Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (337)3383.92 Total impact

  • Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 241(1):e12. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.04.058 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major cholesterol transporter highly expressed in the liver and brain. In the brain, ABCA1 lipidates apolipoprotein E (apoE), facilitates clearance of amyloid-β, and may be involved in maintenance of the blood-brain barrier via apoE-mediated pathways. We tested whether a loss-of-function mutation in ABCA1, N1800H, is associated with plasma levels of apoE and with risk of Alzheimer disease in 92,726 individuals and with risk of cerebrovascular disease in 64,181 individuals. N1800H AC (0.2%) versus AA (99.8%) was associated with a 13% lower plasma level of apoE (P = 1 × 10(-11)). Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for N1800H AC versus AA were 4.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-12.9) for Alzheimer disease, 2.46 (1.10-5.50) for cerebrovascular disease, and 8.28 (2.03-33.7) for the hemorrhagic stroke subtype. A loss-of-function mutation in ABCA1, present in 1:500 individuals, was associated with low plasma levels of apoE and with high risk of Alzheimer disease and cerebrovascular disease in the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.04.006 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is <3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) if >10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and adolescents with FH. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
    European Heart Journal 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv157 · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • Mette Christoffersen, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen
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    ABSTRACT: To summarize recent findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), whole-exome sequencing of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 'exome chip' studies pointing to novel genes in LDL metabolism. The genetic loci for ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8, Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1, sortilin-1, ABO blood-group glycosyltransferases, myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase have all consistently been associated with LDL cholesterol levels and/or coronary artery disease in GWAS. Whole-exome sequencing and 'exome chip' studies have additionally suggested several novel genes in LDL metabolism including insulin-induced gene 2, signal transducing adaptor family member 1, lysosomal acid lipase A, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 5 and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2. Most of these findings still require independent replications and/or functional studies to confirm the exact role in LDL metabolism and the clinical implications for human health. GWAS, exome sequencing studies, and recently 'exome chip' studies have suggested several novel genes with effects on LDL cholesterol. Novel genes in LDL metabolism will improve our understanding of mechanisms in LDL metabolism, and may lead to the identification of new drug targets to reduce LDL cholesterol levels.
    Current opinion in lipidology 04/2015; 26(3). DOI:10.1097/MOL.0000000000000175 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1 (NPC1L1), the transporter responsible for cholesterol uptake from the intestine into enterocytes and from the bile into hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in NPC1L1, mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, was associated with reduced risk of ischaemic vascular disease (IVD) and with increased risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. We included 67 385 individuals from the general population. Of these, 5255 and 3886 individuals developed IVD or symptomatic gallstone disease, respectively, during follow-up from 1977 to 2013. We genotyped four common NPC1L1variants, previously associated with reduced LDL cholesterol levels, thus mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, and calculated a weighted genotype score. With increasing genotype score, LDL cholesterol decreased stepwise up to 3.5% (0.12 mmol/L) and total cholesterol up to 1.9% (0.11 mmol/L) (P-trend: 2 × 10(-12) and 2 × 10(-9)). The cumulative incidence by age of IVD decreased, while that of symptomatic gallstone disease increased as a function of increasing genotype score (P-trend: 0.005 and 0.01). Hazard ratios for genotype scores ≥5.0 vs. <2.0 were 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.95) for IVD and 1.22 (0.99-1.49) for gallstone disease (P-trend across genotype scores: 0.004 and 0.01). Genetic variation in NPC1L1 is associated with a reduction in risk of IVD, with a corresponding reduction in LDL cholesterol, but with a concomitant increased risk of gallstone disease. These data support the hypothesis that treatment with ezetimibe protects against IVD but raise the question whether long-term treatment increases the risk of gallstone disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv108 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background To investigate potential cardiovascular and other eff ects of long-term pharmacological interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibition, we studied genetic variants that produce inhibition of IL-1, a master regulator of infl ammation.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. It remains however unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. Methods: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. Results: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia increased from the highest to the lowest apoE tertile (p for trends:<1 × 10(-6) ). Multifactorially adjusted HRs for lowest versus highest tertile were 2.68 (95% confidence interval: 2.04-3.52) and 1.80 (1.52-2.13) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia, respectively. After further adjustment for ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype, plasma apoE tertiles remained associated with Alzheimer disease (p for trend=0.007) and all dementia (p for trend=0.04). Plasma apoE tertiles did not interact with ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype on risk of Alzheimer disease (p=0.53) or all dementia (p=0.79). In a subanalysis, the -219G>T GT promoter genotype, associated with low plasma apoE levels, remained significantly associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease after adjustment for ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype (HR: 1.56 (1.05-2.30)). Interpretation: Low plasma levels of apoE are associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia in the general population, independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. This is clinically relevant, because no plasma biomarkers currently are implemented. Hence, plasma levels of apoE may be a new, easily accessible preclinical biomarker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 02/2015; 77(2). DOI:10.1002/ana.24326 · 11.