Ho-Kwang Mao

Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Pootung, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (501)2611.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We fabricated mono-dispersed hollow waxberry shaped β-quartz GeO2 by a facile one-step synthesis in emulsion at room temperature. TEM images indicated that hollow waxberry shaped GeO2 were consisted of nano-sphere whose average size were estimated to be 20 nm. The growth mechanism and optical properties of the products were also investigated. It was found that addition of n-butanol and PVP were crucial factors to control the morphology of GeO2. The possible formation mechanism of the hollow interior is proposed as the Ostwald ripening. The optical properties of the β-GeO2 nanoparticles with hollow shapes were also studied with photoluminescence spectrum, which reveals a broad emission, suggesting potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. These attractive results provide us a new simple method further used to fabricate other specific hollow structure and indicate hollow waxberry shaped GeO2 may have potential applications in light-emitting nanodevices.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 09/2015; 15(2):1732-7. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2015.9062 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phase separation is a crucial ingredient of the physics of manganites; however, the role of mixed phases in the development of the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomenon still needs to be clarified. We report the realization of CMR in a single-valent LaMnO3 manganite. We found that the insulator-to-metal transition at 32 GPa is well described using the percolation theory. Pressure induces phase separation, and the CMR takes place at the percolation threshold. A large memory effect is observed together with the CMR, suggesting the presence of magnetic clusters. The phase separation scenario is well reproduced, solving a model Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate in a clean way that phase separation is at the origin of CMR in LaMnO3.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2015; 112(35):10869-72. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1424866112 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.
    Applied Physics Letters 04/2015; 106(17):171902. DOI:10.1063/1.4919003 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varying the superconducting transition temperature over a large scale of a cuprate superconductor is a necessary step for identifying the unsettled mechanism of superconductivity. Chemical doping or element substitution has been proven to be effective but also brings about lattice disorder. Such disorder can completely destroy superconductivity even at a fixed doping level. Pressure has been thought to be the most clean method for tuning superconductivity. However, pressure-induced increase of disorder was recognized from recent experiments. By choosing a disordered Tl$_{2}$Ba$_{2}$CaCu$_{2}$O$_{8+\delta}$ at the optimal doping, we perform single-crystal x-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures. The obtained structural data provides evidence for the robust feature for the disorder of this material in the pressure range studied. This feature ensures the pressure effects on superconductivity distinguishable from the disorder. The derived parabolic-like behavior of the transition temperature with pressure up to near 30 GPa, having a maximum around 7 GPa, offers a platform for testing any realistic theoretical models in a nearly constant disorder environment. Such a behavior can be understood when considering the carrier concentration and the pairing interaction strength as two pressure intrinsic variables.
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    ABSTRACT: Layered non-centrosymmetric bismuth tellurohalides are being examined as candidates for topological insulators. Pressure is believed to be essential for inducing and tuning topological order in these systems. Through electrical transport and Raman scattering measurements, we find superconductivity in two high-pressure phases of BiTeCl with the different normal state features, carrier characteristics, and upper critical field behaviors. Superconductivity emerges when the resistivity maximum or charge density wave is suppressed by the applied pressure and then persists till the highest pressure of 51 GPa measured. The huge enhancement of the resistivity with three magnitude of orders indicates the possible achievement of the topological order in the dense insulating phase. These findings not only enrich the superconducting family from topological insulators but also pave the road on the search of topological superconductivity in bismuth tellurohalides.
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    ABSTRACT: Both superconductivity and thermoelectricity offer promising prospects for daily energy efficiency applications. The advancements of thermoelectric materials have led to the huge improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the past decade. By applying pressure on a highly efficient thermoelectric material Cu$_{3}$Sb$_{0.98}$Al$_{0.02}$Se$_4$, we achieve dome-shape superconductivity developing at around 8.5 GPa but having a maximum critical temperature of 3.2 K at pressure of 12.7 GPa. The novel superconductor is realized through the first-order structural transformation from its initial phase to an orthorhombic one. The superconducting phase is determined in the ultimate formation of the Cu-Al-Sb-Se alloy.
