[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution and reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance, after rigorous peer-review. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Abstract 16 Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be 17 exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we 18 used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by 19 intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water 20 avoidance stress, WAS) and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates 21 of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water) decreased locomotion and 22 enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated 23 exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced 24 behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did 25 not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory 26 cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an 27 increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY), a rise in the hypothalamic expression of 28 cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-29 derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS 30 significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the 31 hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was 32 associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic 33 NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral 34 alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the 35 severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience 36 effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 10/2014; 8(15). · 4.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nuclear-binding domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are sensors of bacterial cell wall components to trigger an immune response. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong immune activator leading to sickness and depressed mood. NOD agonists are less active but can prime immune cells to augment LPS-induced cytokine production. Since the impact of NOD and TLR co-activation in vivo has been little studied, the effects of the NOD1 agonist FK565 and the NOD2 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP), alone and in combination with LPS, on immune activation, brain function and sickness behavior were investigated in male C57BL/6N mice. Intraperitoneal injection of FK565 (0.001 or 0.003mg/kg) or MDP (1 or 3mg/kg) 4h before LPS (0.1 or 0.83mg/kg) significantly aggravated and prolonged the LPS-evoked sickness behavior as deduced from a decrease in locomotion, exploration, food intake and temperature. When given alone, FK565 and MDP had only minor effects. The exacerbation of sickness behavior induced by FK565 or MDP in combination with LPS was paralleled by enhanced plasma protein and cerebral mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) as well as enhanced plasma levels of kynurenine. Immunohistochemical visualization of c-Fos in the brain revealed that NOD2 synergism with TLR4 resulted in increased activation of cerebral nuclei relevant to sickness. These data show that NOD1 or NOD2 synergizes with TLR4 in exacerbating the immune, sickness and brain responses to peripheral immune stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that the known interactions of NLRs and TLRs at the immune cell level extend to interactions affecting brain function and behavior.
Brain Behavior and Immunity 08/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology contains review and research articles on recent advances in transient receptor potential (TRP) channel pharmacology. The review articles, written by a panel of distinguished experts, address the rapid progress in TRP channel research in fields as diverse as oncology, urology, dermatology, migraine, inflammation and pain. These reviews are complemented by original research reports focusing, among others, on the emerging roles of TRPV1 in osteoporosis and cystitis and on evodiamine as a lead structure for the development of potent TRPV1 agonists/desensitizers. Other papers highlight the differences in TRPV3 pharmacology between recombinant and native systems, the mechanisms of TRPM3 activation/inhibition and TRPP2 as a target of naringenin, a dietary flavonoid with anticancer actions. New therapeutic opportunities in pain may arise from the strategy to combine TRP channel and cell membrane impermeant sodium channel blockers to inhibit sensory nerve activity.
This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10.
British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; 171(10):2469-73. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a modulator of various physiological and pathological processes, and it mediates its effects via three G protein-coupled receptors (GAL1-3 receptors). A role for GAL as a modulator of mood and anxiety was suggested, because GAL and its receptors are highly expressed in limbic brain structures of rodents. In recent years, numerous studies of animal models have suggested an involvement of GAL and GAL1 and GAL2 receptors in anxiety- and depression-related behavior. However, to date, there is sparse literature implicating GAL3 receptors in behavioral functions. Therefore, we studied the behavior of GAL3 receptor-deficient (GAL3-KO) mice to elucidate whether GAL3 receptors are involved in mediating behavior-associated actions of GAL. The GAL3-KO mouse line exhibited normal breeding and physical development. In addition to behavioral tests, phenotypic characterization included analysis of hematology, amino acid profiles, metabolism, and sudomotor function. In contrast to WT littermates, male GAL3-KO mice exhibited an anxiety-like phenotype in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box tests, and they were less socially affiliated than WT animals to a stranger mouse in a social interaction test. In conclusion, our data suggest involvement of GAL3 receptors in GAL-mediated effects on mood, anxiety, and behavior, making it a possible target for alternative treatment strategies for mood disorders.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune challenge of mice with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been reported to cause transient weight loss and a behavioural sickness response. While BCG-induced depression involves the kynurenine pathway, weight loss occurs independently of this factor. Since neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are involved in the regulation of food intake, we hypothesized that they play a role in the BCG-induced weight loss.
