[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rana grylio virus (RGV) is a member of the genus Ranavirus. It belongs to the family Iridoviridae, and contains the gene 67R encoding dUTPase. In order to investigate the function of 67R in the replication and infection of RGV, we constructed Δ67R-RGV, a recombinant virus with deletion of 67R. First, we constructed the plasmid pGL3-67RL-p50-EGFP-67RR which carried an enhanced green fluorescence gene (EGFP) as a selectable marker. After homologous recombination between pGL3-67RL-p50-EG- FP-67RR and the RGV genome, Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells were infected with the resulting mixture. Through ten successive rounds of plaque isolation via EGFP selection, all plaques emitted green fluorescence, and finally Δ67R-RGV was generated. Total DNA of Δ67R-RGV infected cells was extracted for PCR analyses. Simulateously, mock infected and wild-type RGV (wt-RGV) infected cells were used as a comparison. Results showed that 67R could be detected in wt-RGV infected cells, but that only the EGFP gene was detected in Δ67R-RGV infected cells. Furthermore, one-step growth curves of wt-RGV and Δ67R-RGV were similar. Therefore, 67R and its encoding product dUTPase might not be essential for the growth of RGV. These results suggest that, homologous recombination and recombinant rana- virus could be used to study the gene function of viruses in aquatic animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A ranavirus-induced thymus cDNA library was constructed from Chinese giant salamander, the largest extant amphibian species. Among the 137 putative immune-related genes derived from this library, these molecules received particular focus: immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgM, IgD, and IgY), IFN-inducible protein 6 (IFI6), and T cell receptor beta chain (TCRβ). Several unusual features were uncovered: IgD displays a structure pattern distinct from those described for other amphibians by having only four constant domains plus a hinge region. A unique IgY form (IgY(ΔFc)), previously undescribed in amphibians, is present in serum. Alternative splicing is observed to generate IgH diversification. IFI6 is newly-identified in amphibians, which occurs in two forms divergent in subcelluar distribution and antiviral activity. TCRβ immunoscope profile follows the typical vertebrate pattern, implying a polyclonal T cell repertoire. Collectively, the pioneering survey of ranavirus-induced thymus cDNA library from Chinese giant salamander reveals immune components and characteristics in this primitive amphibian.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin (UCS) cell line was developed and subcultured for more than 60 passages. UCS cells consisted of mostly epithelial-like cells and multiplied well in TC199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Chromosome analysis revealed that most UCS cells had a normal diploid karyotype with 2n=52. UCS cells showed differential cytopathic effects (CPEs) after inoculation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV, a negative-strand RNA virus), grass carp reovirus (GCRV, a multi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus) and Rana grylio virus (RGV, a large double-stranded DNA virus), and were indicative of high sensitivities to these three aquatic animal viruses by a virus titration study. The CPE caused by SVCV appeared as rounded and granular cells, grape-like clusters and small lytic plaques. Characteristic CPE containing plaque-like syncytia was induced by GCRV. RGV-infected cells produced typical CPE characterized by cells shrinkage and aggregation, formation of clear plaques and cell sheet detachment. Furthermore, significant fluorescent signals were observed after UCS cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids, and the development of CPE induced by a recombinant RGV, ΔTK-RGV, in UCS cells was illustrated using a combination of light and fluorescence microscopy. The data from this study suggested that UCS cell line can potentially serve as a useful tool for the comparison study of different aquatic animal viruses and the isolation of some newly emerging viruses in Ussuri catfish farming.
Virus Research 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.04.013 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new grass carp reovirus strain, tentatively named GCReV-109, was isolated in Hubei, China, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The genome contained 11 double-stranded RNA segments (S1-S11) covering 24,620 base pairs. All of the segments had conserved terminal nucleotides, with GUAA(U)/CU at the 5' end and UCAUC at the 3' end. Protein sequence comparison showed that GCReV-109 was most closely related to GCRV-GD108 and shared 96.6-99.5 % protein sequence identity but only shared 16.7-46.1 and 15.1-45.4 % identity with GCRV-873 and HGDRV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that grass carp reovirus strains in China can be divided into three genotypes. Further analysis revealed homology between the GCRV-109 VP56 and HGDRV VP55 proteins, as well as GCReV-109 NS38, GCRV-873 NS38, and HGDRV VP39. The results of these comparisons also indicated that the homology between viruses was not necessarily linked to their geographical distribution. Our study will help in recognizing and understanding the genome structure and genetic diversity of grass carp reovirus.
