Irene V Bijnsdorp

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (31)91.78 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TRAIL, a tumor selective anticancer agent, may be used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, TRAIL resistance is frequently encountered. Here, the combined use of TRAIL with trifluorothymidine (TFT), a thymidylate synthase inhibitor, was examined for sensitizing NSCLC cells to TRAIL. Interactions between TRAIL and TFT were studied in NSCLC cells using growth inhibition and apoptosis assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to investigate underlying mechanisms. The combined treatment of TFT and TRAIL showed synergistic cytotoxicity in A549, H292, H322 and H460 cells. For synergistic activity, the sequence of administration was important; TFT treatment followed by TRAIL exposure did not show sensitization. Combined TFT and TRAIL treatment for 24 h followed by 48 h of TFT alone was synergistic in all cell lines, with combination index values below 0.9. The treatments affected cell cycle progression, with TRAIL inducing a G1 arrest and TFT, a G2/M arrest. TFT activated Chk2 and reduced Cdc25c levels known to cause G2/M arrest. TRAIL-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis was enhanced by TFT, whereas TFT alone mainly induced caspase-independent death. TFT increased the expression of p53 and p21/WAF1, and p53 was involved in the increase of TRAIL-R2 surface expression. TFT also caused downregulation of cFLIP and XIAP and increased Bax expression. TFT enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells by sensitizing the apoptotic machinery at different levels in the TRAIL pathway. Our findings suggest a possible therapeutic benefit of the combined use of TFT and TRAIL in NSCLC.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the neuroendocrine peptide calcitonin (CT) and its receptor (CTR) is frequently elevated in prostate cancers (PCs), and activation of the CT-CTR axis in non-invasive PC cells induces an invasive phenotype. We aimed to link CT/CTR expression in prostate specimens to clinicopathological parameters of PC. We analyzed CT and CTR expression in cohorts of benign prostates and primary PCs with/without metastatic disease by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we correlated CT/CTR expression with several clinicopathological parameters. CT/CTR immunostaining in benign prostate acini was predominantly localized to basal epithelium. However, this spatial specificity was lost in malignant prostates. PC sections displayed a remarkable increase in cell populations expressing CT/CTR and their staining intensity. Tumors with higher CT/CTR expression consistently displayed metastatic disease and poor clinical outcome. High CT/CTR expression in primary prostate tumors may serve as a prognostic indicator of disease aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome.
    Oncology Reports 07/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate cabazitaxel efficacy in a model for docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells and to evaluate the involvement of ATP-cassette binding protein 4 (ABCC4) with regard to multidrug resistance. Docetaxel and cabazitaxel sensitivity was measured in PC3 and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) cell lines, using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. ABCC4 expression was examined by western blotting and its functional involvement in drug sensitivity by blocking with MK571 inhibitor. The docetaxel-resistant MLL cells (4.5-fold compared to cabazitaxel; p<0.001) were shown to express high levels of ABCC4, while non-resistant PC3 cells had no detectable ABCC4 expression. Functional inhibition of ABCC4 in MLL cells resulted in a two-fold decrease in effective concentration of docetaxel and had no effect on toxicity of cabazitaxel. Cabazitaxel showed an improved therapeutic efficacy over docetaxel in ABCC4-expressing prostate cancer cells. ABCC4 appears to be an important determinant of docetaxel resistance, since its inhibition almost completely reversed resistance.
    Anticancer research 02/2013; 33(2):387-91. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer cells are able to change the protein expression and behavior of non-cancerous surrounding cells. Exosomes, secreted by prostate cancer (PCa) cells, may have a functional role in cancer metastasis and present a promising source for protein biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to identify which proteins in exosomes can influence non-cancerous cells, and to determine whether we can use urine exosomal proteins to identify high-risk PCa patients. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Migration and invasion were studied by the transwell (invasion) assay. Proteomics was performed by LC-MS/MS and identified proteins were validated by Western blotting. Cellular uptake of fluorescent labeled PKH67-exosomes was measured by FACS. Based on comparative protein profiling by mass spectrometry-based proteomics of LNCaP- and PC3-exosomes, we selected ITGA3 and ITGB1, involved in migration/invasion, for further analyses. Inhibition of exosomal ITGA3 reduced the migration and invasion of non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells (prEC) almost completely. Cellular uptake of exosomes by prEC was higher with PC3-exosomes compared to LNCaP exosomes. Finally, ITGA3 and ITGB1 were more abundant in urine exosomes of metastatic patients (p<0.05), compared to benign prostate hyperplasia or PCa. These data indicate exosomal ITGA3 and ITGB1 may play a role in manipulating non-cancerous surrounding cells and that measurement of ITGA3 and ITGB1 in urine exosomes has the potential to identify patients with metastatic PCa in a non-invasive manner.
