[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A surface modification of interdigitated gold microelectrodes (IDEs) with a doped polypyrrole (PPy) film for detection of dopamine released from populations of differentiated PC12 cells is presented. A thin PPy layer was potentiostatically electropolymerized from an aqueous pyrrole solution onto electrode surfaces. The conducting polymer film was doped during electropolymerization by introducing counter-ions in the monomer solution. Several counter-ions were tested and the resulting electrode modifications were characterized electrochemically to find the optimal dopant that increases sensitivity in dopamine detection. Overoxidation of the PPy films was shown to contribute to a significant enhancement in sensitivity to dopamine. The changes caused by overoxidation in the electrochemical behavior and electrode morphology were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and SEM as well as AFM, respectively. The optimal dopant for dopamine detection was found to be polystyrene sulfonate anion (PSS(-)). Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a suitable model to study exocytotic dopamine release, were differentiated on IDEs functionalized with an overoxidized PSS(-)-doped PPy film. The modified electrodes were used to amperometrically detect dopamine released by populations of cells upon triggering cellular exocytosis with an elevated K(+) concentration. A comparison between the generated current on bare gold electrodes and gold electrodes modified with overoxidized doped PPy illustrates the clear advantage of the modification, yielding 2.6-fold signal amplification. The results also illustrate how to use cell population based dopamine exocytosis measurements to obtain biologically significant information that can be relevant in, for instance, the study of neural stem cell differentiation into dopaminergic neurons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventionally, microbial bioelectrochemical assays have been conducted using immobilized cells on an electrode that is placed in an electrochemical batch cell. In this paper, we describe a developed microfluidic platform with integrated microelectrode arrays for automated bioelectrochemical assays utilizing a new double mediator system to map redox metabolism and screen for genetic modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The function of this new double mediator system based on menadione and osmium redox polymer (PVI-Os) is demonstrated. "Wiring" of S. cerevisiae cells using PVI-Os shows a significant improvement of bioelectrochemical monitoring in a microfluidic environment and functions as an effective immobilization matrix for cells that are not strongly adherent. The function of the developed microfluidic platform is demonstrated using two strains of S. cerevisiae, ENY.WA and its deletion mutant EBY44, which lacks the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase. The cellular responses to introduced glucose and fructose were recorded for the two S. cerevisiae strains, and the obtained results are compared with previously published work when using an electrochemical batch cell, indicating that microfluidic bioelectrochemical assays employing the menadione-PVI-Os double mediator system provides an effective means to conduct automated microbial assays.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microfluidics systems usually consist of materials like PMMA - poly(methyl methacrylate) and PDMS - poly(dimethylsiloxane) and not polystyrene (PS), which is usually used for cell culture. Cellular and molecular responses in cells grown on PS are well characterized due to decades of accumulated research. In contrast, the experience base is limited for materials used in microfludics chip fabrication.
The effect of different materials (PS, PMMA and perforated PMMA with a piece of PDMS underneath) on the growth and differentiation of PC12 (adrenal phaeochromocytoma) cells into neuronal-like cells was investigated using cell viability, cell cycle distribution, morphology, and gene expression analysis.
After differentiation, the morphology, viability and cell cycle distribution of PC12 cells grown on PS, PMMA with and without PDMS underneath was the same. By contrast, 41 genes showed different expression for PC12 cells differentiating on PMMA as compared to on PS. In contrast, 677 genes showed different expression on PMMA with PDMS underneath as compared with PC12 cells on PS. The differentially expressed genes are involved in neuronal cell development and function. However, there were also many markers for neuronal cell development and functions that were expressed similarly in cells differentiating on PS, PMMA and PMMA with PDMS underneath. In conclusion, it was shown that PMMA has a minor impact and PDMS a major impact on gene expression in PC12 cells.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53107. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel potentiostat containing 54 current amplifiers matched to an array of custom-fabricated 5μm microelectrodes for electrochemical imaging of released neurotransmitters is presented. The board is integrated with a programmable microfluidic cell culture system and the whole assembly is thin and compact enough to be placed under the objective of a standard microscope for simultaneous optical and electrochemical monitoring. Each channel, scanned every 54μs, features 3pA current resolution over a 5kHz bandwidth, suitable for detecting single exocytotic events. The design and electrical characterization of the system are reported together with its functionality, certified by a 54-pixel electrochemical imaging of the diffusion of a 10μl droplet of a target analyte inside the cell culture chamber.
