[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010.
Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty.
SETTING AND POPULATION:
Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time.
In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased.
These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This community-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron-fortified bread consumption on certain biomarkers of oxidative stress in an apparently healthy population. Evaluation of food intake, anthropometric and laboratory variables was performed in the beginning and after the 8-month intervention for all participants. There was no significant change in oxidative stress biomarkers in women following 8 months intervention. However, in men, final values of total antioxidant capacity, compared to the initial ones, showed a significant decrease in (p = 0.01) which was accompanied by a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (p = 0.002). It could be concluded that although the short-term period (8 months) of extra iron intake did not show severe effects of lipid per oxidation, significant changes of serum iron and some oxidative stress indices suggested that fortification of flour with iron among non-anemic adults in the long term was not without adverse effects.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 03/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
High sodium intake increases blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the effects of sodium intake on global cardiovascular mortality are uncertain.
We collected data from surveys on sodium intake as determined by urinary excretion and diet in persons from 66 countries (accounting for 74.1% of adults throughout the world), and we used these data to quantify the global consumption of sodium according to age, sex, and country. The effects of sodium on blood pressure, according to age, race, and the presence or absence of hypertension, were calculated from data in a new meta-analysis of 107 randomized interventions, and the effects of blood pressure on cardiovascular mortality, according to age, were calculated from a meta-analysis of cohorts. Cause-specific mortality was derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Using comparative risk assessment, we estimated the cardiovascular effects of current sodium intake, as compared with a reference intake of 2.0 g of sodium per day, according to age, sex, and country.
In 2010, the estimated mean level of global sodium consumption was 3.95 g per day, and regional mean levels ranged from 2.18 to 5.51 g per day. Globally, 1.65 million annual deaths from cardiovascular causes (95% uncertainty interval [confidence interval], 1.10 million to 2.22 million) were attributed to sodium intake above the reference level; 61.9% of these deaths occurred in men and 38.1% occurred in women. These deaths accounted for nearly 1 of every 10 deaths from cardiovascular causes (9.5%). Four of every 5 deaths (84.3%) occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and 2 of every 5 deaths (40.4%) were premature (before 70 years of age). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes associated with sodium intake above the reference level was highest in the country of Georgia and lowest in Kenya.
In this modeling study, 1.65 million deaths from cardiovascular causes that occurred in 2010 were attributed to sodium consumption above a reference level of 2.0 g per day. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vitamins E and C on cognitive performance among the elderly in Iran.
About 256 elderly with mild cognitive impairment, aged 60-75 years, received 300 mg of vitamin E plus 400 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily just for 1 year.
Demographic characteristics, anthropometric variables food consumption, cognitive function by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and some of the oxidative stress biomarkers were examined.
Antioxidant supplementation reduced malondialdehyde level (P < 0.001) and raised total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001) and glutathione (P < 0.01). The serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine remained unchanged (P < 0.4). After adjusting for the covariates effects, MMSE scores following 6- (25.88 ± 0.17) and 12-month antioxidant supplementation (26.8 ± 0.17) did not differ from control group (25.86 ± 0.18 and 26.59 ± 0.18, respectively).
Despite significant improvement in most of the oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidants' supplementation was not observed to enhance cognitive performance. A large number of kinetic and/or dynamic factors could be suspected.
European Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship of plasma antioxidants to airway inflammation and systemic oxidative stress in children suffering from atopic asthma with consideration of the intake of nutritional supplements. SUBJECTS AND RESEARCH METHODS: A total of 35 asthmatic children (AG) and 21 healthy controls (CG) participated in this study. Plasma levels of vitamins A and E, β-carotene, coenzyme Q10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured photometrically, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The volume of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured with the NIOX nitric oxide monitoring system. RESULTS: The plasma antioxidants vitamins A and E, selenium, and coenzyme Q10 but not β-carotene were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in asthmatics than in controls. Further, asthmatic children had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of TAC (p < 0.01), significantly enhanced levels of MDA (p < 0.001), and exhaled a significantly (p < 0.001) higher mean volume of FENO than healthy children. Regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on plasma vitamin E (p < 0.01), selenium (p < 0.01), TAC (p < 0.05), MDA (p < 0.01), and FENO (p < 0.01) in asthmatics but not in controls. Additionally, significant negative associations of vitamin E and MDA (AG: p < 0.01; CG: p < 0.05), and vitamin E and FENO (AG: p < 0.05; CG: p > 0.05) were identified. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that nutritional supplements beneficially modulate plasma antioxidants and thus might have a positive influence on systemic redox balance and subsequently, pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic children.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 05/2013; · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public–private partnerships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamins are essential nutrients for many body functions and particularly important during growth. Adequate supply in pregnancy and in early infancy is therefore crucial, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the needed amounts of vitamins of children older than six months and also during pregnancy. Recommendations for intake levels are generally derived by extrapolation from data for infants based in turn on the contents in breast milk and those for adults. A vitamin of particular importance in pregnancy is folic acid due to its role in the development of the brain and nerve system and the prevention of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Mandatory fortification of flour and certain other grain products in many countries has been associated with a reduction in NTD incidence. However, other deficiencies or suboptimal status of B vitamins, especially B6 and B12 have been repeatedly reported in pregnant women also in high-income countries. Vitamin A is one of the three most critical micronutrients globally and pregnant women and young children are especially vulnerable to deficiencies. Night blindness, anemia, and immunodeficiency are major consequences of inadequate supply in these populations. Much attention has recently been accorded vitamin D that is also critical in pregnant women and young children for instance because of its involvement in bone mineralization but also its more recently discovered immune-modulating function that is thought to prevent development of autoimmune diseases like diabetes mellitus type I. A healthy balanced diet provides the best basis for optimal pregnancy outcome, lactation performance, and complementary feeding. However, supplements or fortified foods may be needed to cover the high requirements especially of critical vitamins such as vitamin D and folic acid and to correct unfavorable dietary patterns in women or to adapt foods to the needs of young children.