    Journal of extracellular vesicles. 01/2013; 2.
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    ABSTRACT: Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the novel oral formulation TAS-102, which is currently evaluated in phase II studies. Drug resistance is an important limitation of cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to induce resistance to TFT in H630 colon cancer cells using two different schedules and to analyze the resistance mechanism. Cells were exposed either continuously or intermittently to TFT, resulting in H630-cTFT and H630-4TFT, respectively. Cells were analyzed for cross-resistance, cell cycle, protein expression, and activity of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), thymidine kinase (TK), thymidylate synthase (TS), equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT), gene expression (microarray), and genomic alterations. Both cell lines were cross-resistant to 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (>170-fold). Exposure to IC(75)-TFT increased the S/G(2)-M phase of H630 cells, whereas in the resistant variants, no change was observed. The two main target enzymes TS and TP remained unchanged in both TFT-resistant variants. In H630-4TFT cells, TK protein expression and activity were decreased, resulting in less activated TFT and was most likely the mechanism of TFT resistance. In H630-cTFT cells, hENT mRNA expression was decreased 2- to 3-fold, resulting in a 5- to 10-fold decreased TFT-nucleotide accumulation. Surprisingly, microarray-mRNA analysis revealed a strong increase of secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2; 47-fold), which was also found by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR; 211-fold). sPLA2 inhibition reversed TFT resistance partially. H630-cTFT had many chromosomal aberrations, but the exact role of sPLA2 in TFT resistance remains unclear. Altogether, resistance induction to TFT can lead to different mechanisms of resistance, including decreased TK protein expression and enzyme activity, decreased hENT expression, as well as (phospho)lipid metabolism. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1047-57. (c)2010 AACR
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2012; 9. · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Godefridus J Peters, Irene V Bijnsdorp
    The Lancet Oncology 12/2012; 13(12):E518-9. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:It is important to identify markers that predict whether prostate cancer will metastasise. The adjacent noncancerous cells (influenced by the tumour cells) may also express potential markers. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of cancer cells on noncancerous cells and to assess the value of the cell-communication protein connexin-26 (Cx26) as a marker to predict the development of metastasis.Methods:The effect of conditioned medium (CM) from PrCa cells on in vitro noncancerous cell proliferation, migration and invasion and Cx26 expression was determined. Connexin-26 expression was investigated in prostatectomy tissues from 51 PrCa patients by immunohistochemistry and compared with various clinicopathological parameters.Results:Proliferation, migration and invasion of noncancerous cells were influenced by CM from the PrCa cell lines. Importantly, a clear relation was found between low Cx26 expression in the noncancerous tissue in prostatectomy sections and the risk of development of metastasis (P<0.0002). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a relation between low Cx26 expression in noncancerous tissues and time to biochemical recurrence (P=0.0002).Conclusion:Measuring Cx26 expression in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (rather than cancer tissues) of prostatectomy sections could help to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy to decrease the risk of metastasis.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.500www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Tijdschrift voor Urologie. 11/2012; 2(7).
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Prostate cells are dependent on androgens for growth and proliferation. Androgen deprivation therapy is the recommended treatment for advanced/metastatic prostate cancer. Under this therapy, prostate cancer will inevitably progress to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Despite putative castration resistance, testosterone might still play a crucial role in the progression of CRPC. The goal of this study was to determine the role of testosterone in the formation of metastases of CRPC in both in vitro and in vivo settings. METHODS: In vitro, the effect of testosterone and the non-aromatizable androgen methyltrienolone on migration, invasion and proliferation of a castration-resistant prostate cancer rat cell line (Dunning R3327-MATLyLu) was assessed using a transwell assay and a sulforhodamine B assay and immunohistochemical detection of ki67. Androgen receptor status was determined using Western blot. In vivo, Copenhagen rats were divided in four groups (males, females, castrated males and females with testosterone suppletion) and inoculated with MATLyLu cells. Tumor size was assessed daily. RESULTS: Testosterone increased cell migration and invasion in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Testosterone did not affect in vitro cell proliferation. No difference was shown between the effect of testosterone and methyltrienolone. In vivo, in groups with higher levels of circulating testosterone, more rats had (micro)metastases compared with groups with low levels of testosterone. No effect was observed on primary tumor size/growth. CONCLUSIONS: Despite assumed castration resistance, progression of prostate cancer is still influenced by androgens. Therefore, continuous suppression of serum testosterone in patients who show disease progression during castration therapy is still warranted.
