Ivar Risnes

Feiringklinikken, Hurdal, Akershus county, Norway

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Publications (18)34.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinitis is treated with either vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) or traditional closed drainage (TCD) with irrigation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the two treatments on mortality and re-infection rate in a source population, using 21 314 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from January 1997 to October 2010. Median observation time was 2·9 years in the VAC group and 8·0 years in the TCD group. The epidemiological design was of an exposed (VAC, n = 64) versus non-exposed (TCD, n = 66) cohort with two endpoints: (1) mortality and (2) failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection. The crude effect of treatment technique versus endpoint was estimated by univariate analysis. Stratification analysis by the Mantel–Haenszel method was performed to quantify confounders and to pinpoint effect modifiers. Adjustment for confounders was performed using Cox regression analysis. Mediastinitis was diagnosed 6–105 (median 14) days after primary operation in the VAC group and 13 (5–29) days in the TCD group. There was no difference between groups in long-term survival. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection occurred less frequently in the VAC group (6%) than in the TCD group (21%; relative risk = 0·29, 95% CI = 0·06–0·88, P = 0·01). There are concerns for increase in right ventricle rupture in VAC compared with TCD. There was no difference in survival after VAC therapy and TCD therapy of post-CABG mediastinitis. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection was more common after TCD therapy.
    International Wound Journal 04/2014; 11(2). · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used to save patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure at high risk of dying, but the long-term psychiatric outcome of the treatment has not been studied. METHODS: Twenty-eight adults who survived ECMO were subjected to psychiatric assessment 5 years after ECMO by means of interviews (MINI-Neuropsychiatric Interview and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) and psychometrics [Neuroticism and social conformity (EPQ-N+L); General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; Aggression Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Giessener somatic symptom checklist (GBB)]. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (54%) suffered lifetime psychiatric disorders prior to ECMO. After ECMO, 11 subjects (39%) developed new psychiatric disorders, mostly organic mental (18%), obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) 15%, and/or post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) 11%. These 11 patients reported higher scores on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), GHQ, EPQ-N, and GBB. Disregarding the presence of psychiatric disorders at follow-up, ECMO patients reported high levels of distress, physical aggression, anger, and alexithymic traits. CONCLUSIONS: Severe life-threatening cardiovascular or pulmonary failure with subsequent ECMO is associated with an increased prevalence of long-term psychiatric disorders and distress. Studies addressing the etiology and prevalence of psychiatric consequences after ECMO are needed.
    Psychosomatics 06/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) gives a longstanding chronic inflammation and has a detrimental negative effect on long-term survival. For this reason, we aimed to study the effect of mediastinitis on graft patency after CABG. The epidemiologic design was of an exposed (mediastinitis, n = 41) versus non-exposed (non- mediastinitis, controls, n = 41) cohort with two endpoints: (i) obstruction of saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and (ii) obstruction of the internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts. The graft patency was evaluated with coronary CT-angiography examination at a median follow-up of 2·7 years. The number of occluded SVG in the mediastinitis group was 18·9% versus 15·5% in the control group. Using Generalized Estimating Equations model with exchangeable matrix and confounding effect of ischaemic time, and patients age, we found no significant association between presence of mediastinitis and SVG obstruction (RR) = 0·96, 95% CI (0·52-2·67), P = 0·697. The number of occluded IMA grafts was 10·5% in the mediastinitis group and 2·4% in the control group. Using the Poisson regression model, we estimated RR = 5·48, 95% CI (1·43-21·0), P = 0·013. There was a significant association between mediastinitis and IMA graft obstruction, when controlling for the confounding effect of ischaemic time, body mass index, presence of diabetes mellitus and the number of diseased vessels. Presence of mediastinitis increases the risk of IMA graft obstruction. This may confirm the importance of inflammation as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and explain the negative effect of mediastinitis on a long-term survival.