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 10/2012; 82(5):342-347. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-quality diet is one of the foundations of health and well-being. For a long time in human history, diet was chiefly a source of energy and macronutrients meant to still hunger and give the strength for work and activities that were in general much harder than nowadays. Only few persons could afford to emphasize enjoyment. In the assessment of quality, organoleptic properties were major criteria to detect spoilage and oxidative deterioration of food. Today, food hygiene is a quality aspect that is often taken for granted by consumers, despite its lack being at the origin of most food-borne diseases. The discovery of micronutrients entailed fundamental changes of the concept of diet quality. However, non-essential food components with additional health functions were still barely known or not considered important until recently. With the high burden of obesity and its associated diseases on the rise, affluent, industrialized countries have developed an increased interest in these substances, which has led to the development of functional foods to optimize special body functions, reduce disease risk, or even contribute to therapeutic approaches. Indeed, nowadays, high contents of energy, fat, and sugar are factors associated with a lower quality of food, and products with reduced amounts of these components are valued by many consumers. At the same time, enjoyment and convenience are important quality factors, presenting food manufacturers with the dilemma of reconciling low fat content and applicability with good taste and appealing appearance. Functional foods offer an approach to address this challenge. Deeper insights into nutrient-gene interactions may enable personalized nutrition adapted to the special needs of individuals. However, so far, a varied healthy diet remains the best basis for health and well-being.
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 06/2012; 82(3):144-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interactions between frying fat and fried foods are of great relevance for the nutritional quality of the final product. In particular, the amount of fat taken up can be positively influenced at the industrial but also at the household level by different pre- and post-frying conditions. The fat uptake during the frying process can also lead to a complete different fatty acid pattern of the product. The change is always towards the predominant fatty acids in the frying fat, which can be beneficial when replacing saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but can also be of disadvantage in the case of fish, when the initial content of n-3 fatty acids is significantly reduced. This has also to be considered for nutritional calculation so as not to misrepresent the nutrient composition of the fried product. There have been positive developments in producing frying fats which are low in trans-fatty acids, and fried products low in heat-induced compounds which can address toxicological concerns such as acrylamide formation.
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 06/2012; 82(3):163-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strain specific properties of probiotics in providing supportive health effects in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract have been widely investigated in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying responsible mechanism is poorly described. By unravelling the probiotic-induced responses in a complex network of interacting signalling pathways, we investigated the effect of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L.del) on the expression of TLR4 and signalling factors such as p38 MAPK and I?B at transcription level in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Our findings demonstrated that even inactivated probiotic strains can affect TLR4 expression in a down-regulatory direction as with lipopolysaccharides after 12 hours. LGG significantly down-regulated expression of p38 while I?B expression was significantly reduced in L.del-treated DCs. Moreover, we found these Lactobacillus strains could even modify the immune response at post-transcriptional level by modifying miRNAs expression. Based on our results LGG induced a significant down-regulatory effect on miR-146a expression which is known as a novel fine negative regulator of immune response targeting NFκB. On the other hand, miR-155 was up-regulated by LGG which is consistent with down-regulation of p38 and in LGG-treated DCs. These findings provide genetic and epigenetic explanations for the responsible underlying mechanisms by which probiotics influence immune response by targeting DCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the advantages of fortifying flour with iron, there are still special concerns regarding the possible adverse effects of the extra iron consumed by nonanemic individuals. This study aimed to investigate the oxidative stress and iron status following 8 and 16 months of consumption of iron-fortified flour in nonanemic men.
In a before-and-after intervention study, 78 nonanemic apparently healthy 40- to 65-year-old men were randomly selected from Semnan, in the northeast of Iran. Data were collected at three time points. Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers as well as the assessment of iron status was performed in all three stages. After baseline data collection, the flour fortification program was started with 30 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate.