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sex hormones may be critical determinants of ischemic heart disease and death in women, but results from previous studies are conflicting. To clarify this, we tested the hypothesis that extreme plasma concentrations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone are associated with risk of ischemic heart disease and death in women. In a nested prospective cohort study, we measured plasma estradiol in 4600 and total testosterone in 4716 women not receiving oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy from the 1981 to 1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During ≤30 years of follow-up, 1013 women developed ischemic heart disease and 2716 died. In women with a plasma estradiol below the fifth percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk of ischemic heart disease was 44% (95% confidence interval, 14%-81%) higher; however, plasma estradiol concentrations did not associate with death. Also, in women with a plasma testosterone concentration at or above the 95th percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk was 68% (34%-210%) higher for ischemic heart disease, 36% (18%-58%) higher for any death, and 38% (15%-65%) higher for death from other causes than cardiovascular disease and cancer. These results were similar for postmenopausal women alone. In women, extreme low concentrations of endogenous estradiol were associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease, and extreme high concentrations of endogenous testosterone were associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease and death. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 12/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304821 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. We used variants in ADH1B and ADH1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and prothrombin action. Analyses were undertaken on 58,313 Danes (mean age 56). In both confounder adjusted multivariable and genetic-IV analyses greater alcohol consumption, amongst those who drank any alcohol, was associated with higher ALT [mean difference per doubling of alcohol consumption: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1, 3.7) from multivariable analyses and 3.7% (-4.5, 11.9) from genetic-IV analyses] and γ-GT [8.2% (7.8, 8.5) and 6.8% (-2.8, 16.5)]. The point estimates from the two methods were very similar and statistically the results from the two methods were consistent with each other for effects with ALT and γ-GT (both pdiff>0.3). Results from the multivariable analyses suggested a weak inverse association of alcohol with ALP [-1.5% (-1.7, -1.3)], which differed from the strong positive effect found in genetic-IV analyses [11.6% (6.8, 16.4)] (pdiff<0.0001). In both multivariable and genetic-IV analyses associations with bilirubin and protrombin action were weak and close to the null. Our results suggest that greater consumption of alcohol is related to poorer liver function as indicated by higher ALT, γ-GT and ALP, but not to clotting or bilirubin.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114294. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114294 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (≤50 years in males and ≤60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol16. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl−1. At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase15, 17 and apolipoprotein C-III. Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.
    Nature 12/2014; advance online publication. DOI:10.1038/nature13917 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk due to obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and/or C-reactive protein. Methods and Results: ~90,000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index (BMI) and intermediate variables, and using genetic variants associated with these. During up to 22 years of follow-up 13,945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk due to obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The three intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were LDL cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional BMI were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. Conclusions: The increased IHD risk due to obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol, and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss.
    Circulation Research 11/2014; 116(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304846 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several cardiac diseases are autosomal dominantly inherited. This includes cardiomyopathies, primary arrhythmias (channelopathies), dyslipidaemias, premature ischaemic heart diseases and diseases of the thoracic aorta. Sudden cardiac death in the young is also often due to one of the inherited cardiac diseases. Clinical and genetic cascade family screening of the relatives to patients with inherited cardiac diseases is now organized in a national network of centres of cardiology, sharing pedigrees, clinical and genetic information. This gives unique opportunities for offering focused prophylaxis in the group of high-risk relatives.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 11/2014; 176(46).
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aetiology of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is complex and is influenced by a spectrum of environmental factors and susceptibility genes. Traditional statistical modelling considers such factors to act independently in an additive manner. The Patient Rule-Induction Method (PRIM) is a multi-model building strategy for evaluating risk attributable to context-dependent gene and environmental effects. Methods PRIM was applied to 9073 participants from the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). Gender-specific cumulative incidences were estimated for subgroups defined by categories of age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and by 94 single nucleotide variants (SNVs).Cumulative incidences for subgroups were validated using an independently ascertained sample of 58 240 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). Results In the CCHS the overall cumulative incidences were 0.17 in women and 0.21 in men. PRIM identified six and four mutually exclusive subgroups in women and men, respectively, with cumulative incidences of IHD ranging from 0.02 to 0.34. Cumulative incidences of IHD generated by PRIM in the CCHS were validated in four of the six subgroups of women and two of the four subgroups of men in the CGPS. Conclusions PRIM identified high-risk subgroups characterized by specific contexts of selected values of traditional risk factors and genetic variants. These subgroups were validated in an independently ascertained cohort study. Thus, a multi-model strategy may identify groups of individuals with substantially higher risk of IHD than the overall risk for the general population.