[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggressive double and triple hit (DH/TH) DLBCL feature activation of Hsp90 stress pathways. Herein, we show that Hsp90 controls post-transcriptional dynamics of key mRNA species including those encoding BCL6, MYC and BCL2. Using a proteomics approach, we found that Hsp90 binds to and maintains activity of eIF4E. eIF4E drives nuclear export and translation of BCL6, MYC and BCL2 mRNA. eIF4E RIP-sequencing in DLBCL suggests that nuclear eIF4E controls an extended program that includes BCR signaling, cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, eIF4E was required for survival of DLBCL including the most aggressive subtypes DH/TH lymphomas. Indeed, eIF4E inhibition induces tumor regression in cell line and patient-derived tumorgrafts of TH-DLBCL, even in the presence of elevated Hsp90 activity. Targeting Hsp90 is typically limited by counter-regulatory elevation of Hsp70B, which induces resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Surprisingly, we identify Hsp70 mRNA as an eIF4E target. In this way, eIF4E inhibition can overcome drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Accordingly, rational combinatorial inhibition of eIF4E and Hsp90 inhibitors resulted in cooperative anti-lymphoma activity in DH/TH DLBCL in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) controls a large transcriptional network that is required for the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GC). GC B cells represent the normal counterpart of most human B-cell lymphomas, which are often characterized by deregulated BCL6 expression or BCL6-mediated pathways. BCL6 suppresses gene transcription largely through recruitment of its co-repressors through its distinct repression domain. Understanding the precise biological roles of each repression domain in normal and malignant B cells is helpful for development of targeted inhibition of BCL6 functions that is emerging as the basis for design of anti-lymphoma therapies. This review focuses on recent progress in the molecular mechanisms of action of BCL6 in B cells and discusses remaining unresolved questions related to how these mechanisms are linked to normal and malignant B cell development.
Science China. Life sciences 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11427-015-4919-z · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationally designed combinations of targeted therapies for refractory cancers, such as activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC DLBCL), are likely required to achieve potent, durable responses. Here, we used a pharmacoproteomics approach to map the interactome of a tumor-enriched isoform of HSP90 (teHSP90). Specifically, we chemically precipitated teHSP90-client complexes from DLBCL cell lines with the small molecule PU-H71 and found that components of the proximal B cell receptor (BCR) signalosome were enriched within teHSP90 complexes. Functional assays revealed that teHSP90 facilitates BCR signaling dynamics by enabling phosphorylation of key BCR signalosome components, including the kinases SYK and BTK. Consequently, treatment of BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL cells with PU-H71 attenuated BCR signaling, calcium flux, and NF-κB signaling, ultimately leading to growth arrest. Combined exposure of ABC DLBCL cell lines to PU-H71 and ibrutinib, a BCR pathway inhibitor, more potently suppressed BCR signaling than either drug alone. Correspondingly, PU-H71 combined with ibrutinib induced synergistic killing of lymphoma cell lines, primary human lymphoma specimens ex vivo, and lymphoma xenografts in vivo, without notable toxicity. Together, our results demonstrate that a pharmacoproteome-driven rational combination therapy has potential to provide more potent BCR-directed therapy for ABC DLCBL patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cohesin complex members have recently been identified as putative tumor suppressors in hematologic and epithelial malignancies. The cohesin complex guides chromosome segregation; however, cohesin mutant leukemias do not show genomic instability. We hypothesized that reduced cohesin function alters chromatin structure and disrupts cis-regulatory architecture of hematopoietic progenitors. We investigated the consequences of Smc3 deletion in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Biallelic Smc3 loss induced bone marrow aplasia with premature sister chromatid separation and revealed an absolute requirement for cohesin in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. In contrast, Smc3 haploinsufficiency increased self-renewal in vitro and in vivo, including competitive transplantation. Smc3 haploinsufficiency reduced coordinated transcriptional output, including reduced expression of transcription factors and other genes associated with lineage commitment. Smc3 haploinsufficiency cooperated with Flt3-ITD to induce acute leukemia in vivo, with potentiated Stat5 signaling and altered nucleolar topology. These data establish a dose dependency for cohesin in regulating chromatin structure and HSC function.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2015; 211(1). DOI:10.1084/jem.20151317 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressors BAP1 and ASXL1 interact to form a polycomb deubiquitinase complex that removes monoubiquitin from histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119Ub). However, BAP1 and ASXL1 are mutated in distinct cancer types, consistent with independent roles in regulating epigenetic state and malignant transformation. Here we demonstrate that Bap1 loss in mice results in increased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), elevated enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (Ezh2) expression, and enhanced repression of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) targets. These findings contrast with the reduction in H3K27me3 levels seen with Asxl1 loss. Conditional deletion of Bap1 and Ezh2 in vivo abrogates the myeloid progenitor expansion induced by Bap1 loss alone. Loss of BAP1 results in a marked decrease in H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1). Consistent with a role for H4K20me1 in the transcriptional regulation of EZH2, expression of SETD8-the H4K20me1 methyltransferase-reduces EZH2 expression and abrogates the proliferation of BAP1-mutant cells. Furthermore, mesothelioma cells that lack BAP1 are sensitive to EZH2 pharmacologic inhibition, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for BAP1-mutant malignancies.
