Phillip Chumley

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

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Publications (29)165.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred type of vascular access for hemodialysis but has high rates of dysfunction, in part because of excessive neointima formation. The transcription factor E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (ETS-1) is a mediator of proinflammatory responses in hypertension and endovascular injury. We examined the role of ETS-1 in the formation of neointima in AVF. Right carotid artery to internal jugular vein fistulas were created in C57BL/6 mice and assigned to treatment with an ETS-1-dominant negative peptide (ETS-DN), an inactive mutant peptide (ETS-MU), or vehicle (n=6 per group). After 7 and 21 days, AVFs or contralateral internal jugular veins were processed for PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and morphometry. In AVFs, ETS-1 mRNA increased 2.5-fold at 7 days and 4-fold at 21 days. By immunofluorescence, we confirmed increased expression of ETS-1 predominantly in the neointima and overlying endothelium. Similarly, ETS-1 expression increased in human AVFs compared with normal veins. In mice, ETS-DN, but not ETS-MU, reduced neointima formation at days 7 and 21 and reduced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, NOX4, E-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Shear stress increased ETS-1 phosphorylation in human umbilical vein cells in a NOX-dependent manner, demonstrating a role for reactive oxygen species in ETS-1 activation. These results unveil the role of ETS-1 as a mediator of neointima formation in AVF and may result in the development of novel strategies for the treatment of AVF dysfunction.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of imatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibition has been a mainstay in the treatment of many malignancies. The number of these medications is growing, as are the number of targeted tyrosine kinases. Off-target effects of these medications can have beneficial or adverse effects on the kidney. The onus of knowing the implications of these medications on kidney function, and appropriate treatment when such adverse effects occur, is on the nephrologist. We present a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia who developed nephrotic-range proteinuria after initiation on dasatinib therapy that resolved after changing therapy to imatinib. The mechanism of kidney injury caused by dasatinib has not been described previously in the literature. We provide a review of vascular endothelial growth factor and its pharmacologic inhibition as it pertains to kidney pathology and propose possible mechanisms by which dasatinib induces kidney injury.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of end-organ injury in hypertension via its diverse hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic effects. Erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogen homolog-1 (ETS-1) is an important transcription factor recently recognized as an important mediator of cell proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that ETS-1 is a common mediator of the renal proinflammatory and profibrotic effects of Ang II. C57BL6 mice (n=6 per group) were infused with vehicle (control), Ang II (1.4 mg/kg per day), Ang II and an ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide (10 mg/kg per day), or Ang II and an ETS-1 mutant peptide (10 mg/kg per day) via osmotic minipump for 2 or 4 weeks. The infusion of Ang II resulted in significant increases in blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, which were not modified by ETS-1 blockade. The administration of ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide significantly attenuated Ang II-induced renal injury as assessed by urinary protein excretion, mesangial matrix expansion, and cell proliferation. Furthermore, ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide but not ETS-1 mutant peptide significantly reduced Ang II-mediated upregulation of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, ETS-1 blockade reduced several proinflammatory effects of Ang II, including macrophage infiltration, nitrotyrosine expression, and NOX4 mRNA expression. Our studies suggest that ETS-1 is a common mediator of the proinflammatory and profibrotic effects of Ang II-induced hypertensive renal damage and may result in the development of novel strategies in the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension.
    Hypertension 09/2012; 60(5):1226-33. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have established the role of cigarette smoking as a risk factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We have shown that nicotine promotes mesangial cell proliferation and hypertrophy via nonneuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The α7-nAChR is one of the most important subunits of the nAChRs. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that nicotine worsens renal injury in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) and that the α7-nAChR subunit is required for these effects. We studied five different groups: Sham, 5/6Nx, 5/6Nx + nicotine (Nic; 100 μg/ml dry wt), 5/6Nx + Nic + α7-nAChR blocker methyllicaconitine (MLA; 3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sq), and Sham + Nic. Blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected for proteinuria. After 12 wk, the rats were euthanized and kidneys were collected. We observed expression of the α7-nAChR in the proximal and distal tubules. The administration of nicotine induced a small increase in blood pressure and resulted in cotinine levels similar to those found in the plasma of smokers. In 5/6Nx rats, the administration of nicotine significantly increased urinary protein excretion (onefold), worsened the glomerular injury score and increased fibronectin (∼ 50%), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4; ∼100%), and transforming growth factor-β expression (∼200%). The administration of nicotine to sham rats increased total proteinuria but not albuminuria, suggesting direct effects on tubular protein reabsorption. These effects were prevented by MLA, demonstrating a critical role for the α7-nAChR as a mediator of the effects of nicotine in the progression of CKD.