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    ABSTRACT: Superconductivity of high critical temperature ($T_{c}$) superconductors is usually realized through chemical dopant or application of pressure in a similar way to induce charge carriers of either electrons or holes into their parent compounds. For chemical doping, superconductivity behaves asymmetrically with the maximum $T_{c}$ often higher for optimal hole-doping than that of optimal electron-doping on the same parent compound. However, whether electron carriers could be in favour of higher $T_{c}$ than holes in such high-$T_{c}$ superconductors is unknown but attractive. Here we show that the application of pressure can drive KFe$_{2}$As$_{2}$ from hole- to electron-superconductivity after passing the previously reported $V$-shape or oscillation regime. The maximum $T_{c}$ in the electron-dominated region is tripled to the initial value of 3.5 K or the average in the low-pressure hole-dominated region. The structural transition takes place from the tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase when the carrier characteristic is changed upon compression. Our results unambiguously offer a new route to further improve superconductivity with huge $T_{c}$ enhancement for a compound through carrier switch. The strong electronic correlations in KFe$_{2}$As$_{2}$ are suggested to account for the unexpected enhancement of superconductivity in the collapsed tetragonal phase.
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    ABSTRACT: Phase transition of solid-state materials is a fundamental research topic in condensed matter physics, materials science and geophysics. It has been well accepted and widely proven that isostructural compounds containing different cations undergo same pressure-induced phase transitions but at progressively lower pressures as the cation radii increases. However, we discovered that this conventional law reverses in the structural transitions in 122-type iron-based superconductors. In this report, a combined low temperature and high pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has identified the phase transition curves among the tetragonal (T), orthorhombic (O) and the collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phases in the structural phase diagram of the iron-based superconductor AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Eu, and Ba). The cation radii dependence of the phase transition pressure (T → cT) shows an opposite trend in which the compounds with larger ambient radii cations have a higher transition pressure.
    Scientific Reports 11/2014; 4:7172. DOI:10.1038/srep07172 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 75 kW, 915 MHz microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition system was adapted and utilized to scale up production of high-quality single-crystal diamonds at high growth rates. A 300 mm diameter plasma discharge was achieved with uniform temperature distributions of ±250 °C on up to 300 single-crystal diamond substrates. Diamond single crystals were synthesized from H2/CH4/N2 gas mixtures at pressures between 90 and 180 Torr, with recorded growth rates from 10 to 30 μm/h. The source of N2 was from vacuum chamber leakage, and it greatly affected synthesis chemistry. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to probe the localized plasma chemistry and plasma uniformity at different gas pressures. Production rates of up to 100 g/day of single-crystal diamonds were demonstrated, with 25% of the material categorized as colorless. Crystals up to 3.5 mm in thickness could be produced during a single deposition run. The quality of the crystals produced was assessed by photoluminescence and UV–visible absorption spectroscopies.
    Crystal Growth & Design 06/2014; 14(7):3234–3238. DOI:10.1021/cg500693d · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an anomalous phase transition in compressed In2Se3. The high-pressure studies indicate that In2Se3 transforms to a new isosymmetric R-3m structure at 0.8 GPa whilst the volume collapses by 7%. This phase transition involves a pressure-induced interlayer shear glide with respect to one another. Consequently, the outer Se atoms of one sheet locate into the interstitial sites of three Se atoms in the neighboring sheets that are weakly connected by van der Waals interaction. Interestingly, this interlayer shear glide changes the stacking sequence significantly but leaves crystal symmetry unaffected. This study provides an insight to the mechanisms of the intriguing isosymmetric phase transition.
    Applied Physics Letters 05/2014; 104(21):212102. DOI:10.1063/1.4879832 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mineralogical constitution of the Earth’s mantle dictates the geophysical and geochemical properties of this region. Previous models of a perovskite-dominant lower mantle have been built on the assumption that the entire lower mantle down to the top of the D″ layer contains ferromagnesian silicate [(Mg,Fe)SiO3] with nominally 10 mole percent Fe. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, at pressures of 95 to 101 gigapascals and temperatures of 2200 to 2400 kelvin, we found that such perovskite is unstable; it loses its Fe and disproportionates to a nearly Fe-free MgSiO3 perovskite phase and an Fe-rich phase with a hexagonal structure. This observation has implications for enigmatic seismic features beyond ~2000 kilometers depth and suggests that the lower mantle may contain previously unidentified major phases.
    Science 05/2014; 344(6186):877-82. DOI:10.1126/science.1250274 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As a fundamental property of a material, density is controlled by the interatomic distances and the packing of microscopic constituents. The most prominent atomistic feature in a metallic glass (MG) that can be measured is its principal diffraction peak position (q_{1}) observable by x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction, which is closely associated with the average interatomic distance in the first shell. Density (and volume) would naturally be expected to vary under compression in proportion to the cube of the one-dimensional interatomic distance. However, by using high pressure as a clean tuning parameter and high-resolution in situ techniques developed specifically for probing the density of amorphous materials, we surprisingly found that the density of a MG varies with the 5/2 power of q_{1}, instead of the expected cubic relationship. Further studies of MGs of different compositions repeatedly produced the same fractional power law of 5/2 in all three MGs we investigated, suggesting a universal feature in MG.
