[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes frequently develops in patients with pancreatic disorders. We aimed to determine the lower threshold of beta cell area for diabetes manifestation as well as the impact of insulin sensitivity on glucose homoeostasis in patients with pancreatic diabetes.
Eighty-two patients undergoing pancreatic surgery underwent pre-operative oral glucose challenge. Fractional pancreatic beta cell area was determined, and indices of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were calculated.
HbA1c and glucose levels were similar in patients with high and intermediate beta cell area, but were significantly higher in those with the lowest beta cell area (p < 0.0001). Insulin secretion was reduced only in patients with the lowest beta cell area (p < 0.001). The relative beta cell deficits at the onset of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 64% and 21%, respectively, based on 2 h glucose levels. Deteriorating insulin sensitivity was associated with a small increase in the incidence of diabetes.
In conclusion, pancreatic diabetes probably develops after a reduction in beta cell area of ~65%. Post-challenge glucose excursions are much more closely related to pancreatic beta cell area than to fasting glycaemia, thereby underlining the usefulness of the OGTT in patients with pancreatic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although liver damage is a relatively rare adverse effect of oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon, acute liver failure can be a serious treatment-associated complication. In this contribution, a patient with drug-induced liver failure during oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon is presented. This case illustrates the need for close laboratory monitoring and suggests that phenrocoumon-induced liver damage should be considered along with other common complications of this treatment.
Der Internist 11/2011; 53(1):88-92. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive (13)C-methionine breath test (MeBT) in patients with histologically proven NAFLD.
118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results: Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative (13)C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%)). cPDR (1.5h) was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p<0.001). (13)C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1).
The (13)C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial) function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
European journal of medical research 06/2011; 16(6):258-64. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitoxantrone is highly efficacious in the treatment of severe multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone therapy-related acute leukemia (TRAL) has recently become the focus of interest.
A case report of fatal TRAL following mitoxantrone therapy is presented with a discussion on the differential diagnosis and risk factors. The interdisciplinary development of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms is presented from a haematological and neurological point of view.
We describe the case of a 34-year-old MS patient who developed TRAL following mitoxantrone therapy (cumulative dose 45 mg/m(2) body surface). The patient died from endocarditis. TRAL is a rare but potentially fatal complication of mitoxantrone therapy with a wide variation of reported incidence. Thus far, no specific risk factors relating for example to preceding therapy and treatment regimens have been identified. Frequent laboratory controls and early bone marrow aspiration are mandatory for suspected TRAL as the condition is potentially curable.
TRAL needs to be considered in the risk-benefit assessment of mitoxantrone therapy, however, the exact incidence and risk factors (e.g. dosage, treatment regimen) are still unclear. The risks are controllable under close surveillance and early diagnosis is important for prognosis. Future investigations need to concentrate on identification of potential risk factors.
Der Nervenarzt 11/2010; 81(12):1483-9. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes frequently develops in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Partial pancreatectomy has emerged as a treatment option for such patients. We addressed whether the development of diabetes in CP patients is related to pancreatic beta cell area or clinical variables, and which factors predict the diabetes risk after partial pancreatectomy.
Fractional beta cell area was determined in pancreatic tissue samples obtained from 114 CP patients undergoing pancreatic surgery and related to measures of glucose control, as well as clinical and anthropometric data. Seventy-four patients without diabetes at the time of surgery were contacted again 2.5 +/- 1.0 years after partial pancreatectomy in order to obtain information about the post-operative development of diabetes.
In the surgical samples in the whole cohort, pancreatic beta cell area was 0.40 +/- 0.06% in patients with and 0.64 +/- 0.06% in those without previously known diabetes (p = 0.039). There was an inverse non-linear relationship between pancreatic beta cell area and fasting glucose concentrations (r = 0.29) as well as HbA(1c) levels (r = 0.36). Nineteen out of 74 previously normoglycaemic patients (26%) developed diabetes over an average period of 2.5 years of follow-up. Pre-operative fasting glucose levels, HbA(1c) and BMI were identified as predictors of diabetes after partial pancreatectomy. However, pancreatic beta cell area did not differ in those who subsequently developed diabetes (0.66 +/- 0.15%) and those who did not (0.62 +/- 0.08%, p = 0.45).
Hyperglycaemia in CP patients is associated with reduced beta cell area. However, reduced beta cell area does not predict the development of diabetes, suggesting that other factors are more important determinants of alterations in glucose metabolism in patients with CP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aufgrund seiner hohen Effektivität in der Behandlung der schubförmig progressiven sowie sekundär progredienten Multiplen Sklerose (MS) hat Mitoxantron einen hohen Stellenwert in der Eskalationstherapie. Die therapieassoziierte akute Leukämie (,,therapy related acute leukemia“, TRAL) nach Mitoxantron-Applikation ist rezent in den Blickpunkt des Interesses gerückt.Der Fallbericht einer TRAL mit hämatologisch-onkologischer Differenzialdiagnostik wird aufgearbeitet und mögliche Risikofaktoren diskutiert. Die interdisziplinäre hämatologisch-onkologische sowie neurologische Entwicklung diagnostischer und therapeutischer Algorithmen bei unklarer Zytopenie unter Mitoxantron wird erörtert.Wir beschreiben den Fall eines 34-jährigen MS-Patienten mit einer TRAL nach einer kumulativen Gesamtdosis von 45 mg/m2 Körperoberfläche Mitoxantron. Der Patient verstarb an einer Endokarditis. TRAL sind seltene aber schwerwiegende Komplikationen einer Mitoxantron-Therapie, allerdings mit einer breiten Streuung der berichteten Inzidenz. In der Literatur sind bislang keine sicheren Risikofaktoren und Abhängigkeiten von Vortherapien und von Therapieschemata identifiziert. Engmaschige Laborkontrollen sowie frühzeitige Knochenmarkpunktionen sind bei Verdacht auf eine TRAL essenziell, da die TRAL prinzipiell kurativ therapierbar ist.Das Risiko einer TRAL ist bei der Indikationsstellung für eine Eskalationstherapie mit Mitoxantron zu berücksichtigen, wobei die exakte Inzidenz sowie Risikofaktoren (Dosierung, Therapieschema) noch unklar sind. Unter engmaschigem Monitoring sind die Risiken allerdings beherrschbar. Künftige Untersuchungen müssen auf die Identifizierung von Risikofaktoren von TRAL unter Mitoxantron-Therapie abzielen.
Der Nervenarzt 01/2010; 81(12). · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) leads to the initiation of innate immune responses with increased antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression in the gastric epithelium. This study aimed to determine the expression of the novel peptides beta-defensin 4 (hBD-4) and RNase 7 in infectious and non-infectious gastritis. Furthermore, pattern recognition receptors and mechanisms of regulation were characterized.
Expression of AMPs was quantified by real-time PCR in biopsies obtained from healthy individuals and patients with infectious and non-infectious gastritis as well as in AGS gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori. Distribution of hBD-4 in the gastric mucosa was characterized by in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 and associated signalling pathways was addressed.
hBD-4 was expressed at low levels in gastric epithelial cells and was significantly upregulated in infectious and non-infectious gastritis. Standard eradication but not acid suppression therapy significantly decreased hBD-4 expression. Cytotoxin associated gene (cag)A positive H. pylori significantly increased the expression of hBD-4 whereas cagA negative organisms, non-viable bacteria or culture supernatants had no significant effect. Overexpression and downregulation of TLRs was not associated with an altered hBD-4 expression. However, blocking experiments revealed an essential role for the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. RNase7 was inconsistently expressed in biopsies and not significantly upregulated by H. pylori.
hBD-4 may play a significant role in H. pylori associated gastritis. Inconsistent expression of RNase 7 does not support a pivotal role for this peptide in response to infection with H. pylori.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2009; 39(2):126-38. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This guideline updates a prior concensus recommendation of the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (DGVS) from 1996. It was developed by an interdisciplinary cooperation with representatives of the German Society for Microbiology, the Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (GPGE) and the German Society for Rheumatology. The guideline is methodologically based on recommendations of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) for providing a systematic evidence-based consensus guideline of S 3 level and has also implemented grading criteria according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Clinical applicability of study results as well as specifics for Germany in terms of epidemiology, antibiotic resistance status, diagnostics and therapy were taken into account.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 02/2009; 47(1):68-102. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial pancreatectomy is frequently performed in patients with pancreatic tumours or chronic pancreatitis, but little is known about the metabolic impact of this intervention. We examined the effects of approximately 50% partial pancreatectomy on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion.
Fourteen patients with chronic pancreatitis, ten patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 13 patients with benign pancreatic tumours or extra-pancreatic masses (control group) underwent 240 min oral glucose tolerance tests before and after pancreatic tail-resection (n = 12), duodenopancreatectomy (n = 19) or duodenum-preserving pancreatic-head resection (n = 6).
Partial pancreatectomy led to a reduction in post-challenge insulin excursions by 49% in chronic pancreatitis patients, 52% in carcinoma patients and 55% in controls (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, post-challenge glucose concentrations were transiently ameliorated after surgery (p < 0.001). In the control participants, pancreatic-head resection caused a transient reduction of post-challenge glycaemia, whereas pancreatic-tail resection increased both fasting and post-challenge glycaemia (p < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity was highest in chronic pancreatitis patients before surgery (p < 0.01), but remained unchanged by the partial pancreatectomy. High pre-operative body weight and elevated fasting glucose levels were associated with poor glycaemic control after surgery.
Insulin secretion is diminished after pancreatic-head and -tail resection, but post-challenge glucose concentrations can be ameliorated after pancreatic-head resection. These data highlight the unequal impact of different surgical procedures on glucose control and suggest that obesity and high pre-operative glucose levels should be considered as risk factors for the development of hyperglycaemia after pancreatic surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are due to hepatic complications. Hepatitis coinfection, antiretroviral treatment and co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors contribute to hepatic mitochondrial damage manifesting in hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. The aim was to assess disease- and treatment-related predictors on hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV infection by means of a new (13)C-methionine breath test (MeBT).
148 HIV positive individuals with and without antiretroviral treatment (ART) [44 therapy-naives; 89 patients on combination ART and 15 patients on structured treatment interruption (STI)] and 20 HIV-negative controls were studied prospectively by MeBT.
A decay of (13)C-methionine metabolism, expressed as cumulated percentage dose recovered over 1.5h (cPDR(1.5h)), in the subgroups of treatment-naives and patients on STI compared to controls was detected (cPDR(1.5h): 3.4 +/- 1.3% and 4.0 +/- 2.4% vs. 6.3 +/- 1.2%; p<0.01). Multivariate analyses including metabolic, treatment- and disease-related variables showed that antiretroviral treatment with stavudine, didanosine or zalcitabine and treatment-naivety were best predictors of a reduced MeBT result (cPDR(1.5h)) (beta = -0.56 and -0.50, p<0.05). CD4 count had only a minor association (beta = 0.15, p<0.05). No other variable including disease and treatment duration was associated with MeBT outcome. These factors explained 39% of the variance of MeBT results (p<0.05).
Therapy naivety and treatment with d-drugs were the best predictors of poor MeBT outcome. MeBT may be proposed as a feasible, noninvasive diagnostic instrument for clinical assessment of hepatic mitochondrial function and early detection of drug-induced mitochondriotoxity in chronic HIV infection.
European journal of medical research 09/2008; 13(9):401-8. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperglycaemia is often assumed in individuals with high glucose excursions during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), but the relationship between glucose levels during the OGTT and after a mixed meal is yet unclear. We addressed whether (i) glucose concentrations after an oral glucose load are similar to those after a test meal or under daily life conditions and (ii) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) predicts postprandial hyperglycaemia.
A total of 60 subjects with normal (NGT), IGT or diabetic (DM) glucose tolerance were examined with an OGTT, a mixed meal challenge (3433 kJ) and a self-determined 10-point home glucose profile.
There was a significant correlation between the 120-min OGTT glucose levels and the glycaemic excursions after the test meal and during everyday conditions. However, glucose excursions during the OGTT exceeded those after the test meal and during everyday conditions by approximately 20 and approximately 30% respectively. Likewise, insulin and C-peptide levels rose to higher levels after oral glucose compared with mixed meal ingestion. The mean self-determined diurnal glucose levels were already 10% higher in subjects with IGT compared with NGT subjects (p < 0.0001).
Glucose levels reached after an oral glucose challenge and during real life are correlated to some extent, but the absolute levels of glycaemia greatly differ between both conditions. Therefore, 'postchallenge' glucose levels measured during an OGTT might be used as a predictor of 'postprandial hyperglycaemia', but caution should be taken when both terms are used synonymously. Furthermore, subjects with IGT during an OGTT already exhibit increased postprandial glucose levels under real-life conditions. This suggests that IGT should already be considered an overt disease condition rather than merely a high-risk situation.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 06/2008; 11(3):213-22. · 5.18 Impact Factor