Archives of Virology 04/2014; 159(9). DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-2007-5 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rana grylio virus (RGV) is a pathogenic iridovirus that has resulted in high mortality in cultured frog. Here, an envelope protein gene, 2L, was identified from Rana grylio virus (RGV). Its possible role in virus infection was investigated. Database searches found that RGV 2L had homologues in all sequenced iridoviruses and is a core gene of iridoviruses. Western blotting detection of purified RGV virions confirmed that 2L protein was associated with virion membrane. Fluorescence localization found that 2L protein co-localized with viral factories in RGV infected cells and presented as globular inclusions in transfected cells. In co-transfected cells, 2L protein co-localized with two other viral envelope proteins, 22R and 53R, respectively. However, 2L protein did not co-localize with the major capsid protein (MCP) of RGV in co-transfected cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence observation showed that 2L protein co-localized with endoplasmic reticulum, but did not co-localize with mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Moreover, a conditional lethal mutant virus containing the lac repressor/operator system was constructed to investigate the role of RGV 2L in virus infection. The ability of plaques formation and the virus titers were strongly reduced when the expression of 2L was repressed. Therefore, the current data showed that 2L protein is essential for virus infection. Our study is the first report of co-localization between envelope proteins in iridovirus and would provide new insights into the understanding of envelope proteins in iridovirus.
Journal of General Virology 12/2013; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.058776-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide the first description of a virus responsible for a systemic hemorrhagic disease causing high mortality in farmed rice field eels Monopterus albus in China. Typical signs exhibited by the diseased fish were extensive hemorrhages in the skin and viscera and some neurological signs, such as loss of equilibrium and disorganized swimming. Histopathological examination revealed various degrees of necrosis within the spleen and liver. Virus isolation was attempted from visceral tissues of diseased fish by inoculation on 6 fish cell lines. Typical cytopathic effects (CPE) were produced in bluegill fry (BF2) cells, so this cell line was chosen for further isolation and propagation of the virus. Electron microscopy observation showed that the negative stained viral particles had the characteristic bullet shape of rhabdoviruses and an estimated size of 60 × 120 nm. We therefore tentatively refer to this virus as Monopterus albus rhabdovirus (MoARV). Molecular characterization of MoARV, including sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G) genes, revealed 94.5 to 97.3% amino acid similarity to that of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of N and G proteins indicated that MoARV should be a member of the genus Vesiculovirus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by infecting healthy rice field eels with MoARV, which produced an acute infection. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MoARV RNA could be detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. The data suggest that MoARV was the causative pathogen of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus (PORV), which is associated with high mortality rates in flounder, was isolated in China in 2005. Here, we provide an annotated sequence record of PORV, the genome of which comprises 11,182 nucleotides and contains six genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. Phylogenetic analysis based on glycoprotein sequences of PORV and other rhabdoviruses showed that PORV clusters with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), genus Novirhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae. Further phylogenetic analysis of the combined amino acid sequences of six proteins of PORV and VHSV strains showed that PORV clusters with Korean strains and is closely related to Asian strains, all of which were isolated from flounder. In a comparison in which the sequences of the six proteins were combined, PORV shared the highest identity (98.3 %) with VHSV strain KJ2008 from Korea.
Archives of Virology 10/2013; 159(4). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1716-5 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of MHC alleles (including 26 class IA, 27 class IIA, and 17 class IIB) were identified from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC). These genes are similar to classical MHC molecules in terms of characteristic domains, functional residues, deduced tertiary structures and genetic diversity. The majority of variation between alleles is found in the putative peptide-binding region (PBR), which is driven by positive Darwinian selection. The coexistence of two isoforms in MHC IA, IIA, and IIB alleles are shown: one full-length transcript and one novel splice variant. Despite lake of the external domains, these variants exhibit similar subcellular localization with the full-length transcripts. Moreover, the expression of MHC isoforms are up-regulated upon in vivo and in vitro stimulation with Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), suggesting their potential roles in the immune response. The results provide insights into understanding MHC variation and function in this ancient and endangered urodele amphibian.
