[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is becoming a worldwide problem with its still unexplained properties.
The data of patients who were diagnosed as DILI between January 2008 and December 2013 were assessed.
Five patients diagnosed as intrinsic and 82 patients diagnosed as idiosyncratic DILI. The most causative agents were antimicrobial drugs. The most common injury pattern was hepatocellular. When patients with bilirubin levels more than 5 mg/dl are divided into two groups according to having steroid therapy (n = 11) or not (n = 40), there was not any significant difference according to their clinical results (p > 0.05). Five of idiosyncratic DILI patients were diagnosed as drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DI-AIH). In histopathological examination, hepatic rosette formation, and emperipolesis were observed to be more common among patients with DI-AIH when compared to ones that don't have (p < 0.05). Interestingly in the remaining patients with DILI (n = 77), three of them diagnosed as classic autoimmune hepatitis during long term follow up (11-51 months). The most common causes were antimicrobials, but any agents that have not been defined to cause DILI can induce DILI. The efficacy of steroids in DILI has not been observed but all deaths were observed in steroid free group. The association of DILI and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was observed in two different types in terms of diagnosis in our study. The first association was DI-AIH. The second one is the classical AIH which was developed in 3 patients after few months following spontaneous recovery of DILI.
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Hepatology Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/hepr.12530 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Videodensitometry is a feasible noninvasive ultrasound tissue characterization method allowing early detection of myocardial changes. This study aimed to investigate ultrasonic backscatter properties of the myocardium in Wilson disease patients.
We compared cardiologically asymptomatic Wilson disease patients (W group) (n=18) with age-matched (26.7±9.6 years) healthy controls (C group) (n=15). Diagnosis of Wilson disease was made on the basis of clinical manifestations, family history, and laboratory findings and confirmed by liver biopsy. Transthoracic echocardiographic quantitative texture analysis was performed on data from the septum and left ventricular posterior wall, and mean gray level (MGL) histograms at end-diastole (d) and end-systole (s) were obtained after background correction (c). Cyclic variation index (CVI) was calculated using the formula [(cMGLd - cMGLs) / cMGLd] ×100.
There were no significant differences in sex, age, body mass index, heart rate or blood pressure, and conventional echocardiographic parameters between the 2 groups. The cMGLs value of the posterior wall was higher in the W group than in the C group (30.9±2.6 vs. 22.2±2.7, p=0.033). The W group had a significantly lower CVI of the septum than did the C group (-22±4.4% vs. 43.4 ±12.9%, p<0.001), and there was no significant difference in the CVI of the posterior wall (-67.0±15.9% vs. 41.7±18.6%, p=0.32).
Abnormalities in two-dimensional echocardiographic grey-level distributions were present in Wilson disease patients. These videodensitometric myocardial alterations were significantly lower in Wilson disease patients than in the controls, and this probably represents an early stage of cardiac involvement.
The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology 12/2014; 25(6):678-84. DOI:10.5152/tjg.2014.5949 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Entecavir (ETV) is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B viral replication, but long-term therapy may be required. We investigated whether adding on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) to ETV therapy enhances serological response rates. In this global investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with compensated liver disease started on ETV monotherapy (0.5 mg/day) and were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either Peg-IFN add-on therapy (180 µg/week) from week 24 to 48 (n = 85) or to continue ETV monotherapy (n = 90). Response was defined as HBeAg loss with HBV DNA <200 IU/mL at week 48. Responders discontinued ETV at week 72. All patients were followed until week 96. Response was achieved in 16 of 85 (19%) patients allocated to the add-on arm versus 9 of 90 (10%) in the monotherapy arm (P = 0.095). Adjusted for HBV DNA levels before randomized therapy, Peg-IFN add-on was significantly associated with response (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-14.0; P = 0.004). Eleven (13%) of the add-on-treated patients achieved disease remission after ETV cessation versus 2 of 90 (2%) of those treated with monotherapy (P = 0.007), which was 79% (11 of 14) versus 25% (2 of 8) of those who discontinued ETV (P = 0.014). At week 96, 22 (26%) patients assigned add-on versus 12 (13%) assigned monotherapy achieved HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.036). Peg-IFN add-on led to significantly more decline in hepatitis B surface antigen, HBeAg, and HBV DNA (all P < 0.001). Combination therapy was well tolerated.
Although the primary endpoint was not reached, 24 weeks of Peg-IFN add-on therapy led to a higher proportion of HBeAg response, compared to ETV monotherapy. Add-on therapy resulted in more viral decline and appeared to prevent relapse after stopping ETV. Hence, Peg-IFN add-on therapy may facilitate the discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are distinct diseases, in clinical practice differentiation of one from other may be difficult. The aim of this study was to asses features of SLE in patients with diagnosis of AIH.Thirty patients [mean age: 52.4 ± 11.8 years; 23 (76.7 %) female] were included in the study. Seven (23.3 %) of the patients full filled 4 or more criteria for classification of SLE. None of the patients had muco-cutaneous lesions characteristic to SLE. Three patients had rheumatoid factor negative arthritis, and 2 patients had pericardial effusion. Four patients had significant thrombocytopenia (<100 × 10(3)/μL), and one of these patients had pancytopenia. None of the patients had hematuria, but 3 patients had proteinuria which did not affect renal function during the study period. One patient died due to pancytopenia-associated pulmonary infection. Among the treated patients with SLE features, 2/5 (40 %) achieved ALT normalization and 9/12 (75 %) of the remaining patients achieved ALT normalization (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.28) during the study period. Although the difference is non-significant, treatment response of AIH patients with SLE features seemed to be delayed and incomplete compared to other patients, but with the limited number of patients it is inconvenient to reach a definitive conclusion. Further studies are needed to identify role of features of SLE on treatment response in patients with AIH.
Rheumatology International 12/2012; 33(6). DOI:10.1007/s00296-012-2607-x · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
To evaluate the indications, diagnostic yield, therapeutic interventions, complications and safety of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in clinical practice.
The medical records of the patients who underwent DBE at the Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital between October 2007 and January 2010 were examined to note the demographic data, indications for the examination, results of previous non-invasive small bowel imaging and endoscopic procedures and the results of DBE including findings, endoscopic interventions, complications and pathological reports.
A total of 139 procedures were performed in 118 patients. DBE was performed 81 times through mouth and 26 times through anus and additionally both approaches were used 16 times in the same patients. Panenteroscopy was successfully performed in 13 of 16 patients (87.5%) in whom it was attempted. The most common indication was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (28.8%). DBE had an overall diagnostic and/or therapeutic contribution in 63 (53.4%) patients. The main pathologies detected on DBE were polyps (12.7%), infammation (10.7%) and vascular lesions (3.4%). Complications were recognized in four cases (3.4%) but no major complication occured.
Our retrospective analysis showed that DBE is a useful, safe and well-tolerated method with a diagnostic and therapeutic impact for the management of small bowel diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a serious public health problem due to its potential liver disease sequelae and highly expensive medical costs such as the need for liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to quantify the burden of active CHB in terms of mortality and morbidity, the eligibility of antiviral treatment and to assess various treatment scenarios and possible salvage combinations for cost-effectiveness.
A population cohort from a large data base of chronic hepatitis B patients was constructed and stratified according to 10-year age groups, the prevalence of HBsAg, HBV DNA level, ALT level, HBeAg status and the presence of cirrhosis. An age-specific Markov model for disease progression and cost-effectiveness analysis was constructed and calibrated for the specific population setting.
Of about 3.2 million estimated HBsAg carriers, 25% are eligible for treatment. If the active cohort remains untreated, 31% will die due to liver related complications. Within a 20-year period, 11% will have developed decompensated cirrhosis, 12% liver cancer and 6% will need liver transplantation. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for the no treatment scenario ranged from 9.3 to 14.0. For scenarios with antiviral treatment, QALYs ranged from 9.9 to 14.5 for lamivudine, 13.0-17.5 for salvage therapy, and 16.6-19.0 for the third generation drugs entecavir and tenofovir.
In a country with considerable amount of active CHB patients, monotherapy with a highly potent third generation drug has the most health-gain, and is cost-effective in both HBeAg-positive and negative in all stages of liver disease.
The European Journal of Health Economics 07/2012; 13(5):663-76. DOI:10.1007/s10198-012-0413-8 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has poor long-term prognosis so we need new diagnostic techniques and markers to detect HCC in the early phases. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of serum mean platelet volume in HCC.
The clinical data of 230 subjects with normal, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC were retrospectively analyzed at our hospital between January 2009 and December 2009. The levels of MPV were determined in patients with liver disease and compared between patient groups and with healthy persons.
Serum MPV levels were significantly increased compared to the patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the control group (p<0.01). The cut-off value for MPV for the detection of HCC in cirrhotic patients was calculated as ≥9.2fl using ROC analysis [Sensitivity: 68.3%, specificity: 62.1%, AUC: 0.676 (0.580-0.773), p<0.001]. Additionally, serum MPV levels show higher sensitivity for diagnosis of HCC than AFP. An AFP of more than 7.4IU/mL and an MPV of ≥9.2fl, both put together, had a specificity of 95.2%, while when used separately, they have a sensitivity of 87.5%.
MPV may be a potential or adjunctive marker of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin have antiaggregant properties and patients with pancreaticobiliary disease commonly use these drugs. We prospectively investigated whether aspirin and NSAIDs are associated with endoscopic sphincterotomy related hemorrhage.
Three hundred and eight patients who underwent sphincterotomy were sequentially recruited into this prospective case-control study. Pre-endoscopic assessment included a complete blood count, coagulation studies and a detailed drug history after sphincterotomy patients were followed up for bleeding. Cases and controls were compared for patient and procedure-related risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.
Hemorrhage occurred in 74 (24%) patients. Eight (2.6%) were clinically significant and five (1.6%) were severe. Amongst cases with hemorrhage, 17.6% were on NSAIDs and 14.9% on aspirin; 27.4% of controls took NSAIDs, and 9.8% aspirin (P>0.05). Aspirin use in patients with significant (12.5%) or severe hemorrhage (20%) was not different from the controls (P>0.05) and none of them had NSAIDs prior to sphincterotomy. Based on univariate analysis, coagulopathy and comorbidity were risk factors for significant post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage and coagulopathy was the only independent parameter (odds ratio=22.72, 95% CI [4.25; 125]).
Aspirin and NSAIDs do not increase the risk of post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage and they can be safely used before the procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peginterferon (PEG-IFN) is considered as a first-line treatment option for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. We aimed to evaluate the long-term response to PEG-IFN in HBeAg-negative patients.
All patients enrolled in the PARC study who completed the treatment phase were eligible for this long-term follow-up (LTFU) study. Patients received PEG-IFN α-2a (180 μg weekly) ± ribavirin (1000-1200 mg daily) for 48 weeks and had at least one additional LTFU visit after the initial follow-up period of 24 weeks (mean duration 2.1 ± 0.2 years). Retreated patients were considered nonresponders.
Of 117 patients who completed the treatment phase, 79 (68%) were included in this LTFU study. Among 19 patients with a combined response at 24 weeks after treatment [initial responders; hepatitis B virus DNA<10 000 copies/ml (<1714 IU/ml) and normal alanine aminotransferase], 12 (63%) sustained this response through LTFU. Three additional patients showed such a response at LTFU, resulting in a total of 15 (19%) combined responders at LTFU. A marked decrease in the serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels was observed in initial responders, resulting in HBsAg clearance in 26% of the patients (6% of all LTFU participants).
About one-third of HBeAg-negative patients with a response to PEG-IFN at 24 weeks after treatment subsequently had a relapse during 2 years of follow-up. Despite the limited overall efficacy of PEG-IFN, patients responding to PEG-IFN treatment showed a marked decrease in serum HBsAg, resulting in a high rate of HBsAg clearance, which indicates the need for predictors of response to PEG-IFN in HBeAg-negative disease.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 06/2012; 24(9):1012-9. DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283557e23 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze all the polyps of patients undergoing endoscopic polypectomy or forceps biopsy according to their types, frequency, localization, number and gender distribution.
Data from patients who underwent upper endoscopy in the Türkiye Yüksek Ihtisas Postgraduate Research Hospital between March 2007 and November 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Forceps biopsy or polypectomy were performed for all polypoid lesions that were identified during the endoscopy.
In the study period, 14,935 patients underwent 18,522 upper endoscopies. After excluding cirrhotic patients, and patients with a history of prior gastrectomy, chronic gastritis and edema or congestion, the remaining 124 (0.83%) patients with gastric polyps were included in the study. Histopathologically, the most frequently diagnosed polyps were hyperplastic polyps (55.6%). Fundic gland polyps (9.7%), foveolar hyperplasia (8.1%) and inflammatory polyps (7.3%) were also frequent. Adenocarcinoma was more frequently seen in males, whereas hyperplastic polyps and carcinoid tumors were found more often in females, and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.009).
Results of the present study indicate that hyperplastic polyps make up the largest group. Although there is widespread PPI use, no increases in the frequency of fundic gland polyps were observed. However, increases in the ratio of carcinoid tumors suggest a suspicion of tumor development with PPI use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric variceal bleeding is a common problem in patients with cirrhosis and despite early endoscopic and/or pharmacological therapy, variceal bleeding cannot be controlled or recurs early in about 10 to 20% of patients with considerable morbidity and mortality rates. For this reason, effective control of active bleeding varices is of great importance for the prevention of late complications. Although endoscopic band ligation and sclerotherapy are the choice of endoscopic treatment modalities with various grades of success, limited data is available for the use of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) for the controlling of variceal bleeding due to gastric varices. We herein present a unique case of gastric variceal bleeding despite cyanoacrilate injection, which was successfully controlled with topical ABS application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic varices (EcV) accounting for 1-5% of all varices in portal hypertension are composed of dilated portosystemic collaterals located in unusual sites instead of the most known gastroesophageal region. The difficulty in localization of bleeding is a great burden on the management of these patients. Herein, we present patients with EcV as well as with portal hypertension and recurrent intestinal bleeding. The sites of EcV were identified with computed tomographic angiography, after a series of inconclusive endoscopies, and moreover a selective celiac arteriographic examination of one of the patients.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 07/2011; 23(7):620-2. DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283470fea · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the presence of inflammation may accentuate the neuropsychologic alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The aim of the study was to investigate any association between alterations in plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 and HE.
The study population included 63 patients with cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls. Laboratory data included international normalized ratio, plasma albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, hsCRP and IL-18 (pg/mL). HE was assessed using West Haven criteria and critical flicker frequency (CFF) measurement.
Forty-two of the 63 cirrhotic patients had HE (4, 16, 21 and 1 patients in grade 0, 1, 2, 3, respectively). hsCRP and IL-18 were significantly increased in patients with HE compared with the control group (1.6 +/- 4.8 vs 0.5 +/- 0.8, p<0.001 and 121.4 (13.6-2043.6) vs 56.3 (13.0-174.0), p=0.006, respectively). The levels of hsCRP and IL-18 were significantly higher in the all cirrhotic patients than in the control subjects (p=0.002 and p=0.008 respectively). hsCRP was significantly higher in patients with HE (2.2 +/- 6) than in patients without HE (0.7 +/- 1.2) (p=0.013). The levels of IL-18 were found higher in patients with HE than in patients without HE [121.4 (13.6-2043.6) vs 103.8 (13.0-828.0)] but the difference was not significant (p=0.215). IL-18 was higher in patients with elevated hsCRP [124.6 (13.6-2043.6)] compared with those who had normal hsCRP [75.6 (13.0-753.2)] (p=0.029).
There is an inflammatory response in the presence of cirrhosis and HE; and IL-18 may play a role in the perpetuation of chronic inflammation.