Male wild-type (WT), PYY knockout (PYY-/-), NPY knockout (NPY-/-) and NPY-/-;PYY-/- double knockout mice were injected with vehicle or BCG (approximately 10(8) CFU per mouse), and their weight, locomotion, exploration and ingestion were recorded for 2 weeks post-treatment.
Deletion of PYY and NPY aggravated the BCG-induced loss of body weight, which was most pronounced in NPY-/-;PYY-/- mice (maximum loss: 15 %). The weight loss in NPY-/-;PYY-/- mice did not normalize during the 2 week observation period. BCG suppressed the circadian pattern of locomotion, exploration and food intake. However, these changes took a different time course than the prolonged weight loss caused by BCG in NPY-/-;PYY-/- mice. The effect of BCG to increase circulating interleukin-6 (measured 16 days post-treatment) remained unaltered by knockout of PYY, NPY or NPY plus PYY.
These data show that NPY and PYY are both required to protect from the action of BCG-evoked immune challenge to cause prolonged weight loss and disturb energy balance. The findings attest to an important role of NPY and PYY in orchestrating homeostatic reactions to infection and immune stimulation.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental enrichment (EE) has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological) stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS) or an internal (systemic) stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex - amygdala - hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external and internal stressors is modulated by the housing environment.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54811. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral leukocytes can exacerbate brain damage by release of cytotoxic mediators that disrupt blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. One of the oxidants released by activated leukocytes is hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formed via the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-Cl(-) system. In the present study we examined the role of leukocyte activation, leukocyte-derived MPO and MPO-generated oxidants on BBB function in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, neutrophils that had become adherent released MPO into the cerebrovasculature. In vivo, LPS-induced BBB dysfunction was significantly lower in MPO-deficient mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Both, fMLP-activated leukocytes and the MPO-H2O2-Cl(-) system inflicted barrier dysfunction of primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that was partially rescued with the MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. BMVEC treatment with the MPO-H2O2-Cl(-) system or activated neutrophils resulted in the formation of plasmalogen-derived chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) severely compromised BMVEC barrier function and induced morphological alterations in tight and adherens junctions. In situ perfusion of rat brain with 2-ClHDA increased BBB permeability in vivo. 2-ClHDA potently activated the MAPK cascade at physiological concentrations. An ERK1/2 and JNK antagonist (PD098059 and SP600125, respectively) protected against 2-ClHDA-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro. The current data provide evidence that interference with the MPO pathway could protect against BBB dysfunction under (neuro)inflammatory conditions.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64034. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Four information carriers (vagal and spinal afferent neurons, immune mediators such as cytokines, gut hormones and gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) transmit information from the gut to the brain, while autonomic neurons and neuroendocrine factors carry outputs from the brain to the gut. The members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of biologically active peptides, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are expressed by cell systems at distinct levels of the gut-brain axis. PYY and PP are exclusively expressed by endocrine cells of the digestive system, whereas NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The major systems expressing NPY comprise enteric neurons, primary afferent neurons, several neuronal pathways throughout the brain and sympathetic neurons. In the digestive tract, NPY and PYY inhibit gastrointestinal motility and electrolyte secretion and in this way modify the input to the brain. PYY is also influenced by the intestinal microbiota, and NPY exerts, via stimulation of Y1 receptors, a proinflammatory action. Furthermore, the NPY system protects against distinct behavioural disturbances caused by peripheral immune challenge, ameliorating the acute sickness response and preventing long-term depression. At the level of the afferent system, NPY inhibits nociceptive input from the periphery to the spinal cord and brainstem. In the brain, NPY and its receptors (Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5) play important roles in regulating food intake, energy homeostasis, anxiety, mood and stress resilience. In addition, PP and PYY signal to the brain to attenuate food intake, anxiety and depression-related behaviour. These findings underscore the important role of the NPY-Y receptor system at several levels of the gut-brain axis in which NPY, PYY and PP operate both as neural and endocrine messengers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic action of opioid analgesics is compromised by peripheral adverse effects among which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most disabling, with a prevalence reported to vary between 15 and 90 %. Although OIC is usually treated with laxatives, there is insufficient clinical evidence that laxatives are efficacious in this indication. In contrast, there is ample evidence from double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trials that peripheral opioid receptor antagonists (PORAs) counteract OIC. This specific treatment modality is currently based on subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the interruption of OIC in patients with advanced illness, and a fixed combination of oral prolonged-release naloxone with prolonged-release oxycodone for the prevention of OIC in the treatment of non-cancer and cancer pain. Both drugs counteract OIC while the analgesic effect of opioids remains unabated. The clinical studies show that more than 50 % of the patients with constipation under opioid therapy may benefit from the use of PORAs, while PORA-resistant patients are likely to suffer from non-opioid-induced constipation, the prevalence of which increases with age. While the addition of naloxone to oxycodone seems to act by preventing OIC, the intermittent dosing of methylnaltrexone every other day seems to stimulate defaecation by provoking an intestinal withdrawal response. The availability of PORAs provides a novel opportunity to specifically control OIC and other peripheral adverse effects of opioid analgesics (e.g., urinary retention and pruritus). The continuous dosing of a PORA has the advantage of few adverse effects, while intermittent dosing of a PORA can be associated with abdominal cramp-like pain.