After 16 months, serum iron levels had significantly increased from 102.9 ± 31.5 μg/dl (baseline) to 117.2 ± 29.8 μg/dl (p < 0.001). The mean total antioxidant capacity (1.71 ± 0.10 μM) was significantly lower than that at baseline (1.83 ± 0.17 μM; p < 0.01). Among other oxidative stress biomarkers, only superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly compared to the beginning of the study (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The results of this study did not show any symptoms of iron overload after 8 and 16 months.
Our data did not support the safety of flour fortification with 30 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate as a community-based approach to control iron deficiency in nonanemic healthy men.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 03/2012; 60(2):115-21. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the status of several vitamins and to investigate the effect of regular individual supplementation on their status in this population.
An observational study.
State of Burgenland, Austria.
A total of 102 non-institutionalized subjects (49% supplementing regularly, 51% without supplementation) aged between 70-90 years were recruited.
Plasma levels of vitamins A, D, E, K and C were determined by HPLC. The functional parameters of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, i.e. the activities of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, were analyzed photometrically; plasma folate and vitamin B12 were determined by RIA.
The status of vitamins A, E and C was generally satisfactory. Eighty-eight percent and 42% of participants were deficient in vitamins D and K, respectively, as were 29% for B6; up to 10% of participants were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, B12 and folate. A considerable percentage of participants was, however, at risk for vitamin deficiencies (vitamins B1, B6, B12, folate: 20-30%, vitamin B2: 60%). Except for vitamins A and K, regular intake of supplements had a significant positive influence on vitamin levels.
These results indicate that use of supplements significantly improved the status of several vitamins in elderly people. Due to age-related problems concerning the intake and digestion of nutrients, a moderate, regular supplementation might be a useful option for older people who are otherwise unable to satisfy their micronutrient requirements.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2012; 16(3):206-12. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics' strain specific immunoregulatory properties in development of protective immune outcomes are believed to be induced by targeting and polarising dendritic cells (DCs) as the key determinants of the immune response. Therefore, we studied the effects of a heat-inactivated form of Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG (LGG) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii(L.del) on maturation pattern and extracellular cytokine production profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells. Expression of specific maturation markers and induction of extracellular cytokines were detected by flow cytometry. Up-regulation of CD86, CD80 and CD83 and down-regulation of DCSIGN was observed. In addition, LGG induced secretion of high levels IL-10, INF-γ and IL-1β whereas L.del seemed to be more potent in induction of TNF-α in a dose dependent manner. These results indicated that non-viable forms of both tested strains are able to induce divergent immune regulatory effects via the induction of phenotypic changes and cytokine production of DCs.
Food and Agricultural Immunology 01/2012; · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Allergic asthma is a chron-ic lung disease with a major inflam-matory component including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the background. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation-ship between the Th17–associated interleukins IL–6 and IL–10, and oxidative/nitrosative markers of stress in childhood atopic asthma. Methods: For this observational study 35 asthmatic (AG) and 21 healthy (CG) children were recruited; the volume of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (Fe no) was measured with the NIOX nitric oxide monitoring sys-tem. Plasma levels of IL–6 and IL–10 were analysed with ELISA, malondial-dehyde (MDA) with HPLC. Results: Compared to healthy con-trols, asthmatics exhaled a significant-ly (p<0.001) higher mean volume of Fe no and had significantly (p=0.012) Izvleček
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global burdens of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and cancer are on the rise. Little quantitative data are available on the global impact of diet on these conditions. The objective of this study was to develop systematic and comparable methods to quantitatively assess the impact of suboptimal dietary habits on CVD, diabetes and cancer burdens globally and in 21 world regions.
Using a comparative risk assessment framework, we developed methods to establish for selected dietary risk factors the effect sizes of probable or convincing causal diet-disease relationships, the alternative minimum-risk exposure distributions and the exposure distributions. These inputs, together with disease-specific mortality rates, allow computation of the numbers of events attributable to each dietary factor.
Using World Health Organization and similar evidence criteria for convincing/probable causal effects, we identified 14 potential diet-disease relationships. Effect sizes and ranges of uncertainty will be derived from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of trials or high-quality observational studies. Alternative minimum-risk distributions were identified based on amounts corresponding to the lowest disease rates in populations. Optimal and alternative definitions for each exposure were established based on the data used to quantify harmful or protective effects. We developed methods for identifying and obtaining data from nationally representative surveys. A ranking scale was developed to assess survey quality and validity of dietary assessment methods. Multi-level hierarchical models will be developed to impute missing data.
These new methods will allow, for the first time, assessment of the global impact of specific dietary factors on chronic disease mortality. Such global assessment is not only possible but is also imperative for priority setting and policy making.
European journal of clinical nutrition 09/2011; 66(1):119-29. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fette sind zum Unterschied zu Eiweiß und Kohlenhydraten in organischen Lösungsmitteln, wie Ether, Chloroform, Benzol, Petrolether
u. a., löslich und können durch Extraktion mit diesen Lösungsmitteln isoliert werden. Entsprechend sind die Fette lebensmittelchemisch
definiert: Fett (Rohfett) ist alles, was durch organische Lösungsmittel extrahierbar und bei 105 °C nicht flüchtig ist