    AJP Renal Physiology 05/2012; 303(2):F304-12. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation, and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 h of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 h of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain-dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days after transplantation compared with untreated brain-dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 h of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed that the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription, and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function.
    Kidney International 04/2012; 82(3):304-13. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (ANG II) produced as result of activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease via its hemodynamic effects on the renal microcirculation as well as by its nonhemodynamic actions including the production of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that plays a major role in cell adhesion and migration as well as in the development of glomerulosclerosis. ETS-1 is an important transcription factor essential for normal kidney development and glomerular integrity. We previously showed that ANG II increases ETS-1 expression and is required for fibronectin production in mesangial cells. In these studies, we determined that ANG II induces phosphorylation of ETS-1 via activation of the type 1 ANG II receptor and that Erk1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation are required for these effects. In addition, we characterized the role of ETS-1 on the transcriptional activation of fibronectin production in mesangial cells. We determined that ETS-1 directly activates the fibronectin promoter and by utilizing gel shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified two different ETS-1 binding sites that promote the transcriptional activation of fibronectin in response to ANG II. In addition, we identified the essential role of CREB and its coactivator p300 on the transcriptional activation of fibronectin by ETS-1. These studies unveil novel mechanisms involved in RAS-induced production of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in mesangial cells and establish the role of the transcription factor ETS-1 as a direct mediator of these effects.
    AJP Renal Physiology 02/2012; 302(11):F1418-29. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in transplanted livers contributes to organ dysfunction and failure and is characterized in part by loss of NO bioavailability. Inhalation of NO is nontoxic and at high concentrations (80 ppm) inhibits IR injury in extrapulmonary tissues. In this prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the hypothesis that administration of inhaled NO (iNO; 80 ppm) to patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation inhibits hepatic IR injury, resulting in improved liver function. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or iNO (n = 10 per group) during the operative period only. When results were adjusted for cold ischemia time and sex, iNO significantly decreased hospital length of stay, and evaluation of serum transaminases (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase) and coagulation times (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time) indicated that iNO improved the rate at which liver function was restored after transplantation. iNO did not significantly affect changes in inflammatory markers in liver tissue 1 hour after reperfusion but significantly lowered hepatocyte apoptosis. Evaluation of circulating NO metabolites indicated that the most likely candidate transducer of extrapulmonary effects of iNO was nitrite. In summary, this study supports the clinical use of iNO as an extrapulmonary therapeutic to improve organ function following transplantation.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2007; 117(9):2583-91. · 12.81 Impact Factor
  • Nitric Oxide-biology and Chemistry - NITRIC OXIDE-BIOL CHEM. 01/2006; 14(4):8-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary endothelial dysfunction is a powerful prognostic marker in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) that is centrally related to oxidative inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vascular cell signaling. Xanthine oxidase (XO), which both binds to and is expressed by endothelial cells, generates superoxide and hydrogen peroxide upon oxidation of purines. Whether inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity results in improved coronary vasomotor function in patients with CAD, however, remains unknown. We assessed coronary and peripheral (brachial artery) endothelial function in 18 patients (pts; 65+/-8 years, 86% male) with angiographically documented CAD, preserved left ventricular function, and non-elevated uric acid levels (233+/-10 microM). Patients received incremental doses of intracoronary acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-7) to 10(-5) microM), and minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and coronary blood flow (CBF) were assessed before and after intravenous administration of oxypurinol (200 mg). Oxypurinol inhibited plasma XO activity 63% (0.051+/- 0.001 vs 0.019+/- 0.005 microU/mg protein; p<0.01). In pts who displayed endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by coronary vasoconstriction in response to ACh (n=13), oxypurinol markedly attenuated ACh-induced vasoconstriction (-23+/- 4 vs -15+/- 4% at ACh 10(-5) microM, p<0.05) and significantly increased CBF (16+/-17 vs 62+/-18% at ACh 10(-5) microM, p<0.05), whereas in patients with preserved coronary endothelial function, oxypurinol had no effect on ACh-dependent changes in MLD (+2.8+/- 4.2 vs 5.2+/- 0.7%, p>0.05) or CBF (135+/-75 vs 154+/-61%, p>0.05). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, assessed in eight consecutive patients, increased from 5.1+/-1.5 before to 7.6+/-1.5% after oxypurinol administration (p < 0.05). Oxypurinol inhibition of XO improves coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of patients with CAD. These observations reveal that XO-derived reactive oxygen species significantly contribute to impaired coronary NO bioavailability in CAD and that XO inhibition represents an additional treatment concept for inflammatory vascular diseases that deserves further investigation.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2005; 39(9):1184-90. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Appreciating that CO2 modifies the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide (NO)-derived inflammatory oxidants, we investigated whether hypercapnia would modulate pulmonary inflammatory responses. Rabbits (n = 72) were ventilated with approximately 7-ml/kg tidal volume for 6 hours. Animals were randomized to one of the following conditions: eucapnia (Pa(CO2) at approximately 35-40 mm Hg), eucapnia + lipopolysaccharide (LPS), eucapnia + LPS + inhaled NO (iNO delivered at approximately 20 ppm), hypercapnia (Pa(CO2) at approximately 60 mm Hg), hypercapnia + LPS, and hypercapnia + LPS + iNO. The hypercapnia + LPS groups compared with groups exposed to eucapnia + LPS displayed significantly increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations (p < 0.05), lung wet-to-dry ratios (p < 0.05), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts (p < 0.05), and lung histologic alterations consistent with greater injury. Furthermore, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (p < 0.05), tissue myeloperoxidase content (p < 0.05), and formation of lung protein 3-nitrotyrosine derivatives (p < 0.05) was greatest under conditions of hypercapnia + LPS. Groups exposed to hypercapnic conditions without LPS did not manifest these changes. The inhalation of iNO attenuated selected indices of lung injury. We conclude that hypercapnia induced by means of reduced rate and tidal volume amplifies pulmonary inflammatory responses.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2005; 171(2):147-57. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human serum albumin is used clinically to maintain colloid osmotic pressure and is viewed to serve an antioxidant role in the vascular compartment via binding of redox-active metal complexes, transport of nitric oxide, and the oxidant-scavenging reactions of the single thiol of human serum albumin, cys34. Because of these potentially desirable adjunctive actions, we evaluated the purity and thiol redox state and compared the relative effects of clinically available 25% human serum albumin preparations with a starch-derived colloid, 6% hydroxyethyl starch, in in vitro models of inflammatory vascular injury. Bovine aortic endothelial cell responses to chemical, enzymatic, and cell-derived reactive inflammatory mediators in the presence of human serum albumin or hydroxyethyl starch were assessed. The cys34 thiol of fresh human serum albumin preparations was 70-85% oxidized and contained a population of human serum albumin (approximately 25% of total) having the cys34 resistant to reduction by 2-mercaptoethanol and NaBH4. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells with human serum albumin dose-dependently protected from HOCl-mediated 14C-adenine release, with this protective effect of human serum albumin not dependent on protein thiol status. Addition of human serum albumin to cell media provided no protection from the cytotoxic actions of peroxynitrite and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive species. Binding of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bovine aortic endothelial cells was significantly amplified by hydroxyethyl starch and inhibited by human serum albumin administration. The binding of neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase to bovine aortic endothelial cells, a mediator of multiple oxidative and nitric oxide-consuming reactions, was also inhibited by human serum albumin and enhanced by hydroxyethyl starch. Clinical human serum albumin preparations show modest intrinsic non-thiol-dependent antiinflammatory properties in vitro, a phenomenon that was not observed with hydroxyethyl starch.