    Physical Review Letters 05/2014; 112(18):185502. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.185502 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy of dense hydrogen and deuterium performed to 325 GPa at 300 K reveals previously unidentified transitions. Detailed analysis of the spectra from multiple experimental runs, together with comparison with previous infrared and Raman measurements, provides information on structural modifications of hydrogen as a function of density through the I-III-IV transition sequence, beginning near 200 GPa at 300 K. The data suggest that the transition sequence at these temperatures proceeds by formation of disordered stacking of molecular and distorted layers. Weaker spectral changes are observed at 250, 285, and 300 GPa, that are characterized by discontinuities in pressure shifts of Raman frequencies, and changes in intensities and linewidths. The results indicate changes in structure and bonding, molecular orientational order, and electronic structure of dense hydrogen at these conditions. The data suggest the existence of new phases, either variations of phase IV, or altogether new structures.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2014; 111(13). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1402737111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent theoretical studies indicate that applying high pressure (up to tens of gigapascals) to simple compounds with triple bonds can convert the triple bonds to conjugated double bonds, which results in these compounds becoming electrically conductive or even superconductive. This might indicate a new route for the synthesis of inorganic/organic conductors of various compositions and properties and could greatly expand the field of conductive polymers. Here, we present a study of the phase behavior and electrical properties of K3Fe(CN)6 up to 15 GPa using Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and impedance spectroscopy at room temperature. In this pressure range, two new crystalline phases were identified, and their unit cells and space groups were determined. The cyanide ions react to form conjugated C═N bonds in two steps, and the electronic conductivity is enhanced by 3 orders of magnitude, from 10–7 to 10–4 S·cm–1. Because this material is also an ionic conductor, these studies might “shed light” on the development of new cathode materials for alkali metal batteries. Enhancing the electrical conductivity by applying high pressure to compounds containing triple bonds could provide a potential route for synthesizing multifunctional conductive materials.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 10/2013; 117(46):24174. DOI:10.1021/jp407429z · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phase diagram of the carbon-hydrogen system is of great importance to planetary sciences, as hydrocarbons comprise a significant part of icy giant planets and are involved in reduced carbon-oxygen-hydrogen fluid in the deep Earth. Here we use resistively- and laser-heated diamond anvil cells to measure methane melting and chemical reactivity up to 80 GPa and 2,000 K. We show that methane melts congruently below 40 GPa. Hydrogen and elementary carbon appear at temperatures of >1,200 K, whereas heavier alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons (>24 GPa) form in melts of >1,500 K. The phase composition of carbon-hydrogen fluid evolves towards heavy hydrocarbons at pressures and temperatures representative of Earth's lower mantle. We argue that reduced mantle fluids precipitate diamond upon re-equilibration to lighter species in the upwelling mantle. Likewise, our findings suggest that geophysical models of Uranus and Neptune require reassessment because chemical reactivity of planetary ices is underestimated.
    Nature Communications 09/2013; 4:2446. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3446 · 11.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the C2c and Cmca-12 phases of hydrogen at pressures from 210 to 350 GPa. These phases were predicted to be stable at 0 K and pressures above 200 GPa. However, systematic studies of temperature impact on properties of these phases have not been performed so far. Filling this gap, we observed that on temperature increase diffusion sets in the Cmca-12 phase, being absent in C2c. We explored the mechanism of diffusion and computed melting curve of hydrogen at extreme pressures. The results suggest that the recent experiments claiming conductive hydrogen at the pressure around 260 GPa and ambient temperature might be explained by the diffusion. The diffusion might also be the reason for the difference in Raman spectra obtained in recent experiments.
    Scientific Reports 08/2013; 3:2340. DOI:10.1038/srep02340 · 5.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
2,611.54 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research
      Pootung, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Ehime University
      • Geodynamics Research Center
      Matuyama, Ehime, Japan
  • 1974–2014
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Geophysical Laboratory
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Carnegie Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Jilin University
      • State Key Lab of Superhard Materials
      Jilin, Jilin Sheng, China
    • University of Nevada, Las Vegas
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Zhejiang University
      • Department of Material Science and Engineering
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • James Cook University
      Townsville, Queensland, Australia
  • 1986–2011
    • The Washington Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Argonne National Laboratory
      • Division of Materials Science
      Lemont, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Solid State Physics
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2003–2005
    • University of Chicago
      • • James Franck Institute
      • • Department of Geophysical Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2001
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000
    • Loyola University Maryland
      • Department of Physics
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1993
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States