Nature medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1038/nm.3947 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders of B and T cell origin that are treated with chemotherapy drugs with variable success rate that has virtually not changed over decades. Although new classes of chemotherapy-free epigenetic and metabolic drugs have emerged, durable responses to these conventional and new therapies are achieved in a fraction of cancer patients, with many individuals experiencing resistance to the drugs. The paucity in our understanding of what regulates the drug resistance phenotype and establishing a predictive indicator is, in great part, due to the lack of adequate ex vivo lymphoma models to accurately study the effect of microenvironmental cues in which malignant B and T cell lymphoma cells arise and reside. Unlike many other tumors, lymphomas have been neglected from biomaterials-based microenvironment engineering standpoint. In this study, we demonstrate that B and T cell lymphomas have different pro-survival integrin signaling requirements (αvβ3 and α4β1) and the presence of supporting follicular dendritic cells are critical for enhanced proliferation in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. We engineered adaptable 3D tumor organoids presenting adhesive peptides with distinct integrin specificities to B and T cell lymphoma cells that resulted in enhanced proliferation, clustering, and drug resistance to the chemotherapeutics and a new class of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), Panobinostat. In Diffuse Large B cell Lymphomas, the 3D microenvironment upregulated the expression level of B cell receptor (BCR), which supported the survival of B cell lymphomas through a tyrosine kinase Syk in the upstream BCR pathway. Our integrin specific ligand functionalized 3D organoids mimic a lymphoid neoplasm-like heterogeneous microenvironment that could, in the long term, change the understanding of the initiation and progression of hematological tumors, allow primary biospecimen analysis, provide prognostic values, and importantly, allow a faster and more rational screening and translation of therapeutic regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in DNA methylation are required for the formation of germinal centers (GCs), but the mechanisms of such changes are poorly understood. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been recently implicated in DNA demethylation through its deaminase activity coupled with DNA repair. We investigated the epigenetic function of AID in vivo in germinal center B cells (GCBs) isolated from wild-type (WT) and AID-deficient (Aicda(-/-)) mice. We determined that the transit of B cells through the GC is associated with marked locus-specific loss of methylation and increased methylation diversity, both of which are lost in Aicda(-/-) animals. Differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) between GCBs and naive B cells (NBs) are enriched in genes that are targeted for somatic hypermutation (SHM) by AID, and these genes form networks required for B cell development and proliferation. Finally, we observed significant conservation of AID-dependent epigenetic reprogramming between mouse and human B cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways.
Nature medicine 09/2015; 21(10). DOI:10.1038/nm.3943 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contribution of epigenomic alterations to tumour progression and relapse is not well characterized. Here we characterize an association between disease progression and DNA methylation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). By profiling genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base pair resolution in thirteen DLBCL diagnosis-relapse sample pairs, we show that DLBCL patients exhibit heterogeneous evolution of tumour methylomes during relapse. We identify differentially methylated regulatory elements and determine a relapse-associated methylation signature converging on key pathways such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor activity. We also observe decreased intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity from diagnosis to relapsed tumour samples. Relapse-free patients display lower intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity at diagnosis compared with relapsed patients in an independent validation cohort. Furthermore, intra-tumour methylation heterogeneity is predictive of time to relapse. Therefore, we propose that epigenomic heterogeneity may support or drive the relapse phenotype and can be used to predict DLBCL relapse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells) are required for T cell help to B cells, and BCL6 is the defining transcription factor of Tfh cells. However, the functions of BCL6 in Tfh cells have largely remained unclear. Here we defined the BCL6 cistrome in primary human germinal center Tfh cells to assess mechanisms of BCL6 regulation of CD4 T cells, comparing and contrasting BCL6 function in T and B cells. BCL6 primarily acts as a repressor in Tfh cells, and BCL6 binding was associated with control of Tfh cell migration and repression of alternative cell fates. Interestingly, although some BCL6-bound genes possessed BCL6 DNA-binding motifs, many BCL6-bound loci were instead characterized by the presence of DNA motifs for AP1 or STAT. AP1 complexes are key positive downstream mediators of TCR signaling and external stimuli. We show that BCL6 can directly bind AP1, and BCL6 depends on AP1 for recruitment to BCL6-binding sites with AP1 motifs, suggesting that BCL6 subverts AP1 activity. These findings reveal that BCL6 has broad and multifaceted effects on Tfh biology and provide insight into how this master regulator mediates distinct cell context-dependent phenotypes.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2015; 212(4):539-553. DOI:10.1084/jem.20141380 · 12.52 Impact Factor