    Anesthesiology 02/2004; 100(1):51-8. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Human serum albumin is used clinically to maintain colloid osmotic pressure and is viewed to serve an antioxidant role in the vascular compartment via binding of redox-active metal complexes, transport of nitric oxide, and the oxidant-scavenging reactions of the single thiol of human serum albumin, cys34. Because of these potentially desirable adjunctive actions, we evaluated the purity and thiol redox state and compared the relative effects of clinically available 25% human serum albumin preparations with a starch-derived colloid, 6% hydroxyethyl starch, in in vitro models of inflammatory vascular injury.
    Anesthesiology 12/2003; 100(1):51-58. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (*NO) and *NO-derived reactive species rapidly react with lipids during both autocatalytic and enzymatic oxidation reactions to yield nitrated derivatives that serve as cell signaling molecules. Herein we report the synthesis, purification, characterization, and bioactivity of nitrolinoleate (LNO2). Nitroselenylation of linoleic acid yielded LNO2 that was purified by solvent extraction, silicic acid chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Structural characterization was performed by IR spectroscopy, 15N-NMR, LC-negative ion electrospray mass spectroscopy (MS), and chemiluminescent nitrogen analysis. Quantitative MS analysis of cell and vessel LNO2 metabolism, using L[15N]O2 as an internal standard, revealed that LNO2 is rapidly metabolized by rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) monolayers and rat thoracic aorta, resulting in nitrite production and up to 3-fold increases in cGMP (ED50 = 30 microM for RASM, 50 microM for aorta). LNO2 induced endothelium-independent relaxation of preconstricted rat aortic rings, which was unaffected by L(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester addition and inhibited by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and the *NO scavenger HbO2. These results reveal that synthetic LNO2, identical to lipid derivatives produced biologically by the reaction of *NO and *NO-derived species with oxidizing unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleate), can transduce vascular signaling actions of *NO.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2003; 99(25):15941-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrotyrosine formation is a hallmark of vascular inflammation, with polymorphonuclear neutrophil–derived (PMN-derived) and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) being shown to catalyze this posttranslational protein modification via oxidation of nitrite (NO2–) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2•). Herein, we show that MPO concentrates in the subendothelial matrix of vascular tissues by a transcytotic mechanism and serves as a catalyst of ECM protein tyrosine nitration. Purified MPO and MPO released by intraluminal degranulation of activated human PMNs avidly bound to aortic endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans in both cell monolayer and isolated vessel models. Cell-bound MPO rapidly transcytosed intact endothelium and colocalized abluminally with the ECM protein fibronectin. In the presence of the substrates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and NO2–, cell and vessel wall–associated MPO catalyzed nitration of ECM protein tyrosine residues, with fibronectin identified as a major target protein. Both heparin and the low–molecular weight heparin enoxaparin significantly inhibited MPO binding and protein nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) formation in both cultured endothelial cells and rat aortic tissues. MPO–/– mice treated with intraperitoneal zymosan had lower hepatic NO2Tyr/tyrosine ratios than did zymosan-treated wild-type mice. These data indicate that MPO significantly contributes to NO2Tyr formation in vivo. Moreover, transcytosis of MPO, occurring independently of leukocyte emigration, confers specificity to nitration of vascular matrix proteins.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2002; · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 12/15-Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is elevated in vascular diseases associated with impaired nitric oxide (( small middle dot)NO) bioactivity, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this study, primary porcine monocytes expressing 12/15-LOX, rat A10 smooth muscle cells transfected with murine 12/15-LOX, and purified porcine 12/15-LOX all consumed *NO in the presence of lipid substrate. Suppression of LOX diene conjugation by *NO was also found, although the lipid product profile was unchanged. *NO consumption by porcine monocytes was inhibited by the LOX inhibitor, eicosatetraynoic acid. Rates of arachidonate (AA)- or linoleate (LA)-dependent *NO depletion by porcine monocytes (2.68 +/- 0.03 nmol x min(-1) x 10(6) cells(-1) and 1.5 +/- 0.25 nmol x min(-1) x 10(6) cells(-1), respectively) were several-fold greater than rates of *NO generation by cytokine-activated macrophages (0.1-0.2 nmol x min(-1) x 10(6) cells(-1)) and LA-dependent *NO consumption by primary porcine monocytes inhibited *NO activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. These data indicate that catalytic *NO consumption by 12/15-LOX modulates monocyte *NO signaling and suggest that LOXs may contribute to vascular dysfunction not only by the bioactivity of their lipid products, but also by serving as catalytic sinks for *NO in the vasculature.