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 10/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1093/ije/dyu215 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target. Methods We used single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HMGCR gene, rs17238484 (for the main analysis) and rs12916 (for a subsidiary analysis) as proxies for HMGCR inhibition by statins. We examined associations of these variants with plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations; bodyweight; waist circumference; and prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Study-specific effect estimates per copy of each LDL-lowering allele were pooled by meta-analysis. These findings were compared with a meta-analysis of new-onset type 2 diabetes and bodyweight change data from randomised trials of statin drugs. The effects of statins in each randomised trial were assessed using meta-analysis. Findings Data were available for up to 223 463 individuals from 43 genetic studies. Each additional rs17238484-G allele was associated with a mean 0·06 mmol/L (95% CI 0·05–0·07) lower LDL cholesterol and higher body weight (0·30 kg, 0·18–0·43), waist circumference (0·32 cm, 0·16–0·47), plasma insulin concentration (1·62%, 0·53–2·72), and plasma glucose concentration (0·23%, 0·02–0·44). The rs12916 SNP had similar effects on LDL cholesterol, bodyweight, and waist circumference. The rs17238484-G allele seemed to be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per allele 1·02, 95% CI 1·00–1·05); the rs12916-T allele association was consistent (1·06, 1·03–1·09). In 129 170 individuals in randomised trials, statins lowered LDL cholesterol by 0·92 mmol/L (95% CI 0·18–1·67) at 1-year of follow-up, increased bodyweight by 0·24 kg (95% CI 0·10–0·38 in all trials; 0·33 kg, 95% CI 0·24–0·42 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and −0·15 kg, 95% CI −0·39 to 0·08 in intensive-dose vs moderate-dose trials) at a mean of 4·2 years (range 1·9–6·7) of follow-up, and increased the odds of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·06–1·18 in all trials; 1·11, 95% CI 1·03–1·20 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and 1·12, 95% CI 1·04–1·22 in intensive-dose vs moderate dose trials). Interpretation The increased risk of type 2 diabetes noted with statins is at least partially explained by HMGCR inhibition. Funding The funding sources are cited at the end of the paper.
    09/2014; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61183-1
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies of plasma ferritin concentration have not revealed a relationship with total mortality. We tested the possible association of increased ferritin concentrations with increased risk of total and cause-specific mortality in the general population. METHODS: We examined total and cause-specific mortality according to baseline plasma ferritin concentrations in a Danish population-based study (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) of 8988 individuals, 6364 of whom died (median follow-up 23 years). We also included a meta-analysis of total mortality comprising population-based studies according to ferritin quartiles or tertiles. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality for individuals with ferritin >= 200 vs <200 mu g/L were 1.1 (95% CI 1.1-1.2; P = 0.0008) overall, 1.1 (1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) in men, and 1.2 (1.0-1.3; P = 0.03) in women. Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 x 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations >= 600 mu g/L, 72 years at 400-599 mu g/L, 76 years at 200-399 mu g/L, and 79 years at ferritin <200 mu g/L. The corresponding HR for total overall mortality for ferritin >= 600 vs <200 mu g/L was 1.5 (1.2-1.8; P = 0.00008). Corresponding adjusted HRs for ferritin >= 600 vs <200 mu g/L were 1.6 (1.1-2.3; P = 0.01) for cancer mortality, 2.9 (1.7-5.0; P = 0.0001) for endocrinological mortality, and 1.5 (1.1-2.0; P = 0.01) for cardiovascular mortality. The metaanalysis random effects odds ratio for total mortality for ferritin upper vs reference quartile or tertile was 1.0 (0.9-1.1; P = 0.3) (P heterogeneity = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Moderately to markedly increased ferritin concentrations represent a biological biomarker predictive of early death in a dose-dependent linear manner in the general population. (C) 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
    Clinical Chemistry 08/2014; DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2014.229013 · 7.77 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis 08/2014; 235(2):e79. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.05.205 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • 82nd Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS); 08/2014
  • Atherosclerosis 08/2014; 235(2):e18. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.05.020 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observationally, low levels of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (N=47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol decreasing gene scores and allele numbers associated with up to -13% and -20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-1.52) and 1.77 (1.61-1.95), while the genetic estimates were non-significant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2 diabetes for a 0.2 mmol/L reduction in HDL cholesterol were 0.91 (0.75-1.09) and 0.93 (0.78-1.11) for HDL cholesterol decreasing gene scores and allele numbers, respectively, compared to the corresponding observational hazard ratio of 1.37 (1.32-1.42). In conclusion, genetically reduced HDL cholesterol does not associate with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that the corresponding observational association is due to confounding and/or reverse causation. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2014; 235(2):e32. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.05.063 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of HoFH, and the availability of new therapeutic options, this Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) critically reviewed available data with the aim of providing clinical guidance for the recognition and management of HoFH.
    European Heart Journal 07/2014; 35(32). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu274 · 14.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
3,383.92 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Rigshospitalet
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2014
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1998–2014
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Glostrup Hospital
      • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Steno Diabetes Center
      Gjentofte, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1997–2014
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1992–2013
    • Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen University
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2012
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University College London
      • Institute of Cardiovascular Science
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • København Zoo
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1991–2007
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Endocrinology
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2006
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2005
    • Hillerød Hospital
      Hillerød, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States