Current pharmaceutical design 06/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethologically based animal models are widely used; however, results from different laboratories vary significantly which may partly be due to the lack of standardization. Here, we examined the effects of circadian rhythm, lighting condition and mouse strain (BALB/c and C57BL/6, known to differ in measures of avoidance and risk assessment behavior) on two well established behavioral tests in mice: the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Open Field (OF). Parameters from both paradigms are commonly used as indices of anxiety-like behavior. BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 mice were independently tested in the morning and at night, in regular laboratory lighting and in the dark. We developed a novel method based on infrared lighting from below, coupled to respective video-tracking equipment, which facilitates standard testing of behavior interference-free in complete darkness. The two mouse strains differed in anxiety-related variables for the EPM in the dark, and for the OF in regular laboratory lighting. Moreover, BALB/c displayed greater anxiety-like behavior than C57BL/6 in the OF but less anxiety-like behavior than C57BL/6 in the EPM. Lighting condition has a major influence on both behavioral tests and this to a considerably larger extent than circadian rhythm. In addition, the lighting condition interacts strongly with the genetic background, producing discriminative differences in the anxiety-related variables depending on mouse strain and lighting condition. These results challenge the comparability of not sufficiently standardized tests of anxiety-like behavior and emphasize the need for controlling environmental variables in behavioral phenotyping.
Behavioural brain research 03/2011; 218(1):99-105. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are involved in regulating gut and brain function. Because gastrointestinal inflammation is known to enhance anxiety, we explored whether experimental colitis interacts with genetic deletion (knockout) of PYY and NPY to alter emotional-affective behaviour.
Male and female wild-type, NPY (NPY(-/-) ), PYY (PYY(-/-) ) and NPY(-/-) ; PYY(-/-) double knockout mice were studied in the absence and presence of mild colitis induced by ingestion of dextran sulphate sodium (2%) in drinking water. Anxiety-like behaviour was tested on the elevated plus maze and open field, and depression-like behaviour assessed by the forced swim test.
In the absence of colitis, anxiety-like behaviour was increased by deletion of NPY but not PYY in a test- and sex-dependent manner, while depression-like behaviour was enhanced in NPY(-/-) and PYY(-/-) mice of either sex. The severity of DSS-induced colitis, assessed by colonic myeloperoxidase content, was attenuated in NPY(-/-) but not PYY(-/-) mice. Colitis modified anxiety- and depression-related behaviour in a sex-, genotype- and test-related manner, and knockout experiments indicated that NPY and PYY were involved in some of these behavioural effects of colitis.
These data demonstrate sex-dependent roles of NPY and PYY in regulation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in the absence and presence of colitis. Like NPY, the gut hormone PYY has the potential to attenuate depression-like behaviour but does not share the ability of NPY to reduce anxiety-like behaviour.