    International Wound Journal 12/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinitis is a severe complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. The aim of the present study was to determine incidence of mediastinitis, its risk factors, and its effect on early and long-term survival. The study has a dual design, a case-control, and a retrospective cohort, using a source population of 18,532 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from January 1989 to December 2000. The closing date was February 1, 2008. Median follow-up was 10.3 (range 8.1 to 18.9) years. Patients with mediastinitis were compared with a random control group without mediastinitis issued from the same source population in a ratio 1:4. The crude effect of mediastinitis was estimated using rate ratio and 95% confidence limits. Adjustment for multiconfounders was done with the Cox model. A logistic model was used to pinpoint risk factors of mediastinitis. Calibration and discrimination of a prognostic model was done. One hundred seven patients (0.6%) developed mediastinitis. Diagnosis was made 12 (9 to 19) days postoperatively. Independent risk factors of mediastinitis using the logistic model were advanced age, male gender, left main stenosis, body mass index 30 kg/m(2) or greater, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and increased amount of blood transfusion. There was no increased risk of early mortality (odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 2.61) (p = 0.48) but there was increased risk of morbidity (intraaortic balloon pump, ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmia, stroke, inotrope, and myocardial infarction). Follow-up had a median observation time of 10.3 years. Survival for patients with mediastinitis was 49.5 +/- 5.0% versus 71.0 +/- 2.2% for controls (p < 0.01). Analysis of specific death causes documented that cardiac deaths were significantly more frequent in mediastinitis patients than in control patients. When controlling for the confounding effect of the other variables (age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, body mass index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), the hazard ratio associated with mediastinitis on long-term mortality was 1.59, 95% confidence limits (1.16 and 2.70) (p = 0.003). The incidence of mediastinitis in 18,532 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery was low. The major preventable risk factor of mediastinitis was amount of blood transfusion. Mediastinitis had an excess risk of early morbidity and was associated with a significant reduced long-term survival. Most deaths were considered to be cardiac.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2010; 89(5):1502-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Ivar Risnes
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2009; 88(5):1450. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytokine network and its association with complement activation during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is complex. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) differs from CPB in duration of days to weeks rather than hours. However, few studies have analyzed the levels of inflammatory mediators during ECMO treatment. Plasma samples from 22 patients [nine neonates, one infant, four children and eight adults (14 males and eight female)] who underwent ECMO treatment were collected prior to, during and after treatment, and analyzed for concentrations of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and parameters of complement activation. Seven children were treated for cardiac and seven for pulmonary failure and, in the adult group, four were treated for cardiac and four for pulmonary failure. ECMO was performed with veno-arterial (VA) bypass in all children and five adults, and with veno-venous (VV) bypass in three adults. Fourteen patients survived (64%) and eight (36%) patients died during follow-up. A marked (approximately 99%) and rapid (i.e., within two days) decrease in IL-6 was seen in survivors. The non-survivors were characterized by persistently high IL-6 levels throughout the observation period (i.e., until death). C-reactive protein (CRP) levels showed a similar pattern as the IL-6, with higher levels in non-survivors throughout the observation period. However, in contrast to IL-6, the differences between survivors and non-survivors reached statistical significance, but only at the end of the observation period. It is possible that early measurements of IL-6 in ECMO patients could give prognostic information beyond that of CRP.
    Perfusion 06/2008; 23(3):173-8. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious pulmonary failure may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) when other treatment has failed. The aim of this study was to analyze pre-operative risk factors of early mortality in patients who underwent either veno-arterial (VA) ECMO or veno-venous (VV) ECMO for pulmonary failure. We studied a total of 26 risk factors in 72 patients with severe pulmonary insufficiency treated with ECMO. All consecutive cases treated at our institution between Sept 1990 and Aug 2007 were included. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed on 26 risk factors. The end point was early mortality (any death within 30 days of ECMO treatment). Thirty-six (50%) of the patients died within 30 days of treatment. Age, gender, body mass index(BMI)(adults), cause of pulmonary failure, pre-ECMO treatment with nitric oxide(NO), intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP), and type of ventilation did not significantly influence early mortality. Neither pre-operative blood gas results, oxygenation index or pre-operative PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, nor mean ventilator days prior to ECMO gave any indications on early mortality. Liver function did not predict early mortality, but pre-ECMO serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in patients who survived. Treatment with ECMO in patients with severe pulmonary failure may save lives. It is, however, difficult to predict outcome when initiating ECMO. In this analysis, only pre-operative serum creatinine levels correlated with survival. None of the other parameters, including those which were used to select patients for ECMO treatment, could significantly predict the outcome.