    World Journal of Urology 10/2012; · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • I V Bijnsdorp, G J Peters
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) is also known as the platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) and plays a role in angiogenesis. Deoxyribose (dR; a downstream TPase-product) addition to endothelial cells may stimulate FAK and p70/S6k signaling, which can be inhibited by rapamycin. Rapamycin is a specific mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, a kinase that lies directly upstream of p70/S6k. This suggests a role for TPase in the mTOR/p70/S6k pathway. In order to study this in more detail, we exposed cells with and without TPase expression to dR and rapamycin and determined the effect on cell growth. We observed protection in cytotoxicity in Colo320 cells, but not Colo320 TP1 cells. This was in part mediated by activation of p70/S6k and inhibition of autophagy. Further studies are recommended to elucidate the mechanism behind the protective effect of dR.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 12/2011; 30(12):1197-202. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many drugs that are currently used for the treatment of cancer have limitations, such as induction of resistance and/or poor biological half-life, which reduce their clinical efficacy. To overcome these limitations, several strategies have been explored. Chemical modification by the attachment of lipophilic moieties to (deoxy)nucleoside analogs should enhance the plasma half-life, change the biodistribution, and improve cellular uptake of the drug. Attachment of a lipophilic moiety to a phosphorylated (deoxy)nucleoside analog will improve the activity of the drugs by circumventing the rate-limiting activation step of (deoxy)nucleoside analogs. Encapsulating drugs in nanoparticles or liposomes protects the drug against enzymatic breakdown in the plasma and makes it possible to get lipophilic compounds to the tumor site. In this review, we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in increasing the efficacy of classic (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine compounds by chemical modifications and alternative delivery systems.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 12/2011; 30(12):1168-80. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    Tijdschrift voor Urologie. 11/2011; 1(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in tumours and has a role in tumour aggressiveness and angiogenesis. Here, we determined whether TP increased tumour invasion and whether TP-expressing cancer cells stimulated angiogenesis. Angiogenesis was studied by exposing endothelial cells (HUVECs) to conditioned medium (CM) derived from cancer cells with high (Colo320TP1=CT-CM, RT112/TP=RT-CM) and no TP expression after which migration (wound-healing-assay) and invasion (transwell-assay) were determined. The involvement of several angiogenic factors were examined by RT-PCR, ELISA and blocking antibodies. Tumour invasion was not dependent on intrinsic TP expression. The CT-CM and RT-CM stimulated HUVEC-migration and invasion by about 15 and 40%, respectively. Inhibition by 10 μM TPI and 100 μM L-dR, blocked migration and reduced the invasion by 50-70%. Thymidine phosphorylase activity in HUVECs was increased by CT-CM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed a higher mRNA expression of bFGF (Colo320TP1), IL-8 (RT112/TP) and TNF-α, but not VEGF. Blocking antibodies targeting these factors decreased the migration and invasion that was induced by the CT-CM and RT-CM, except for IL-8 in CT-CM and bFGF in RT-CM. In our cell line panels, TP did not increase the tumour invasion, but stimulated the migration and invasion of HUVECs by two different mechanisms. Hence, TP targeting seems to provide a potential additional strategy in the field of anti-angiogenic therapy.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2011; 104(7):1185-92. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the current therapies against cancer, and also those against immune diseases or viral infections, consist of empirically designed combination strategies, combining a variety of therapeutic agents. Drug combinations are widely used because multiple drugs affect multiple targets and cell subpopulations. The primary aim is a mutual enhancement of the therapeutic effects, while other benefits may include decreased side effects and the delay or prevention of drug resistance. The large majority of combination regimens are being developed empirically and there are few experimental studies designed to explore thoroughly different drug combinations, using appropriate methods of analysis. However, the study of patterns of possible metabolic and biological interactions in preclinical models, as well as scheduling, should improve the development of most drug combinations. The definition of synergism is that the combination is more effective than each agent separately, e.g., one of the agents augments the actions of the second drug. The definition of antagonism is that the combination is less effective than the single agents, e.g. one of the agents counteracts the actions of the other. A combination can be studied by combining the two agents in various different ways, such as simultaneous or sequential combination schedules. It is essential to test the potency of a combination, before evaluation in the clinic, to prevent antagonistic actions. However, one should realize that an antagonistic action may be desired when toxicity is concerned, i.e. one drug decreases the side effects of another drug. Several attempts have been made to quantitatively measure the dose-effect relationship of each drug alone and its combinations and to determine whether a given combination would gain a synergistic effect. One of the most widely used ways to evaluate whether a combination is effective is the median-drug effect analysis method. Using this method, a combination index (CI) is calculated from drug cytotoxicity or growth inhibition curves. To calculate a CI, the computer software Calcusyn can be used, taking the entire shape of the growth inhibition curve into account for calculating whether a combination is synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. Here, we describe how combinations can be designed in vitro and how to analyze them using Calcusyn or Compusyn. Moreover, pitfalls, limitations, and advantages of using these combinations and Calcusyn/Compusyn are described.