British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2011; 163(6):1302-14. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes short-term behavioral changes indicative of depression. The present study sought to explore whether LPS is able to induce long-term changes in depression-related behavior and whether such an effect depends on mouse strain and social context. LPS (0.83 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally to female CD1 and C57BL/6 mice that were housed singly or in groups of 4. Depression-like behavior was assessed with the forced swim test (FST) 1 and 28 days post-treatment. Group-housed CD1 mice exhibited depression-like behavior 1 day post-LPS, an effect that leveled off during the subsequent 28 days, while the behavior of singly housed CD1 mice was little affected. In contrast, singly housed C57BL/6 mice responded to LPS with an increase in depression-like behavior that was maintained for 4 weeks post-treatment and confirmed by the sucrose preference test. Group-housed C57BL/6 mice likewise displayed an increased depression-like behavior 4 weeks post-treatment. The behavioral changes induced by LPS in C57BL/6 mice were associated with a particularly pronounced rise of interleukin-6 in blood plasma within 1 day post-treatment and with changes in the dynamics of the corticosterone response to the FST. The current data demonstrate that immune challenge with LPS is able to induce prolonged depression-like behavior, an effect that depends on genetic background (strain). The discovery of an experimental model of long-term depression-like behavior after acute immune challenge is of relevance to the analysis of the epigenetic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of immune system-related affective disorders.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20719. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several of the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed throughout the alimentary canal where they play important roles in taste, chemo- and mechanosensation, thermoregulation, pain and hyperalgesia, mucosal function and homeostasis, control of motility by neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells, and vascular function. While the implications of some TRP channels, notably TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6, have been investigated in much detail, the understanding of other TRP channels in their relevance to digestive function lags behind. The polymodal chemo- and mechanosensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPV1 and TRPV4 is particularly relevant to the alimentary canal whose digestive and absorptive function depends on the surveillance and integration of many chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 appear to be essential for the absorption of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively, while TRPM7 appears to contribute to the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and TRPC4 transduces smooth muscle contraction evoked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The implication of some TRP channels in pathological processes has raised enormous interest in exploiting them as a therapeutic target. This is particularly true for TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, which may be targeted for the treatment of several conditions of chronic abdominal pain. Consequently, blockers of these TRP channels have been developed, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 11/2010; 12(1):24-34. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic action of opioid analgesics is compromised by peripheral adverse effects, among which constipation is the most disabling as laxatives often fail to provide satisfactory relief. This review highlights recent advances in the specific control of opioid-induced constipation by opioid receptor antagonists with limited systemic bioavailability or a peripherally restricted site of action.
The specific management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is currently based on three drug entities: oral alvimopan for the shortening of postoperative ileus associated with opioid-induced pain control after bowel resection, subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the reduction of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness, and a fixed combination of oral prolonged-release naloxone with prolonged-release oxycodone for the treatment of noncancer and cancer pain. All three drug entities have been shown to attenuate opioid-induced motor stasis in the gut with a favorable adverse effect profile, while the analgesic effect of opioids remains unabated.
The availability of opioid receptor antagonists with restricted access to the central nervous system provides a novel opportunity to specifically control opioid-induced constipation and other peripheral adverse effects of opioid analgesics. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of this approach.
Current opinion in anaesthesiology 10/2010; 23(5):616-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels are expressed by primary afferent neurones and activated by irritant chemicals including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Here we investigated whether intracolonic AITC causes afferent input to the spinal cord and whether this response is modified by mild colitis, morphine or a TRPA1 channel blocker.
One hour after intracolonic administration of AITC to female mice, afferent signalling was visualized by expression of c-Fos in laminae I-II(o) of the spinal dorsal horn at sacral segment S1. Mild colitis was induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) added to drinking water for 1 week.
Relative to vehicle, AITC (2%) increased expression of c-Fos in the spinal cord. Following induction of mild colitis by DSS (2%), spinal c-Fos responses to AITC, but not vehicle, were augmented by 41%. Colonic inflammation was present (increased myeloperoxidase content and disease activity score), whereas colonic histology, locomotion, feeding and drinking remained unchanged. Morphine (10 mg.kg(-1)) or the TRPA1 channel blocker HC-030031 (300 mg.kg(-1)) inhibited the spinal c-Fos response to AITC, in control and DSS-pretreated animals, whereas the response to intracolonic capsaicin (5%) was blocked by morphine but not HC-030031.
Activation of colonic TRPA1 channels is signalled to the spinal cord. Mild colitis enhanced this afferent input that, as it is sensitive to morphine, is most likely of a chemonociceptive nature. As several irritant chemicals can be present in chyme, TRPA1 channels may mediate several gastrointestinal pain conditions.
British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2010; 160(6):1430-42. · 5.07 Impact Factor