare) reciprocal DNA exchanges between chromosomes in heterochromatin, where genes have ~5x greater abundance of Dt to At conversion than does adjacent intergenic DNA. Spanning exon-to-gene-sized regions, HeGCE is a natural non-invasive means of gene transfer with the precision of transformation, potentially important in genetic improvement of many crop plants.
    Genetics 06/2014; 197(4). DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.166124 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Miscanthus is a promising biomass crop for temperate regions. Despite the increasing interest in this plant, limited sequence information has constrained research into its biology, physiology, and breeding. The whole genome transcriptomes of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus presented in this study may provide good resources to understand functional compositions of two important Miscanthus genomes and their evolutionary relationships. Results For M. sinensis, a total of 457,891 and 512,950 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from leaf and rhizome tissues, respectively, which were assembled into 12,166 contigs and 89,648 singletons for leaf, and 13,170 contigs and 112,138 singletons for rhizome. For M. sacchariflorus, a total of 288,806 and 267,952 ESTs from leaf and rhizome tissues, respectively, were assembled into 8,732 contigs and 66,881 singletons for leaf, and 8,104 contigs and 63,212 singletons for rhizome. Based on the distributions of synonymous nucleotide substitution (Ks), sorghum and Miscanthus diverged about 6.2 million years ago (MYA), Saccharum and Miscanthus diverged 4.6 MYA, and M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus diverged 1.5 MYA. The pairwise alignment of predicted protein sequences from sorghum-Miscanthus and two Miscanthus species found a total of 43,770 and 35,818 nsSNPs, respectively. The impacts of striking mutations found by nsSNPs were much lower between sorghum and Miscanthus than those between the two Miscanthus species, perhaps as a consequence of the much higher level of gene duplication in Miscanthus and resulting ability to buffer essential functions against disturbance. Conclusions The ESTs generated in the present study represent a significant addition to Miscanthus functional genomics resources, permitting us to discover some candidate genes associated with enhanced biomass production. Ks distributions based on orthologous ESTs may serve as a guideline for future research into the evolution of Miscanthus species as well as its close relatives sorghum and Saccharum.
    BMC Plant Biology 05/2014; 14(1):134. DOI:10.1186/1471-2229-14-134 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    Tae-Ho Lee, Hui Guo, Xiyin Wang, Changsoo Kim, Andrew H Paterson
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic trees are widely used for genetic and evolutionary studies in various organisms. Advanced sequencing technology has dramatically enriched data available for constructing phylogenetic trees based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, massive SNP data makes it difficult to perform reliable analysis, and there has been no ready-to-use pipeline to generate phylogenetic trees from these data. We developed a new pipeline, SNPhylo, to construct phylogenetic trees based on large SNP datasets. The pipeline may enable users to construct a phylogenetic tree from three representative SNP data file formats. In addition, in order to increase reliability of a tree, the pipeline has steps such as removing low quality data and considering linkage disequilibrium. A maximum likelihood method for the inference of phylogeny is also adopted in generation of a tree in our pipeline. Using SNPhylo, users can easily produce a reliable phylogenetic tree from a large SNP data file. Thus, this pipeline can help a researcher focus more on interpretation of the results of analysis of voluminous data sets, rather than manipulations necessary to accomplish the analysis.
    BMC Genomics 02/2014; 15(1):162. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-162 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole genome duplication (WGD) is widespread in flowering plants and is a driving force in angiosperm diversification. The redundancy introduced by WGD allows the evolution of novel gene interactions and functions, although the patterns and processes of diversification are poorly understood. We identified ~2,000 pairs of paralogous genes in Gossypium raimondii (cotton) resulting from an approximately 60 million year old five to six-fold ploidy increase. Gene expression analyses revealed that, in G. raimondii, 99.4% of the gene pairs exhibit differential expression in at least one of three tissues (petal, leaf and seed), with 93 to 94% exhibiting differential expression on a per-tissue basis. For 1,666 (85%) pairs, differential expression was observed in all tissues. These observations were mirrored in a time-series of G. raimondii seed, and separately in leaf, petal and seed of G. arboreum, indicating expression level diversification prior to species divergence. A generalized linear model revealed 92.4% of the paralog pairs exhibited expression divergence, with most exhibiting significant gene and tissue interactions indicating complementary expression patterns in different tissues. These data indicate massive, near-complete expression level neo- and/or sub-functionalization among ancient gene duplicates, suggesting these processes are essential in their maintenance over ca. 60 mya.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 02/2014; DOI:10.1093/gbe/evu037 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrolysis activation energy, Ea, was determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for twenty Sorghum bicolor genotypes using Arrhenius-based, isoconversional kinetics formulations. Isoconversional temperatures (Tα) at various conversion levels, α from 0.05 to 1.0, were determined using TGA for separate leaf and stem tissue. Ea was then determined using Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose and Friedman formulations. Observed Ea and predictor variables including conversion level and compositional parameters (e.g. proximate, neutral detergent fiber, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content and crystallinity index, were input to a stepwise regression to build an Ea prediction model. Ea calculated using Tα varied with conversion indicating more complex kinetics (multiple reactions) than a single kinetic triplet can describe although averages of observed and predicted Ea were statistically equivalent at 197 and 202 kJ mol−1, respectively. Additionally, pine wood was evaluated to assess model robustness. With no significant difference between observed and predicted Ea (217 versus 211 kJ mol−1, respectively), the model appeared robust.