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 731:421-34. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in cancer and potentially plays a role in the stimulation of angiogenesis. The exact mechanism of angiogenesis induction is unclear, but is postulated to be related to thymidine-derived sugars. TP catalyzes the conversion of thymidine (TdR) to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dR-1-P), which can be converted to dR-5-P, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) or deoxyribose (dR). However, it is unclear which sugar accumulates in this reaction. Therefore, in the TP overexpressing Colo320 TP1 and RT112/TP cells we determined by LC-MS/MS which sugars accumulated, their subcellular localization (using (3)H-TdR) and whether dR was secreted from the cells. In both TP-overexpressing cell lines, dR-1-P and dR-5-P accumulated intracellularly at high levels and dR was secreted extensively by the cells. A specific inhibitor of TP completely blocked TdR conversion, and thus no sugars were formed. To examine whether these sugars may be used for the production of angiogenic factors or other products, we determined with (3)H-TdR in which subcellular location these sugars accumulated. TdR-derived sugars accumulated in the cytoskeleton and to some extent in the cell membrane, while incorporation into the DNA was responsible for trapping in the nucleus. In conclusion, various metabolic routes were entered, of which the TdR-derived sugars accumulated in the cytoskeleton and membrane. Future studies should focus on which exact metabolic pathway is involved in the induction of angiogenesis.
    Biochemical pharmacology 09/2010; 80(6):786-92. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the phosphorylytic cleavage of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The latter may be involved in the angiogenic stimulation of TP. In the present study, we investigated whether thymidine and deoxyribose (dR) could stimulate angiogenesis in vitro of two types of endothelial cells (isolated from umbilical veins (HUVEC) and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC)), and whether the stereoisomer L-deoxyribose (L-dR) and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) could reduce this. Both cell types had a low TP activity. Thymidine increased the migration of both HUVECs and ECFCs, but dR only that of the ECFCs. The invasion was not changed by any of the agents tested. In conclusion, TP may play a role in the migration of HUVECs and ECFCs, but not the invasion.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 06/2010; 29(4-6):482-7. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the novel oral formulation TAS-102, which is currently evaluated in phase II studies. Drug resistance is an important limitation of cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to induce resistance to TFT in H630 colon cancer cells using two different schedules and to analyze the resistance mechanism. Cells were exposed either continuously or intermittently to TFT, resulting in H630-cTFT and H630-4TFT, respectively. Cells were analyzed for cross-resistance, cell cycle, protein expression, and activity of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), thymidine kinase (TK), thymidylate synthase (TS), equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT), gene expression (microarray), and genomic alterations. Both cell lines were cross-resistant to 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (>170-fold). Exposure to IC(75)-TFT increased the S/G(2)-M phase of H630 cells, whereas in the resistant variants, no change was observed. The two main target enzymes TS and TP remained unchanged in both TFT-resistant variants. In H630-4TFT cells, TK protein expression and activity were decreased, resulting in less activated TFT and was most likely the mechanism of TFT resistance. In H630-cTFT cells, hENT mRNA expression was decreased 2- to 3-fold, resulting in a 5- to 10-fold decreased TFT-nucleotide accumulation. Surprisingly, microarray-mRNA analysis revealed a strong increase of secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2; 47-fold), which was also found by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR; 211-fold). sPLA2 inhibition reversed TFT resistance partially. H630-cTFT had many chromosomal aberrations, but the exact role of sPLA2 in TFT resistance remains unclear. Altogether, resistance induction to TFT can lead to different mechanisms of resistance, including decreased TK protein expression and enzyme activity, decreased hENT expression, as well as (phospho)lipid metabolism. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1047-57. (c)2010 AACR.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 04/2010; 9(4):1047-57. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prodrugs can have the advantage over parent drugs in increased activation and cellular uptake. The multidrug ETC-L-FdUrd and the duplex drug ETC-FdUrd are composed of two different monophosphate-nucleosides, 5-fluoro-2'deoxyuridine (FdUrd) and ethynylcytidine (ETC), coupled via a glycerolipid or phosphodiester, respectively. The aim of the study was to determine cytotoxicity levels and mode of drug cleavage. Moreover, we determined whether a liposomal formulation of ETC-L-FdUrd would improve cytotoxic activity and/or cleavage. Drug effects/cleavage were studied with standard radioactivity assays, HPLC and LC-MS/MS in FM3A/0 mammary cancer cells and their FdUrd resistant variants FM3A/TK(-). ETC-FdUrd was active (IC(50) of 2.2 and 79 nM) in FM3A/0 and TK(-) cells, respectively. ETC-L-FdUrd was less active (IC(50): 7 nM in FM3A/0 vs 4500 nM in FM3A/TK(-)). Although the liposomal formulation was less active than ETC-L-FdUrd in FM3A/0 cells (IC(50):19.3 nM), resistance due to thymidine kinase (TK) deficiency was greatly reduced. The prodrugs inhibited thymidylate synthase (TS) in FM3A/0 cells (80-90%), but to a lower extent in FM3A/TK(-) (10-50%). FdUMP was hardly detected in FM3A/TK(-) cells. Inhibition of the transporters and nucleotidases/phosphatases resulted in a reduction of cytotoxicity of ETC-FdUrd, indicating that this drug was cleaved outside the cells to the monophosphates, which was verified by the presence of FdUrd and ETC in the medium. ETC-L-FdUrd and the liposomal formulation were neither affected by transporter nor nucleotidase/phosphatase inhibition, indicating circumvention of active transporters. In vivo, ETC-FdUrd and ETC-L-FdURd were orally active. ETC nucleotides accumulated in both tumor and liver tissues. These formulations seem to be effective when a lipophilic linker is used combined with a liposomal formulation.
    Investigational New Drugs 12/2009; 29(2):248-57. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many drugs that are currently used for the treatment of cancer have limitations, such as induction of resistance and/or poor biological half-life, which reduce their clinical efficacy. To overcome these limitations several strategies have been explored. Chemical modification by the attachment of lipophilic moieties to (deoxy)nucleoside analogs should enhance the plasma half live, change the biodistribution and improve cellular uptake of the drug. Attachment of a lipophilic moiety to a phosphorylated (deoxy)nucleoside analog will improve the activity of the drugs by circumventing the rate-limiting activation step of (deoxy)nucleoside analogs. Duplex and multiplex drugs consist of distinct active drugs with different mechanisms of action, which are linked to each other with either a lipid or a phosphodiester. Enzymatic cleavage of such a prodrug inside the cell releases the drug or the phosphorylated form of the drug. Antitumor activity of cytotoxic drugs can also be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles as carriers. Nanoparticles have the advantage of high stability, high carrier capacity, incorporation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds and variable routes of administration. Encapsulating drugs in liposomes protects the drug against enzymatic breakdown in the plasma and makes it possible to get lipophilic compounds to the tumor site. Nanoparticles and liposomes can be used to target drugs either actively or passively to the tumor. In this review we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in increasing the efficacy of classic (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine compounds by chemical modifications and alternative delivery systems. We expect that combining different strategies could further increase the efficacy of these compounds.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 11/2009; 16(35):4632-43. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the oral drug formulation TAS-102. Both 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and TFT can inhibit thymidylate synthase and be incorporated into DNA. TFT shows only moderate cross-resistance to 5-FU. Therefore, we examined whether mechanistic differences in cell death could underlie their different modes of action in colorectal cancer cell lines (WiDR, Lovo92 and Colo320). Drug cytotoxicity was determined by SRB- and clonogenic assays, cell death by flow cytometry (PI and annexin V), caspase cleavage by Western blotting and activity assays and in vivo activity in the hollow fiber assay. The IC(50) values of TFT were 1-6 fold lower than for 5-FU, and clonogenic survival was less than 0.9% at 3 muM TFT, while 2-20% of the cells still survived after 20 muM 5-FU. In general, TFT was a more potent inducer of apoptosis than 5-FU, although the contribution of caspases varied between the used cell lines and necrosis-like cell death was detected. Accordingly, both drugs induced caspase (Z-VAD) independent cell death and lysosomal cathepsin B was involved. Activation of autophagy recovery mechanisms was only triggered by 5-FU, but not by TFT as determined by LC3B expression and cleavage. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA in 5-FU exposed cells reduced cell survival. Also, in vivo TFT (as TAS-102) caused more cell death than a 5-FU formulation. We conclude that TFT and 5-FU induce cell death via both caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms. The TFT was more potent than 5-FU, because it induces higher levels of cell death and does not elicit an autophagic survival response in the cancer cell lines. This provides a strong molecular basis for further application of TFT in cancer therapy.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2009; 126(10):2457-68. · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

141 Citations
91.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007–2011
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Zurich
      • Division of Cell Biology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland