[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2-5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22-59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. RESULTS: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n=15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n=3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n=5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n=3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. CONCLUSION: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.
European journal of radiology 05/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus gattii are closely related species of encapsulated yeast-like fungi involved in the etiology of cryptococcosis, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Dissemination with involvement of many organ systems is common. On the other hand, cellulitis in an immunossupressed patient caused by C. gattii is rare. We present a case of disseminated disease caused by Cryptococcus gattii in a lung transplant recipient who manifested cellulitis. The disease was also complicated by a lung carcinoma. We emphasize that cryptococcal cellulitis related to C. gattii in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial skin infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the long-term follow-up of the first living-donor lobar lung transplantation performed in Latin America.
The patient was a 12-year-old boy with post-infectious obliterative bronchiolitis with end-stage pulmonary disease. He was on continuous oxygen support, presenting with dyspnea even during minimal activity. He underwent bilateral lobar lung transplantation with living donors. The procedure was performed with the left and right lower lobes of two different related donors. In the second side cardiopulmonary bypass was required. The transplant was uneventful, and the patient was extubated after 14 hours and discharged with 44 days, after resolution of infectious, immunological and drug-related complications. After 12 years of follow-up, he presents with adequate lung function and has resumed his habitual activities.
Living-donor lobar lung transplantation is a complex procedure feasible for the treatment of selected pediatric end-stage pulmonary disease. This particular population might benefit from this approach since the availability of pediatric donors is very scarce and the clinical course of pediatric advanced pulmonary disease may be unpredictable.
Jornal de pediatria 09/2012; 88(5):413-6. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation (LT) has been established as a current therapy for selected patients with end-stage lung disease. Different prognostic factors have been reported by transplant centers. The objective of this study is to report our recent results with LT and to search for prognostic factors.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 130 patients who underwent LT at our institution from January 2004 to July 2009. Donor, recipient, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were collected.
The mean age was 53.14 years (ranging from 8 to 72 years) and 80 (61.5%) were male. The main causes of end-stage respiratory disease were pulmonary fibrosis 53 (40.7%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 52 (40%). The actuarial 1-year survival was 67.7%. Variables correlated with survival were age (P=0.004), distance in the 6-min walk test (P=0.007), coronary heart disease (P=0.001), cardiopulmonary bypass (P=0.02), intraoperative transfusion of red blood cells (P=0.016), increasing central venous pressure at 24th postoperative hour (P=0.001), increasing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at 24th postoperative hour (P=0.01); length of intubation (P<0.01), reintubation (P=0.001), length of intensive care unit stay (P<0.001), abdominal complication (P=0.003), acute renal failure requiring dialysis (P<0.001), native lung hyperinflation (P=0.02), and acute rejection in the first month (P=0.03). In multivariate analysis, only dialysis (P=0.004, hazards ratio [HR] 2.68), length of intubation (P=0.004, HR 1.002 for each hour), and reintubation (P=0.003, HR 2.88) proved to be independent predictors.
Analysis of variables in our cohort highlighted dialysis, longer mechanical ventilation requirement, and reintubation as independent prognostic factors in LT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare cystic disease characterized by proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the lung interstitium, almost exclusively affects females in their reproductive years. Lung transplantation has been established as effective therapy for end-stage pulmonary LAM.
This retrospective study includes lung transplantation patients with LAM at a single institution between 1989 and 2009.
During the study period we performed 300 lung transplantations, and in 10 cases the recipients had LAM. All patients were females with a mean age of 43.8 years. The mean time from the diagnosis to lung transplantation was 5 years. Seven patients had experienced previous pneumothoraces, five of whom were treated with pleurodesis. In all patients we performed a single-lung transplantation (left-sided = 9 and right-sided = 1). In three cases, the pleurodesis was on the same side as the transplantation, with great intraoperative bleeding in one subject (left pleurectomy). There was one early death due to infective endocarditis at posttransplant day 19. The median length of mechanical ventilation was 13 hours, while the mean hospital stay was 16.75 days. There was no case of chylothorax. Late complications included one case of native lung pneumothorax, one diaphragmatic hernia, one posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, one respiratory sepsis, and one mycobacterial infection. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 90% and 80%, respectively.
Lung transplantation is a feasible therapeutic option for patients with LAM, despite previous ipsilateral pleurodesis. The left-sided predilection for our procedures may have been responsible for the absence of chylothorax in this series.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age has been a relative contraindication to lung transplantation. However, the exact age limit for this procedure has not yet been established. The aim of this work is to present our experience with this particular group.
This retrospective review included medical charts of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from January 2004 to February 2009: namely, 112 cadaveric lung transplants with 12 patients (10.7%) >65 years old.
There were 9 male patients and the overall mean age was 68 years (range 66-72). The indications were pulmonary fibrosis in 8 and emphysema in 4 cases. Four patients had mild coronary artery disease and 4 systemic hypertension. All of the procedures were unilateral and only 2 required extracorporeal circulation. Only 5 patients received blood product transfusions intraoperatively; the mean ischemic time was 222 minutes. Four patients developed primary graft dysfunction, the mean requirement for mechanical ventilation was 30 hours, and the mean intensive care unit stay, 11 days. Postoperative complications were respiratory infections (n = 8), catheter-related infection (n = 1), atrial fibrillation (n = 2). The mean hospital stay was 28 days and the 1-year survival was 75%.
Lung transplantation is a feasible option for well-selected patients with end-stage pulmonary disease who are >65 years old. Our study reinforces the modern trend for unilateral procedures in this situation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galactomannan (GM) detection in serum samples has been used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA). Limited sensitivity has been observed in lung transplant recipients, for whom bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) testing has been advocated. Because airway colonization with Aspergillus species occurs frequently in these patients, false-positive GM results have been reported if the cutoff validated for sera is used (i.e., 0.5).
Herein, we prospectively studied BAL fluid samples from 60 lung transplant patients to determine the optimal cutoff for BAL GM testing. Only one sample per patient was studied. BAL samples were vortexed and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions for serum samples. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated in reference to proven or probable IA cases using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Eight patients had IA during the study (incidence 13.3%), including four patients with proven IA. Aspergillosis increased 5-fold the risk of death in lung transplant recipients. The positive predictive value of a positive BAL GM test at the 0.5 cutoff was low (24.2%). Raising the cutoff improved test specificity without compromising sensitivity. The best cutoff was defined at 1.5 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 90.4%).
This study reinforces the importance of BAL GM testing in lung transplant recipients, particularly to exclude the diagnosis of IA. To minimize the frequency of false-positive results, a higher test cutoff should be applied to BAL samples, in comparison with serum samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synchronous presentation of pulmonary and hepatic nodules in a patient with previously resected bronchogenic carcinoma raises suspicion of recurrence and mandates restaging. We present the case of a 71-year-old male with a history of lobectomy with pericardial resection and mediastinal lymphadenectomy (T3N0M0). At five years after the operation, he presented with a new pulmonary lesion. Restaging detected a synchronous nodule in the liver. Despite the strong suspicion of tumor recurrence, further investigation with a percutaneous liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. In order to investigate the etiology of the pulmonary lesion (hypotheses of recurrent bronchial cancer and of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma), an open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed chronic inflammatory tissue with foci of anthracosis and dystrophic calcification. The patient was submitted to a non-anatomic resection of the liver lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. This report highlights the relevance of the histopathological diagnosis in patients with a history of bronchogenic carcinoma and suspicion of tumor recurrence. Differential diagnoses and the treatment administered are discussed.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 07/2009; 35(6):602-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral bronchial carcinoids are uncommon. Their presentation as synchronous tumors is rare and limited to anecdotal cases.We report the case of a 62-year-old female with the radiological finding of multiple bilateral nodular lesions. Bilateral sequential thoracotomies were performed and all three nodules were treated by sublobar resections. Pathological examination revealed all specimens to be carcinoid tumors and subsequent investigation confirmed the lung as the primary site. A review of previous cases of multiple carcinoids is presented and the particularities of their management are discussed.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 03/2009; 57(1):58-60. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many advances have substantially improved the clinical results of lung transplantation. However, the incidence of bronchial complications is still high, with significant impact on survival and limited interventional strategies for complex cases. Our aim is to evaluate the surgical management of bronchial complications following lung transplantation.
From May 1989 to June 2007, 251 patients were submitted to lung transplantation at our institution. In five cases, the bronchial complications observed were dealt with open surgical procedures.
Complications surgically dealt were one broncho-arterial fistula and four stenosis. One left upper sleeve lobectomy, one right upper sleeve lobectomy and three segmental bronchial resections with anastomosis were performed. In all five cases the surgical procedure was successful and optimal bronchial healing was observed. Three patients died due to causes unrelated to the bronchial anastomosis 5, 21 and 32 months after the bronchoplastic procedure. Two patients are still alive and functionally well at 52 and 70 months post-bronchoplasty.
Surgical management of bronchial complications after lung transplantation may be the last resort in complex, recalcitrant cases, nevertheless it is a feasible procedure and can provide good results not only on short- but also long-term follow-up.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 09/2008; 34(6):1206-9. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate post-operative complications in living lobar lung transplant donors.
Between September of 1999 and May of 2005, lobectomies were performed in 32 healthy lung transplant donors for 16 recipients. The medical charts of these donors were retrospectively analyzed in order to determine the incidence of postoperative complications and alterations in pulmonary function after lobectomy.
Twenty-two donors (68.75%) presented no complications. Among the 10 donors presenting complications, the most frequently observed complication was pleural effusion, which occurred in 5 donors (15.6% of the sample). Red blood cell transfusion was necessary in 3 donors (9.3%), and 2 donors underwent a second surgical procedure due to hemothorax. One donor presented pneumothorax after chest tube removal, and one developed respiratory infection. There were two intra-operative complications (6.25%): one donor required bronchoplasty of the middle lobe; and another required lingular resection. No intra-operative mortality was observed. Post-operative pulmonary function tests demonstrated an average reduction of 20% in forced expiratory volume in one second (p < 000.1) compared to pre-operative values.
Lobectomy in living lung transplant donors presents high risk of post-operative complications and irreversible impairment of pulmonary function. Careful pre-operative evaluation is necessary in order to reduce the incidence of complications in living lobar lung transplant donors.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 05/2008; 34(5):256-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperacute rejection is a well-known complication in kidney and heart transplantations. However, its occurrence in lung transplantation is extremely rare, with only 4 cases previously described. A 53-year-old female patient blood type O with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent left lung transplantation. She had 2 negative pretransplantation evaluations for panel-reactive antibodies. One hour after the vascular clamps were released, progressive hypoxia developed. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed an optimal bronchial anastomosis; an abundant pink frothy fluid was observed on the allograft side. Chest X ray sevealed a completely opacified left lung. Due to the low-compliance of the transplanted lung and the risk for native lung hyperinsufflation, independent mechanical ventilation was employed. Despite all measures, multiple organ failure developed and the patient died 24 hours after the procedure. A necropsy evaluation for confirmed the patency of all anastomoses and no signs of ischemia. Retrospectively, a new evaluation for panel-reactive antibodies was performed, with 24% reactivity. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch was negative, however, a flow cytometric analysis was positive for both HLA-I (56%) and HLA-II (45%). Further investigation detected an anti-A2 in the recipient serum and the donor had an A2 antigen. Hyperacute rejection is a rare posttransplantation complication highlighted by its precocity and lethality. With the increased number of lung transplantations performed yearly, it is believed that its incidence will also rise. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and familiarity with management strategies are fundamental.