    Perfusion 04/2008; 23(2):95-9. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious pulmonary and cardiac failure may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) when conventional treatment fails. In some severely ill patients, it may be necessary to initiate ECMO at the local hospital and, thereafter, transport the patient back to the ECMO center. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experiences with transportation of patients on ECMO. From Oct 1992 to Jan 2008 23, patients were transported on ECMO from local hospitals to Rikshospitalet. The study included seventeen patients with pulmonary failure and four patients with cardiac failure. All age groups were represented. Aircraft were used in 17 cases, ground vehicles in six. The times from decision until ECMO was established, the time from ECMO to departure from the local hospital and the transportation time were registered. All transportations were uneventful. After 10.3 +/-6.7 days, six patients died on ECMO and another patient died within 30 days. Mean ECMO time for those who died was 13.3 +/- 9.6 vs. 8.5 +/- 4.7 days for survivors, p=0.34. Seventeen patients were able to be successfully weaned from ECMO. Thirty day survival was 67%. The mean age for survivors was 15.3+/-18.3 (range 0-54.6) vs. 23.6 +/- 20.3 years (range 0-55.9) in fatal cases, p=0.41. The time from referral to initiating ECMO was a mean of 7.32 +/- 2.3 (3.0-12.0) hours for survivors vs. 7.88 +/- 3.0 (3.50-13.40) hours for non- survivors, p=0.76. The time from initiating ECMO to departure was 5.1 +/- 6.5 (0.58-23.75) hours in survivors vs. 9.1 +/- 6.8 (0.55-18.45) hours in non-survivors, p=0.18. Time from departure to arrival at Rikshospitalet was a mean of 3.2 (0.50-5.10) hours for survivors versus 2.5 (0.5-4.40) for non-survivors, p=0.41. This study shows that ECMO can be successfully established at local hospitals, using an experienced team, and that transportation of patients on ECMO can be performed safely and without technical difficulties. Survival for this group of patients did not differ from patients treated at the ECMO center.
    Perfusion 04/2008; 23(2):101-6. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious heart and pulmonary failure may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this follow-up study was a multimodal assessment of outcome in children surviving ECMO at our hospital from 1991 to 2004. Twenty-two children were, on average, 1.18 years old (SD = 1.92; range, 0.1 to 7.8) when ECMO was initiated. Average age at follow-up was 7.2 years (range, 1.8 to 13.9). Thirteen children were treated for cardiac and nine for pulmonary failure. Venoarterial ECMO was performed in 21 patients and venovenous ECMO in one patient. The protocol included a review of patients records, clinical, neurologic and neuropsychologic, and radiological examinations, electroencephalogram, and interviews with the parents. Moderate or severe impairment in at least two clinical assessments were found in 16 (72.7%) children. Five (22.7%) children had cerebral palsy and 15 (68.2%) had moderate or severe cognitive impairment. Eight (36%) children had pathological radiologic findings. Pathological electroencephalograms were found in 11 (50%) patients including four (18.2%) with epileptic activity. Children with radiologic findings had a slightly worse cognitive outcome. There was no association between the neurophysiologic findings and the neuropsychologic performance or the radiologic findings. Based on parental assessment, only four children had pathological scores. All children, except for two, came walking to the follow-up visit. All parents were positive to the ECMO treatment, and reported a good or slightly reduced quality of life for their child. Cerebral sequelae were frequently found in children treated with ECMO. The need for treatment and support should be assessed in order to optimize their physical and psychosocial functioning.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2007; 84(4):1349-55. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious heart failure may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) when other treatment fails. The aim of the present study was to analyse preoperative risk factors of early mortality in patients treated with veno-arterial (VA)-ECMO. We studied a total of 18 possible risk factors in 80 patients with severe cardiac insufficiency treated with VA-ECMO. All consecutive cases treated at our institution between Sept.1990 and May 2006 were included. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed on 16 risk factors. The endpoint was early mortality (any death within 30 days of ECMO treatment). Thirty patients (37.5%) died within 30 days. Age, gender, cause of cardiac failure, pre-ECMO treatment (ventilator, NO, IABP) did not significantly influence early mortality. A higher SvO2 was associated with survival and remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Treatment with VA-ECMO in patients with severe cardiac failure may save lives. It is, however, difficult to predict outcome. In this study, only SvO2 values prior to ECMO were positively associated with survival.
    Perfusion 08/2007; 22(4):225-9. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) carries a high risk of brain injury. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebral status in 28 adult survivors on average 5.0 (range, 0.5 to 12) years after ECMO treatment for severe cardiorespiratory failure. All 28 patients were investigated at our institution. A comprehensive assessment protocol included a medical history, physical examination, neuropsychological assessment, electroencephalography, and neuroradiologic assessment. All patients were ambulant unaided, and 43% were without any clinical findings. Impaired neuropsychological performance was found in 41%, neuroradiologic findings in 52%, and a pathologic electroencephalogram in 41% of the patients. There was a significant correlation between the cognitive outcome and neuroradiologic findings. The incidence of neuroradiologic findings (cerebral infarction, microemboli or hemorrhage) was significantly higher in the venoarterial group compared with the venovenous group (75% versus 17%). There was no correlation between the type of ECMO and neuropsychological impairment. Electroencephalography findings did not correlate with neuropsychological performance, nor with the neuroradiologic findings. Late cerebral sequelae were frequently seen in patients treated on venoarterial ECMO. A significant correlation was found between cognitive impairment and neuroradiologic findings.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2006; 81(4):1401-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Psychosomatic Research - J PSYCHOSOM RES. 01/2004; 56(6):575-575.
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    ABSTRACT: During cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) there is a systemic inflammatory reaction, involving enhanced release of inflammatory cytokines and complement. However, few studies have analysed the levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and chemokines after CPB. In this study we investigated the complexity of the cytokine network particularly focusing on the balance between interleukin (IL)-10 and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Blood samples from 20 patients (seven females; 13 males, age 30-81 (median 65) years) who underwent CPB, were collected before, and at several time points after surgery ,and analyzed for plasma levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and parameters of complement activation. A marked increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, rather than in inflammatory cytokines, characterized the initial phase after CBP. As for the early inflammatory response the most prominent feature was a rise in the inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, while the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha was rather modest. In contrast to the rapid 'rise and fall' in most of the markers, significantly raised IL-6 levels persisted throughout the study. Immediately after CPB there was also a marked increase in complement activation, with return to baseline levels on the first postoperative day. The present study shows a complex pattern of changes in the cytokine network and complement parameters during CBP with a marked rise in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. However, in contrast to cytokine pattern during various infections, the initial phase after CPB was dominated by a marked rise in anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-10).
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 04/2003; 2(1):19-24. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mediastinitis after open heart operation is an infrequent, but life-threatening complication with a reported incidence rate between 1% and 4%. Hospital mortality is estimated at 10% to 35%. The aim of the present work was to study the systemic inflammatory reaction as judged by complement activation and cytokine and chemokines release in patients with mediastinitis after open heart operation. Seven patients with clinical signs of mediastinitis were included. Three patients had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, whereas 4 patients had combined coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or valvuloplasty. Blood samples were drawn before induction of anesthesia and at the time of reoperation, and thereafter daily during the hospital stay. Controls comprised similar patients with an uneventful postoperative course. The terminal SC5b-9 complement complex concentration in the mediastinitis patients was substantially higher compared with the controls (p < 0.001), and the terminal SC5b-9 complement complex values showed no overlap between the two groups. Interleukin-8, stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and IL-6 concentrations were also significantly higher in the mediastinitis group than in the control group (p < 0.001), but with considerable overlap between the groups. Interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations were slightly higher in the mediastinitis group, and no differences were seen for the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. During mediastinitis, the complement is activated and the cytokines and chemokines, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha are released. These proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of this complication. Terminal SC5b-9 complement complex may be an indicator to discriminate mediastinitis patients from those with uneventful course.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 03/2003; 75(3):981-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two prospective randomized studies were undertaken to compare different suture closure techniques with respect to postoperative wound infection rates and cosmetic results after saphenous vein harvesting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 166 patients were included in the first study, in which 85 had their leg wounds closed with transcutaneous and 81 with intracutaneous suture. In the second study, 168 patients were selected to a non-invasive surgical zipper (n = 78) or intracutaneous suture (n = 90). In the first study the overall infection rate was 20.5%, 17.6% in the transcutaneous group compared with 23.5% in the intracutaneous group (p = 0.35). In the second study the infection rate was 19.3%, 15.3% in the zipper group vs 23.3% in the intracutaneous group (p = 0.20). On a cosmetic scale from 1 to 10, an average score of 8.0 was obtained in the percutaneous (p.c.) group vs 8.3 in the intracutaneous (i.c.) group (p = 0.35), and 9.0 in the zipper group vs 8.4 in the i.c. group (p = 0.003). The incidence of leg wound infection after saphenous vein harvesting in coronary artery bypass graft surgery is high. The zipper closing method may give a lower infection rate and a better cosmetic result compared with the intracutaneous suture.
    Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal 01/2003; 36(6):378-82. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to compare a non-invasive surgical zipper to intracutaneous suture closure in open-heart surgery with respect to postoperative wound infection rate and cosmetic results. A total number of 300 patients were included in the study, of which 150 had their skin wound closed with zipper and 150 with intracutaneous suture. The end-points were superficial and deep sternal wound infections within 6 weeks postoperatively. The incidence of total infection after 6 weeks was equal in the two groups (6.7 vs. 6.7%) (P=0.94). The superficial infection rate was 5.3% in the zipper group vs. 6.0% in the intracutaneous, and the deep infection rate was 1.4% in the zipper group and 0.7% in the intracutaneous. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Only the cosmetic result differed. On a visual scale from 1 (poorest) to 10 (best), an average score of 8.2 was obtained in the intracutaneous group versus 8.9 in the zipper group (P<0.01). The wound infection rate was equal for the intracutaneous group compared with the zipper group; however, the cosmetic result was judged better by the patients in the zipper group.
    European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 08/2002; 22(2):271-7. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Intracutaneous suture technique has been our standard method for closing sternal wounds in cardiac surgery, mainly for cosmetic reasons. However, an increased rate of postoperative infections has been reported in cosmetic surgery with this method compared with the percutanous or transcutaneous closure technique. A comparison of these two techniques in cardiac surgery is presented.Methods. In a randomized study, 300 patients were selected to intracutaneous suture (n = 150) or percutanous suture (n = 150). The endpoints were superficial and deep sternal wound infections within 6 weeks postoperatively.Results. The total infection rate was lower in the percutanous group compared with the intracutaneous group (3% versus 8%) (p = 0.007). The superficial infection rate was lower in the percutaneous group (2.3% versus 6.7%) (p = 0.01), whereas there was no statistically significant difference in the deep infection rate between the groups.Conclusions. The percutaneous suture technique reduces the incidence of superficial wound infections, but not the deep infection rate in open heart surgery. There was no difference in the cosmetic results on a visual scale, assessed by the patients.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 12/2001; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: During cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) there is a systemic inflammatory reaction, involving enhanced release of inflammatory cytokines and complement. However, few studies have analysed the levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and chemokines after CPB. In this study we investigated the complexity of the cytokine network particularly focusing on the balance between interleukin (IL)-10 and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Methods: Blood samples from 20 patients (seven females; 13 males, age 30-81 (median 65) years) who underwent CPB, were collected before, and at several time points after surgery ,and analyzed for plasma levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and parameters of complement activation. Results: A marked increase in the anti- inflammatory cytokine IL-10, rather than in inflammatory cytokines, characterized the initial phase after CBP. As for the early inflammatory response the most prominent feature was a rise in the inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, while the increase in tumor necrosis factor-a was rather modest. In contrast to the rapid 'rise and fall' in most of the markers, significantly raised IL-6 levels persisted throughout the study. Immediately after CPB there was also a marked increase in complement activation, with return to baseline levels on the first postoperative day. Conclusion: The present study shows a complex pattern of changes in the cytokine network and complement parameters during CBP with a marked rise in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. However, in contrast to cytokine pattern during various infections, the initial phase after CPB was dominated by a marked rise in anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-10).

Publication Stats

133 Citations
34.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Feiringklinikken
      Hurdal, Akershus county, Norway
  • 2006–2013
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway