[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear export of messenger RNA (mRNA) occurs by translocation of mRNA/protein complexes (mRNPs) through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The DEAD-box protein Dbp5 mediates export by triggering removal of mRNP proteins in a spatially controlled manner. This requires Dbp5 interaction with Nup159 in NPC cytoplasmic filaments and activation of Dbp5's ATPase activity by Gle1 bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)). However, the precise sequence of events within this mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we analyze dbp5 mutants that alter ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis, or RNA binding. We found that ATP binding and hydrolysis are required for efficient Dbp5 association with NPCs. Interestingly, mutants defective for RNA binding are dominant-negative (DN) for mRNA export in yeast and human cells. We show that the DN phenotype stems from competition with wild-type Dbp5 for Gle1 at NPCs. The Dbp5-Gle1 interaction is limiting for export and, importantly, can be independent of Nup159. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments in yeast show a very dynamic association between Dbp5 and NPCs, averaging <1 sec, similar to reported NPC translocation rates for mRNPs. This work reveals critical steps in the Gle1-IP(6)/Dbp5/Nup159 cycle, and suggests that the number of remodeling events mediated by a single Dbp5 is limited.
Genes & development 05/2011; 25(10):1052-64. · 12.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential messenger RNA (mRNA) export factors execute critical steps to mediate directional transport through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). At cytoplasmic NPC filaments, the ATPase activity of DEAD-box protein Dbp5 is activated by inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6))-bound Gle1 to mediate remodeling of mRNA-protein (mRNP) complexes. Whether a single Dbp5 executes multiple remodeling events and how Dbp5 is recycled are unknown. Evidence suggests that Dbp5 binding to Nup159 is required for controlling interactions with Gle1 and the mRNP. Using in vitro reconstitution assays, we found here that Nup159 is specifically required for ADP release from Dbp5. Moreover, Gle1-IP(6) stimulates ATP binding, thus priming Dbp5 for RNA loading. In vivo, a dbp5-R256D/R259D mutant with reduced ADP binding bypasses the need for Nup159 interaction. However, NPC spatial control is important, as a dbp5-R256D/R259D nup42Δ double mutant is temperature-sensitive for mRNA export. Further analysis reveals that remodeling requires a conformational shift to the Dbp5-ADP form. ADP release factors for DEAD-box proteins have not been reported previously and reflect a new paradigm for regulation. We propose a model wherein Nup159 and Gle1-IP(6) regulate Dbp5 cycles by controlling its nucleotide-bound state, allowing multiple cycles of mRNP remodeling by a single Dbp5 at the NPC.
Genes & development 05/2011; 25(10):1065-77. · 12.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular adaptation to environmental stress conditions requires rapid and specific changes in gene expression. During heat shock, most polyadenylated mRNAs are retained in the nucleus, whereas the export of heat shock-induced mRNAs is allowed. Although essential mRNA export factors are known, the precise mechanism for regulating transport is not fully understood. Here we find that during heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mRNA-binding protein Nab2 is phosphorylated on threonine 178 and serine 180 by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Slt2/Mpk1. Slt2 is required for nuclear poly(A(+)) mRNA accumulation upon heat shock, and thermotolerance is decreased in a nup42 nab2-T178A/S180A mutant. Coincident with phosphorylation, Nab2 and Yra1 colocalize in nuclear foci with Mlp1, a protein involved in mRNA retention. Nab2 nuclear focus formation and Nab2 phosphorylation are independent, suggesting that heat shock induces multiple cellular alterations that impinge upon transport efficiency. Under normal conditions, we find that the mRNA export receptor Mex67 and Nab2 directly interact. However, upon heat shock stress, Mex67 does not localize to the Mlp1 nuclear foci, and its association with Nab2 complexes is reduced. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which the MAP kinase Slt2 and Mlp1 control mRNA export factors during heat shock stress.
Molecular and cellular biology 11/2010; 30(21):5168-79. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins bound to the poly(A) tail of mRNA transcripts, called poly(A)-binding proteins (Pabs), play critical roles in regulating RNA stability, translation, and nuclear export. Like many mRNA-binding proteins that modulate post-transcriptional processing events, assigning specific functions to Pabs is challenging because these processing events are tightly coupled to one another. To investigate the role that a novel class of zinc finger-containing Pabs plays in these coupled processes, we defined the mode of polyadenosine RNA recognition for the conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nab2 protein and assessed in vivo consequences caused by disruption of RNA binding. The polyadenosine RNA recognition domain of Nab2 consists of three tandem Cys-Cys-Cys-His (CCCH) zinc fingers. Cells expressing mutant Nab2 proteins with decreased binding to polyadenosine RNA show growth defects as well as defects in poly(A) tail length but do not accumulate poly(A) RNA in the nucleus. We also demonstrate genetic interactions between mutant nab2 alleles and mutant alleles of the mRNA 3'-end processing machinery. Together, these data provide strong evidence that Nab2 binding to RNA is critical for proper control of poly(A) tail length.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26022-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression requires proper messenger RNA (mRNA) export and translation. However, the functional links between these consecutive steps have not been fully defined. Gle1 is an essential, conserved mRNA export factor whose export function is dependent on the small molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)). Here, we show that both Gle1 and IP(6) are required for efficient translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that Gle1 interacts with termination factors. In addition, Gle1 has a conserved physical association with the initiation factor eIF3, and gle1 mutants display genetic interactions with the eIF3 mutant nip1-1. Strikingly, gle1 mutants have defects in initiation, whereas strains lacking IP(6) do not. We propose that Gle1 functions together with IP(6) and the DEAD-box protein Dbp5 to regulate termination. However, Gle1 also independently mediates initiation. Thus, Gle1 is uniquely positioned to coordinate the mRNA export and translation mechanisms. These results directly impact models for perturbation of Gle1 function in pathophysiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Messenger RNA (mRNA) export involves the unidirectional passage of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), presumably driven by the ATP-dependent activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Here we report that Dbp5 functions as an RNP remodeling protein to displace the RNA-binding protein Nab2 from RNA. Strikingly, the ADP-bound form of Dbp5 and not ATP hydrolysis is required for RNP remodeling. In vivo studies with nab2 and dbp5 mutants show that a Nab2-bound mRNP is a physiological Dbp5 target. We propose that Dbp5 functions as a nucleotide-dependent switch to control mRNA export efficiency and release the mRNP from the NPC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of nuclear mRNA export is critical for proper eukaryotic gene expression. A key step in this process is the directional translocation of mRNA-ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that are embedded in the nuclear envelope. Our previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae defined an in vivo role for inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and NPC-associated Gle1 in mRNA export. Here, we show that Gle1 and InsP6 act together to stimulate the RNA-dependent ATPase activity of the essential DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Overexpression of DBP5 specifically suppressed mRNA export and growth defects of an ipk1 nup42 mutant defective in InsP6 production and Gle1 localization. In vitro kinetic analysis showed that InsP6 significantly increased Dbp5 ATPase activity in a Gle1-dependent manner and lowered the effective RNA concentration for half-maximal ATPase activity. Gle1 alone had minimal effects. Maximal InsP6 binding required both Dbp5 and Gle1. It has been suggested that Dbp5 requires unidentified cofactors. We now propose that Dbp5 activation at NPCs requires Gle1 and InsP6. This would facilitate spatial control of the remodelling of mRNP protein composition during directional transport and provide energy to power transport cycles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Archaeal box C/D sRNAs guide the methylation of specific nucleotides in archaeal ribosomal and tRNAs. Three Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sRNP core proteins (ribosomal protein L7, Nop56/58, and fibrillarin) bind the box C/D sRNAs to assemble the sRNP complex, and these core proteins are essential for nucleotide methylation. A distinguishing feature of the Nop56/58 core protein is the coiled-coil domain, established by alpha-helices 4 and 5, that facilitates Nop56/58 self-dimerization in vitro. The function of this coiled-coil domain has been assessed for box C/D sRNP assembly, sRNP structure, and sRNP-guided nucleotide methylation by mutating or deleting this protein domain. Protein pull-down experiments demonstrated that Nop56/58 self-dimerization and Nop56/58 dimerization with the core protein fibrillarin are mutually exclusive protein:protein interactions. Disruption of Nop56/58 homodimerization by alteration of specific amino acids or deletion of the entire coiled-coil domain had no obvious effect upon core protein binding and sRNP assembly. Site-directed mutation of the Nop56/58 homodimerization domain also had no apparent effect upon either box C/D RNP- or C'/D' RNP-guided nucleotide modification. However, deletion of this domain disrupted guided methylation from both RNP complexes. Nuclease probing of the sRNP assembled with Nop56/58 proteins mutated in the coiled-coil domain indicated that while functional complexes were assembled, box C/D and C'/D' RNPs were altered in structure. Collectively, these experiments revealed that the self-dimerization of the Nop56/58 coiled-coil domain is not required for assembly of a functional sRNP, but the coiled-coil domain is important for the establishment of wild-type box C/D and C'/D' RNP structure essential for nucleotide methylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exchange of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm is mediated through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. Altering the interactions between transport receptors and their cargo has been shown to be a major regulatory mechanism to control traffic through NPCs. New evidence now suggests that NPC proteins play active roles in translocation, and that transport is also controlled by dynamic changes in NPC composition and architecture. This view of ever-changing NPCs necessitates the re-evaluation of current models of nuclear transport and how this process is regulated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Archaeal ribosomal protein L7Ae is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein that recognizes the K-turn motif in ribosomal, box H/ACA, and box C/D sRNAs. The crystal structure of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae has been determined to 1.45 A, and L7Ae's amino acid composition, evolutionary conservation, functional characteristics, and structural details have been analyzed. Comparison of the L7Ae structure to those of a number of related proteins with diverse functions has revealed significant structural homology which suggests that this protein fold is an ancient RNA-binding motif. Notably, the free M. jannaschii L7Ae structure is essentially identical to that with RNA bound, suggesting that RNA binding occurs through an induced-fit interaction. Circular dichroism experiments show that box C/D and C'/D' RNA motifs undergo conformational changes when magnesium or the L7Ae protein is added, corroborating the induced-fit model for L7Ae-box C/D RNA interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haloferax volcanii pre-tRNA(Trp) processing requires box C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-guided 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides C34 and U39 followed by intron excision. Positioning of the box C/D guide RNA within the intron of this pre-tRNA led to the assumption that nucleotide methylation is guided by the cis-positioned box C/D RNPs. We have now investigated the mechanism of 2'-O-methylation for the H. volcanii pre-tRNA(Trp) in vitro by assembling methylation-competent box C/D RNPs on both the pre-tRNA and the excised intron (both linear and circular forms) using Methanocaldococcus jannaschii box C/D RNP core proteins. With both kinetic studies and single nucleotide substitutions of target and guide nucleotides, we now demonstrate that pre-tRNA methylation is guided in trans by the intron-encoded box C/D RNPs positioned in either another pre-tRNA(Trp) or in the excised intron. Methylation by in vitro assembled RNPs prefers but does not absolutely require Watson-Crick pairing between the guide and target nucleotides. We also demonstrate for the first time that methylation of two nucleotides guided by a single box C/D RNA is sequential, that is, box C'/D' RNP-guided U39 methylation first requires box C/D RNP-guided methylation of C34. Methylation of the two nucleotides of exogenous pre-tRNA(Trp) added to an H. volcanii cell extract also occurs sequentially and is also accomplished in trans using RNPs that pre-exist in the extract. Thus, this trans mechanism is analogous to eukaryal pre-rRNA 2'-O-methylation guided by intron-encoded but trans-acting box C/D small nucleolar RNPs. This trans mechanism could explain the observed accumulation of the excised H. volcanii pre-tRNA(Trp) intron in vivo. A trans mechanism would also eliminate the obligatory refolding of the pre-tRNA that would be required to carry out two cis-methylation reactions before pre-tRNA splicing.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(46):47661-71. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Box C/D ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes direct the nucleotide-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribonucleotide sugars in target RNAs. In vitro assembly of an archaeal box C/D sRNP using recombinant core proteins L7, Nop56/58 and fibrillarin has yielded an RNA:protein enzyme that guides methylation from both the terminal box C/D core and internal C'/D' RNP complexes. Reconstitution of sRNP complexes containing only box C/D or C'/D' motifs has demonstrated that the terminal box C/D RNP is the minimal methylation-competent particle. However, efficient ribonucleotide 2'-O-methylation requires that both the box C/D and C'/D' RNPs function within the full-length sRNA molecule. In contrast to the eukaryotic snoRNP complex, where the core proteins are distributed asymmetrically on the box C/D and C'/D' motifs, all three archaeal core proteins bind both motifs symmetrically. This difference in core protein distribution is a result of altered RNA-binding capabilities of the archaeal and eukaryotic core protein homologs. Thus, evolution of the box C/D nucleotide modification complex has resulted in structurally distinct archaeal and eukaryotic RNP particles.
The EMBO Journal 09/2003; 22(15):3930-40. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have identified homologs of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in Archaea termed sRNAs. Archaeal homologs of the box C/D snoRNP core proteins fibrillarin and Nop56/58 have also been identified but a homolog for the eukaryotic 15.5kD snoRNP protein has not been described. Our sequence analysis of archaeal genomes reveals that the highly conserved ribosomal protein L7 exhibits extensive homology with the eukaryotic 15.5kD protein. Protein binding studies demonstrate that recombinant Methanoccocus jannaschii L7 protein binds the box C/D snoRNA core motif with the same specificity and affinity as the eukaryotic 15.5kD protein. Identical to the eukaryotic 15.5kD core protein, archaeal L7 requires a correctly folded box C/D core motif and intact boxes C and D. Mutational analysis demonstrates that critical features of the box C/D core motif essential for 15.5kD binding are also required for L7 interaction. These include stem I which juxtaposes boxes C and D, as well as the sheared G:A pairs and protruded pyrimidine nucleotide of the asymmetric bulge region. The demonstrated presence of L7Ae in the Haloarcula marismortui 50S ribosomal subunit, taken with our demonstration of the ability of L7 to bind to the box C/D snoRNA core motif, indicates that this protein serves a dual role in Archaea. L7 functioning as both an sRNP core protein and a ribosomal protein could potentially regulate and coordinate sRNP assembly with ribosome biogenesis.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2002; 30(4):931-41. · 8.28 Impact Factor