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2001; 98(14):8006-11. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ventilator strategies allowing for increases in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tensions (hypercapnia) are being emphasized to ameliorate the consequences of inflammatory-mediated lung injury. Inflammatory responses lead to the generation of reactive species including superoxide (O(2)(-)), nitric oxide (.NO), and their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The reaction of CO(2) and ONOO(-) can yield the nitrosoperoxocarbonate adduct ONOOCO(2)(-), a more potent nitrating species than ONOO(-). Based on these premises, monolayers of fetal rat alveolar epithelial cells were utilized to investigate whether hypercapnia would modify pathways of.NO production and reactivity that impact pulmonary metabolism and function. Stimulated cells exposed to 15% CO(2) (hypercapnia) revealed a significant increase in.NO production and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Cell 3-nitrotyrosine content as measured by both HPLC and immunofluorescence staining also increased when exposed to these same conditions. Hypercapnia significantly enhanced cell injury as evidenced by impairment of monolayer barrier function and increased induction of apoptosis. These results were attenuated by the NOS inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine. Our studies reveal that hypercapnia modifies.NO-dependent pathways to amplify cell injury. These results affirm the underlying role of.NO in tissue inflammatory reactions and reveal the impact of hypercapnia on inflammatory reactions and its potential detrimental influences.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2000; 279(5):L994-1002. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese porphyrin complexes serve to catalytically scavenge superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite. Herein, reactions of manganese 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)) with lipids and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) are examined. In linoleic acid and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), MnTE-2-PyP(5+) promotes oxidative reactions when biological reductants are not present. By redox cycling between Mn(+3) and Mn(+4) forms, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) initiates lipid peroxidation via decomposition of 13(S)hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid [13(S)HPODE], with a second-order rate constant of 8.9 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1)and k(cat) = 0.32 s(-1). Studies of LDL oxidation demonstrate that: (i) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) can directly oxidize LDL, (ii) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) does not inhibit Cu-induced LDL oxidation, and (iii) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) plus a reductant partially inhibit lipid peroxidation. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (1-5 microM) also significantly inhibits FeCl(3) plus ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate. In summary, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) initiates membrane lipid and lipoprotein oxidation in the absence of biological reductants, while MnTE-2-PyP(5+) inhibits lipid oxidation reactions initiated by other oxidants when reductants are present. It is proposed that, as the Mn(+3) resting redox state of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) becomes oxidized to the Mn(+4) redox state, LOOH is decomposed to byproducts that propagate lipid oxidation reactions. When the manganese of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) is reduced to the +2 state by biological reductants, antioxidant reactions of the metalloporphyrin are favored.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2000; 28(7):1017-29. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NO2Tyr (3-Nitrotyrosine) is a modified amino acid that is formed by nitric oxide-derived species and has been implicated in the pathology of diverse human diseases. Nitration of active-site tyrosine residues is known to compromise protein structure and function. Although free NO2Tyr is produced in abundant concentrations under pathological conditions, its capacity to alter protein structure and function at the translational or posttranslational level is unknown. Here, we report that free NO2Tyr is transported into mammalian cells and selectively incorporated into the extreme carboxyl terminus of alpha-tubulin via a posttranslational mechanism catalyzed by the enzyme tubulin-tyrosine ligase. In contrast to the enzymatically regulated carboxyl-terminal tyrosination/detyrosination cycle of alpha-tubulin, incorporation of NO2Tyr shows apparent irreversibility. Nitrotyrosination of alpha-tubulin induces alterations in cell morphology, changes in microtubule organization, loss of epithelial-barrier function, and intracellular redistribution of the motor protein cytoplasmic dynein. These observations imply that posttranslational nitrotyrosination of alpha-tubulin invokes conformational changes, either directly or via allosteric interactions, in the surface-exposed carboxyl terminus of alpha-tubulin that compromises the function of this critical domain in regulating microtubule organization and binding of motor- and microtubule-associated proteins. Collectively, these observations illustrate a mechanism whereby free NO2Tyr can impact deleteriously on cell function under pathological conditions encompassing reactive nitrogen species production. The data also yield further insight into the role that the alpha-tubulin tyrosination/detyrosination cycle plays in microtubule function.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1999; 96(11):6365-70. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of up to 1.5 milliunits/ml xanthine oxidase (XO) (1.1 micrograms/ml) are found circulating in plasma during diverse inflammatory events. The saturable, high affinity binding of extracellular XO to vascular endothelium and the effects of cell binding on both XO catalytic activity and differentiated vascular cell function are reported herein. Xanthine oxidase purified from bovine cream bound specifically and with high affinity (Kd = 6 nM) at 4 degreesC to bovine aortic endothelial cells, increasing cell XO specific activity up to 10-fold. Xanthine oxidase-cell binding was not inhibited by serum or albumin and was partially inhibited by the addition of heparin. Pretreatment of endothelial cells with chondroitinase, but not heparinase or heparitinase, diminished endothelial binding by approximately 50%, suggesting association with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Analysis of rates of superoxide production by soluble and cell-bound XO revealed that endothelial binding did not alter the percentage of univalent reduction of oxygen to superoxide. Comparison of the extent of CuZn-SOD inhibition of native and succinoylated cytochrome c reduction by cell-bound XO indicated that XO-dependent superoxide production was occurring in a cell compartment inaccessible to CuZn-SOD. This was further supported by the observation of a shift of exogenously added XO from extracellular binding sites to intracellular compartments, as indicated by both protease-reversible cell binding and immunocytochemical localization studies. Endothelium-bound XO also inhibited nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production by smooth muscle cell co-cultures in an SOD-resistant manner. This data supports the concept that circulating XO can bind to vascular cells, impairing cell function via oxidative mechanisms, and explains how vascular XO activity diminishes vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and atherosclerotic humans. The ubiquity of cell-XO binding and endocytosis as a fundamental mechanism of oxidative tissue injury is also affirmed by the significant extent of XO binding to human vascular endothelial cells, rat lung type 2 alveolar epthelial cells, and fibroblasts.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):4985-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactions of linoleate (and presumably other unsaturated fatty acids) with reactive nitrogen species that form in biological systems from secondary reactions of .NO yield two main nitration product groups, LNO2 (formed by ONOO-, .NO2, or NO2+ reaction with linoleate), and LONO2 (formed by HONO reaction with 13(S)-HPODE, or .NO termination with LOO.). Comparison of HPLC retention times and m/z for lipid nitration products indicate that the mechanisms of nitrated product formation converge at several points: (i) The initial product of HONO attack on LOOH will be LOONO, which is identical to the initial termination product of LOO. reaction with .NO. (ii) Dissociation of LOONO to give LO. and .NO2 via caged radicals, which recombine to give LONO2 (m/z 340) will occur, regardless of how LOONO is formed (Fig. 7). (iii) In some experiments, the reaction of O2- (where oxidation is initiated by xanthine oxidase-derived O2- production and metal-dependent decomposition of H2O2) with .NO will result in generation of ONOO-. Nitration of unsaturated lipid by this species will yield a species demonstrated herein to be LNO2. Lipid oxidation leads to formation of bioactive products, including hydroxides, hydroperoxides, and isoprostanes. In vivo, nitrated lipids (LNO2, LONO2) may also possess bioactivity, for example through eicosanoid receptor binding activity, or by acting as antagonists/competitive inhibitors of eicosanoid receptor-ligand interactions. In addition, nitrated lipids could mediate signal transduction via direct .NO donation, transnitrosation, or following reductive metabolism. Similar bioactive products are formed following ONOO- reaction with glucose, glycerol, and other biomolecules.
    Methods in Enzymology 02/1999; 301:454-70. · 2.00 Impact Factor