    Thermochimica Acta 02/2014; 577:46-52. DOI:10.1016/j.tca.2013.12.012 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sugarcane is the source of sugar in all tropical and subtropical countries and is becoming increasingly important for bio-based fuels. However, its large (10 Gb), polyploid, complex genome has hindered genome based breeding efforts. Here we release the largest and most diverse set of sugarcane genome sequences to date, as part of an on-going initiative to provide a sugarcane genomic information resource, with the ultimate goal of producing a gold standard genome. Results: Three hundred and seventeen chiefly euchromatic BACs were sequenced. A reference set of one thousand four hundred manually-annotated protein-coding genes was generated. A small RNA collection and a RNA-seq library were used to explore expression patterns and the sRNA landscape. In the sucrose and starch metabolism pathway, 16 non-redundant enzyme-encoding genes were identified. One of the sucrose pathway genes, sucrose-6-phosphate phosphohydrolase, is duplicated in sugarcane and sorghum, but not in rice and maize. A diversity analysis of the s6pp duplication region revealed haplotype-structured sequence composition. Examination of hom(e)ologous loci indicate both sequence structural and sRNA landscape variation. A synteny analysis shows that the sugarcane genome has expanded relative to the sorghum genome, largely due to the presence of transposable elements and uncharacterized intergenic and intronic sequences. Conclusion: This release of sugarcane genomic sequences will advance our understanding of sugarcane genetics andcontribute to the development of molecular tools for breeding purposes and gene discovery.
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    ABSTRACT: Cotton fiber quality traits are controlled by multiple genes of minor effect. Identification of significant and stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) across environments and populations lays foundation for marker-assisted selection for fiber quality improvement and studies of its molecular regulation. Here, a detailed genetic map is constructed and QTL are detected based on an intraspecific recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Upland cotton cultivar/line Yumian 1 and 7235. A total of 25,313 SSR primer pairs, including 5,000 developed from G. raimondii BAC-ends sequences, were used to construct the genetic map which finally contained 1,540 loci, spanning 2,842.06 cM, with an average of 1.85 cM between adjacent markers. With 4 year fiber quality traits data, variance analysis revealed that they were significantly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Significant correlations were also detected between them. A total of 62 QTL were identified with combined analysis and single environment analysis. These QTL explain phenotypic variation from 5.0 to 28.1 %. For each trait, favorable alleles were conferred by both parents. Seventeen QTL were detected in more than one environment. The genetic map and stable QTL are valuable for Upland cotton genome research and breeding projects to improve fiber quality.
    Euphytica 01/2014; 201(2):195-213. DOI:10.1007/s10681-014-1189-y · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic improvements for many fiber traits are obtained by mutagenesis of elite cottons, mitigating genetic uniformity in this inbred polyploid by contributing novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L-25 and Acala 1517-99, were characterized for basic components of fiber quality and selected yield components. Across all measured traits, the ranges of phenotypic values among the mutant lines were consistently larger than could be explained by chance (5.27-10.1 for TAM 94 L-25 and 5.29-7.94 standard deviations for Acala 1517-99-derived lines). Multi-year replicated studies confirmed a genetic basis for these differences, showing significant correlations between lines across years and environments. A subset of 157 lines selected for superior fiber qualities, including fiber elongation (22 lines), length (22), lint percent (17), fineness (23), Rd value (21), strength (19), uniformity (21) and multiple attributes in a selection index (26) were compared to 55 control lines in replicated trials in both Texas and Georgia. For all traits, mutant lines showing substantial and statistically significant improvements over control lines were found, in most cases from each of the two genetic backgrounds. This indicates that genetic improvements for a wide range of fiber traits may be obtained from mutagenesis of elite cottons. Indeed, lines selected for one fiber trait sometimes conferred additional attributes, suggesting pleiotropic effects of some mutations and offering multiple benefits for the incorporation of some alleles into mainstream breeding programs.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 12/2013; 127(4). DOI:10.1007/s00122-013-2259-6 · 3.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21k Citations
2,201.80 Total Impact Points


  • 1970–2015
    • University of Georgia
      • • Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory
      • • Center for Applied Genetic Technologies
      • • Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
      Атина, Georgia, United States
  • 1993–2014
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Plant Biology
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology
      Ames, IA, United States
    • International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics
      Bhaganagar, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 2009
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
    • Jilin University
      • College of Computer Science & Technology
      Yung-chi, Jilin Sheng, China
  • 2007
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 2006
    • North Carolina State University
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2005
    • The University of Arizona
      • Arizona Genomics Institute
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1988–2005
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • Mississippi State University
      • Department of Plant and Soil Sciences
      Starkville, MS, United States
  • 2001
    • China National Rice Research Institute
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Zhejiang Agricultural University
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 1999
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Alabama A & M University
      Huntsville, Alabama, United States
  • 1989
    • Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States