Developmental and comparative immunology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2013.10.001 · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rana grylio virus (RGV) is a pathogenic iridovirus that has resulted in high mortality in cultured frog. Here, a recombinant RGV (i53R-RGV-lacIO) containing the inducible lac repressor/operator system was constructed. i53R-RGV-lacIO was a conditional lethal mutant in which the expression of envelope protein 53R was regulated by IPTG. i53R-RGV-lacIO shared characteristics similar to RGV in the presence of IPTG. However, the expression level of 53R, the ability of plaques formation, and the virus titers were strongly reduced in the absence of IPTG. Electron microscopy showed that the number of progeny virus produced by i53R-RGV-lacIO was remarkably reduced without IPTG. Furthermore, over-expression of 53R in vitro could increase titers of i53R-RGV-lacIO in the absence of IPTG. Therefore, the current data suggested that the lac repressor/operator system could regulate gene expression in the recombinant iridovirus. Our study was thought to be the first report of the system in aquatic virus.
Virus Research 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2013.07.016 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family is novel viral restriction factors with representative transmembrane structure. These proteins also exist in fish, however, their roles in the innate immune response remain unknown. Here, we report a characterization of teleost IFITM1 from flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (PoIFITM1), which exhibits conserved structure characteristic of the IFITM family but comprises a relatively longer N-terminal region. The expression and promoter activity of PoIFITM1 are markedly induced by aquatic animal viruses: Rana grylio virus (RGV) and Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown demonstrate that PoIFITM1 exhibits strong antiviral effects against both DNA virus (RGV) and RNA virus (SMRV), expanding the spectrum of viruses inhibited by IFITM proteins. Further analysis shows that PoIFITM1 suppresses viral entry into host cells, confirming that the IFITM-mediated restriction is conserved from lower vertebrates to mammals. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that PoIFITM1 exerts antiviral activity by targeting to Golgi complex and the N-terminal region is required for its subcellular localization, which is not observed in other known IFITM family members. Our current data provide the first evidence that IFITM1 functions as a key effector of the innate immune to restrict virus replication in lower vertebrates, through the action of impeding viral entry.
Fish & Shellfish Immunology 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2013.07.002 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Replication and assembly of vertebrate reoviruses occur in specific intracellular compartments known as viral factories. Recently, NS88 and NS80, the nonstructural proteins from aquareoviruses, have been proposed to share common traits with µNS from orthoreoviruses, which are involved in the formation of viral factories. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the NS80 characteristics and its interactions with other viral components were investigated. We observed that the NS80 structure ensured its self-aggregation and selective recruitment of viral proteins to viral factories like structures (VFLS). The minimum amino acids (aa) of NS80 required for VFLS formation included 193 aa at the C-terminal. However, this truncated protein only contained one aa coil and located in the nucleus. Its N-terminal residual regions, aa 1-55 and aa 55-85, were required for recruiting viral nonstructural protein NS38 and structural protein VP3, respectively. A conserved N-terminal region of NS38, which was responsible for the interaction with NS80, was also identified. Moreover, the minimal region of C-terminal residues, aa 506-742 (Δ505), required for NS80 self-aggregation in the cytoplasm, and aa 550-742 (Δ549), which are sufficient for recruiting viral structure proteins VP1, VP2, and VP4 were also identified. CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: The present study shows detailed interactions between NS80 and NS38 or other viral proteins. Sequence and structure characteristics of NS80 ensures its self-aggregation to form VFLS (either in the cytoplasm or nucleus) and recruitment of viral structural or nonstructural proteins.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63737. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063737 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome of Rana grylio virus (RGV) was sequenced and analyzed recently, which revealed that RGV 50 L had homologues in many iridoviruses with different identities; however, the characteristics and functions of 50 L have not been studied yet.
We cloned and characterized RGV50L, and revealed 50 L functions in virus assembly and gene regulation. 50 L encoded a 499-amino acid structural protein of about 85 kDa in molecular weight and contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a helix- extension-helix motif. Drug inhibition assay demonstrated that 50 L was an immediate-early (IE) gene. Immuno-fluorescence assay revealed that 50 L appeared early and persisted in RGV-infected cells following two distribution patterns. One pattern was that 50 L exhibited a cytoplasm-nucleus- viromatrix distribution pattern, and mutagenesis of the NLS motif revealed that localization of 50 L in the nucleus was NLS-dependent; the other was that 50 L co-localized with viral matrix which plays important roles in virus assembly and the life circle of viruses.
RGV 50L is a novel iridovirus IE gene encoded structural protein which plays important roles in virus assembly.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43033. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043033 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Rana grylio virus (RGV), an iridovirus isolated in China in 1995, resulted in a high mortality rate in frogs. The complete genome sequence of RGV was determined and analyzed. The genomic DNA was 105,791 bp long, with 106 open reading frames (ORFs). Dot plot analysis showed that the gene order of RGV shared colinearity with three completely sequenced ranaviruses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on concatenated sequences of iridovirus 26 core-gene-encoded proteins, and the result showed high bootstrap support for RGV being a member of the genus Ranavirus and that iridoviruses of other genera also clustered closely. A microRNA (miRNA) prediction revealed that RGV could encode 18 mature miRNAs, many of which were located near genes associated with virus replication. Thirty-three repeated sequences were found in the RGV genome. These results provide insight into the genetic nature of RGV and are useful for laboratory diagnosis for vertebrate iridoviruses.
Archives of Virology 04/2012; 157(8):1559-64. DOI:10.1007/s00705-012-1316-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) had been demonstrated to prime interferon (IFN) response against viral infection via the conserved RLR signaling in fish, and a novel fish-specific gene, the grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-induced gene 2 (Gig2), had been suggested to play important role in host antiviral response.
In this study, we cloned and characterized zebrafish Gig2 homolog (named Danio rerio Gig2-I, DreI), and revealed its antiviral role and expressional regulation signaling pathway. RT-PCR, Western blot and promoter activity assay indicate that DreI can be induced by poly I:C, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and recombinant IFN (rIFN), showing that DreI is a typical ISG. Using the pivotal signaling molecules of RLR pathway, including RIG-I, MDA5 and IRF3 from crucian carp, it is found that DreI expression is regulated by RLR cascade and IRF3 plays an important role in this regulation. Furthermore, promoter mutation assay confirms that the IFN-stimulated regulatory elements (ISRE) in the 5' flanking region of DreI is essential for its induction. Finally, overexpression of DreI leads to establish a strong antiviral state against SVCV and Rana grylio virus (RGV) infection in EPC (Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid) cells.
These data indicate that DreI is an antiviral protein, which is regulated by RLR signaling pathway.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32427. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032427 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara skin (RGS) cell line was established and characterized. RGS cells had a normal diploid chromosome number of 2n = 48, the morphology of which was fibroblastic-like in 3 days and epithelial-like over 5 after 16 passages. The cells multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Susceptibilities of RGS and grass carp ovary (GCO) cells to two viruses were tested, and the results showed that the titer of an iridovirus Rana grylio virus (RGV) in RGS cells was 10³·⁵ TCID₅₀ ml⁻¹, which was much higher than a rhabdovirus spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the cells (10⁰·⁵ TCID₅₀ ml⁻¹). The titers of RGV and SVCV in GCO were 10⁶·⁰ TCID₅₀ ml⁻¹ and 10⁸·⁰ TCID₅₀ ml⁻¹, respectively, which were higher than those in RGS cells. The data may imply that RGS cells could be selectively resistible to some viruses during infection. RT-PCR analysis of RGV-infected RGS cells showed that RGV could replicate in RGS cells. Further study of virus replications in RGS cells was conducted by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that virus particles scattered in the cytoplasm and virus protein appeared in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The results suggested that RGS cells could be used as a potential in vitro model to study the cutaneous barrier function against virus infection.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2012; 38(4):1175-82. DOI:10.1007/s10695-012-9603-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cyanophage, PaV-LD, has been isolated from harmful filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii in Lake Donghu, a shallow freshwater lake in China. Here, we present the cyanophage's genomic organization and major structural proteins. The genome is a 95,299-bp-long, linear double-stranded DNA and contains 142 potential genes. BLAST searches revealed 29 proteins of known function in cyanophages, cyanobacteria, or bacteria. Thirteen major structural proteins ranging in size from 27 kDa to 172 kDa were identified by SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometric analysis. The genome lacks major genes that are necessary to the tail structure, and the tailless PaV-LD has been confirmed by an electron microscopy comparison with other tail cyanophages and phages. Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid proteins also reveals an independent branch of PaV-LD that is quite different from other known tail cyanophages and phages. Moreover, the unique genome carries a nonbleaching protein A (NblA) gene (open reading frame [ORF] 022L), which is present in all phycobilisome-containing organisms and mediates phycobilisome degradation. Western blot detection confirmed that 022L was expressed after PaV-LD infection in the host filamentous cyanobacterium. In addition, its appearance was companied by a significant decline of phycocyanobilin content and a color change of the cyanobacterial cells from blue-green to yellow-green. The biological function of PaV-LD nblA was further confirmed by expression in a model cyanobacterium via an integration platform, by spectroscopic analysis and electron microscopy observation. The data indicate that PaV-LD is an exceptional cyanophage of filamentous cyanobacteria, and this novel cyanophage will also provide us with a new vision of the cyanophage-host interactions.
Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):236-45. DOI:10.1128/JVI.06282-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A moribund juvenile Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) with skin lesions and ulceration was found in Dongting Lake, China. Pathologic examination, electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction of liver tissue revealed widely distributed necrotic lesions, sinusoidal dilatation, congestion and herpes-like virus particles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmid DNAs containing Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) glycoprotein gene (pcDNA-G) and nucleoprotein gene (pcDNA-N) were constructed, and used to determine the antiviral immune response elicited by DNA vaccination in mandarin fish. In vitro and in vivo expression of the plasmid constructs was confirmed in transfected cells and muscle tissues of vaccinated fish by Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. Fish injected with pcDNA-G exhibited protective effect against SCRV challenge with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 77.5%, but no significant protection (RPS of 2.5%) was observed in fish vaccinated with pcDNA-N. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that vaccination with pcDNA-G decreased histological lesions and suppressed the virus replication in fish target organs, e.g. kidney, liver, spleen, gill and heart. Transcriptional analysis further revealed that the expression levels of type I IFN system genes including interferon regulation factor-7 (IRF-7) gene, myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene and virus inhibitory protein (Viperin) gene were strongly up-regulated after injection with pcDNA-G, whereas the level of transcription of immunoglobulin M (IgM) gene did not show a statistically significant change. These results reveal that type I IFN antiviral immune response is rapidly triggered by the plasmid DNA containing rhabdovirus glycoprotein gene in fish, which offers an explanation of molecular mechanisms for DNA vaccination inducing mandarin fish resist to SCRV disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, Rana grylio virus (RGV, an iridovirus) thymidine kinase (TK) gene and viral envelope protein 53R gene were chosen as targets for foreign gene insertion. ΔTK-RGV and Δ53R-RGV, two recombinant RGV, expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) were constructed and analyzed in Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. The EGFP gene which fused to the virus major capsid protein (MCP) promoter p50 was inserted into TK and 53R gene loci of RGV, respectively. Cells infected with these two recombinant viruses not only displayed plaques, but also emitted strong green fluorescence under fluorescence microscope, providing a simple method for selection and purification of recombinant viruses. ΔTK-RGV was purified by seven successive rounds of plaque isolation and could be stably propagated in EPC cells. All of the plaques produced by the purified recombinant virus emitted green fluorescence. However, Δ53R-RGV was hard to be purified even through twenty rounds of plaque isolation. The purified recombinant virus ΔTK-RGV was verified by PCR analysis and Western blotting. These results showed EGFP was expressed in ΔTK-RGV infected cells. Furthermore, one-step growth curves and electron microscopy revealed that infection with recombinant ΔTK-RGV and wild-type RGV are similar. Therefore, RGV was demonstrated could be as a viral vector for foreign gene expression in fish cells.
Virus Research 08/2011; 163(1):66-73. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.08.012 · 2.83 Impact Factor