2012 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS 2012); 11/2012
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An electrochemical detection system specifically designed for multi-parameter real-time monitoring of stem cell culturing/differentiation in a microfluidic system is presented. It is composed of a very compact 24-channel electronic board, compatible with arrays of microelectrodes and coupled to a microfluidic cell culture system. A versatile data acquisition software enables performing amperometry, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in each of the 12 independent chambers over a 100 kHz bandwidth with current resolution down to 5 pA for 100 ms measuring time. The design of the platform, its realization and experimental characterization are reported, with emphasis on the analysis of impact of input capacitance (i.e., microelectrode size) and microfluidic pump operation on current noise. Programmable sequences of successive injections of analytes (ferricyanide and dopamine) and rinsing buffer solution as well as the impedimetric continuous tracking for seven days of the proliferation of a colony of PC12 cells are successfully demonstrated.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 10/2012; 6(5):498-507. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A microfluidic component library for building systems driving parallel or serial microfluidic-based assays is presented. The components are a miniaturized eight-channel peristaltic pump, an eight-channel valve, sample-to-waste liquid management, and interconnections. The library of components was tested by constructing various systems supporting perfusion cell culture, automated DNA hybridizations, and in situ hybridizations. The results showed that the MainSTREAM components provided (1) a rapid, robust, and simple method to establish numerous fluidic inputs and outputs to various types of reaction chips; (2) highly parallel pumping and routing/valving capability; (3) methods to interface pumps and chip-to-liquid management systems; (4) means to construct a portable system; (5) reconfigurability/flexibility in system design; (6) means to interface to microscopes; and (7) compatibility with tested biological methods. It was found that LEGO Mindstorms motors, controllers, and software were robust, inexpensive, and an accessible choice as compared with corresponding custom-made actuators. MainSTREAM systems could operate continuously for weeks without leaks, contamination, or system failures. In conclusion, the MainSTREAM components described here meet many of the demands on components for constructing and using microfluidics systems.
Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation 09/2012; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristaltic pumps, bubble traps, gas exchange chip, and cell culture chambers. We have successfully applied this system for studying the antibiotic therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the bacteria mainly responsible for morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis, in different oxygen environments. Furthermore, we have mimicked the bacterial reinoculation of the aerobic compartments (lower respiratory tract) from the anaerobic compartments (cystic fibrosis sinuses) following an antibiotic treatment. This effect is hypothesised as the one on the main reasons for recurrent lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a series of experiments showing that vertical self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanowires (PNWs) are a suitable candidate material for cellular biosensing. We grew HeLa and PC12 cells onto PNW modified gold surfaces and observed no hindrance of cell growth caused by the peptide nanostructures; furthermore we studied the properties of PNWs by investigating their influence on the electrochemical behavior of gold electrodes. The PNWs were functionalized with polypyrrole (PPy) by chemical polymerization, therefore creating conducting peptide/polymer nanowire structures vertically attached to a metal electrode. The electroactivity of such structures was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The PNW/PPy modified electrodes were finally used as amperometric dopamine sensors, yielding a detection limit of 3,1 microM.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 04/2012; 12(4):3077-83. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the use of impedance measurements for label-free monitoring of
cells has become widespread but still the choice of sensing
configuration is not unique though crucial for a quantitative
interpretation of data, we demonstrate the application of a novel custom
multipotentiostat platform to study optimal detection strategies.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to monitor
and compare adhesion of different cell lines. HeLa cells and 3T3
fibroblasts have been cultured for 12 hours on interdigitated electrode
arrays integrated into a tailor-made cell culture platform. Both
vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configuration approaches
have been used and compared on the same cell populations.
Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2012; 407(1):012029.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a method to create giant protein vesicles (GPVs) of ≥10 μm by solvent-driven fusion of large vesicles (0.1-0.2 μm) with reconstituted membrane proteins. We found that formation of GPVs proceeded from rotational mixing of protein-reconstituted large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) with a lipid-containing solvent phase. We made GPVs by using n-decane and squalene as solvents, and applied generalized polarization (GP) imaging to monitor the polarity around the protein transmembrane region of aquaporins labeled with the polarity-sensitive probe Badan. Specifically, we created GPVs of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ aquaporins. Our findings show that hydrophobic interactions within the bilayer of formed GPVs are influenced not only by the solvent partitioning propensity, but also by lipid composition and membrane protein isoform.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both aquaporins. However, we do not find compelling evidence for unfolding. In contrast when SDS is added to detergent stabilized aquaporins, SoPIP2;1 partly unfolds, while AqpZ secondary structure is unaffected. Using a fluorescent polarity sensitive probe (Badan) we show that SDS action on membrane reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up to 12.5× CMC. Combined, our results show that SDS does not unfold neither SoPIP2;1 nor AqpZ during transition from a membrane reconstituted form to a detergent stabilized state albeit the native folds are changed.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2011; 1808(10):2600-7. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We establish a protein incorporation efficacy assay using the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA) as reporter. We use electrical conductance measurements and fluorescence microscopy to characterize proteoliposome fusion with an array of planar membranes. We show that protein reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR)=50 more than 10(5) FomA proteins could be incorporated in a bilayer array with a total membrane area of 2mm(2) within 20 min. This novel assay for quantifying protein delivery into lipid bilayers may be a useful tool in developing biomimetic membrane applications.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 406(1):96-100. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular electron flow were observed when cells were supplied with different carbon sources. A higher electrochemical response was detected when cells were supplied with xylose than with sucrose or glucose. Moreover, using the mediated electrochemical method, it was possible to detect differences in the electron flow between cells harvested in the exponential and stationary growth phases. The electron flow of C. saccharolyticus was dependent on the NADH- and reduced ferredoxin generation flux and the competitive behavior of cytosolic and membrane-associated oxidoreductases. Sodium oxamate was used to inhibit the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A microfluidic chip for generation of gradients of dissolved oxygen was designed, fabricated and tested. The novel way of active oxygen depletion through a gas permeable membrane was applied. Numerical simulations for generation of O(2) gradients were correlated with measured oxygen concentrations. The developed microsystem was used to study growth patterns of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with different oxygen concentrations. The results showed that attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the substrate changed with oxygen concentration. This demonstrates that the device can be used for studies requiring controlled oxygen levels and for future studies of microaerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Lab on a Chip 08/2010; 10(16):2162-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconfigurable microfluidic elements including multi-channel interconnection and peristaltic pump components are described. The elements form the basis of a modular microfluidic system which features and provides a small footprint, unobstructed microscopic observation, portability and supports a wide variety of assays. Design, fabrication and characterization of the elements are described, as are both motorized and non-motorized methods to control and actuate fluidic networks supported by the system. Applications using the approach are also presented. INTRODUCTION Ease of use, reliability and accessibility remain barriers to the adoption of microfluidic approaches [1, 2]. Practical issues including interconnections, pump capacity and control, and suitability to microscopic observation often complicate microfluidic setups. We present modular interconnection and pump components which address these issues and provide simple, reliable and multiple parallel chip-to-world and chip-to-chip interconnectivity and pump capacity. Additionally, for non-experts developing microfluidic investigations there is also a lack of accessible and easily implementable control and actuation solutions. To circumvent this issue, a hand crank is used for simple applications requiring simple fluidic actuation or the commercial LEGO ® Mindstorms TM kit is used to program and control pumps when higher degrees of automation are required. DESIGN AND FABRICATION Microfluidic ribbons ((FRs) (Figure 1) provide interconnectivity between system components. Each FR is cast from PDMS and contains eight integrated channels with 240 μm inner diameters spaced 2.25 mm centre-to-centre (1536 well plate standard). Three FR versions eliminate further tubing requirements. Type I FRs permit direct chip-to-chip or chip-to-reservoir connectivity. Type II FRs connect microfluidic components through a further miniaturized and improved version of an 8-channel micro-peristaltic pump (see below, Figure 2) we previously described . Type III FRs provide chip-to-waste flow (not shown). Faces and integrated channels of FRs which link components together contain ball joint features (Figure 1) which provide self-aligning, minimal dead volume sealed interconnections . Screws are used to connect elements together (Figure 2) and provide the compressive force which yields interconnection supporting pressures greater than 200 kPa , the threshold applicable to most microfluidic applications . All FRs are manufactured from micromilled PMMA moulds in a manner previously described .
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in biomimetic membrane systems have resulted in an increase in membrane lifetimes from hours to days and months. Long-lived membrane systems demand the development of both new automated monitoring equipment capable of measuring electrophysiological membrane characteristics and new data processing software to analyze and organize the large amounts of data generated. In this work, we developed an automated instrumental voltage clamp solution based on a custom-designed software controller application (the WaveManager), which enables automated on-line voltage clamp data acquisition applicable to long-time series experiments. We designed another software program for off-line data processing. The automation of the on-line voltage clamp data acquisition and off-line processing was furthermore integrated with a searchable database (DiscoverySheet) for efficient data management. The combined solution provides a cost efficient and fast way to acquire, process and administrate large amounts of voltage clamp data that may be too laborious and time consuming to handle manually.