Patricia Buchholz

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon, Dijon, Bourgogne, France

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Publications (14)23.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To describe treatment patterns among patients with central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO) in France, Germany, and Italy, and to estimate retinal vein occlusion (RVO)-related direct medical costs. Methods. We used a retrospective chart review to determine 18-month RVO-related resource utilization and calculate 12-month health care costs. Country-specific unit costs (€) were assigned to each resource from the perspective of the health care payer. Costs for France and Germany were based on 2005, and for Italy on 2007 values. Results. Data from a total of 109 BRVO and 119 patients with CRVO were used in the analysis. Laser therapy was the most commonly used intervention in Germany, for both CRVO and patients with BRVO (95%-98% of treatments), while patients in France with either condition had triamcinolone injections most often (63%-67% of treatments). Injections were also administered frequently in Italy and were the most common treatment for CRVO (50%), whereas patients with BRVO used laser therapy most often (41%). Inpatient treatment was most common in Germany (42% of CRVO and 34% of patients with BRVO), and did not occur at all in Italy except for day admissions. Total costs were higher for patients with CRVO in all countries. Most costs in Italy and France were attributable to outpatient treatment. In Germany, hospitalization made up the largest proportion of costs (80%), although more patients used outpatient services. Conclusions. Approaches to treating BRVO and CRVO vary across European countries. Development of agreed-upon guidelines would support consistency in patient care and reimbursement policy.
    European journal of ophthalmology 06/2012; 22(5):776-84. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low vision that causes forfeiture of driver's licenses and collection of disability pension benefits can lead to negative psychosocial and economic consequences. The purpose of this study was to review the requirements for holding a driver's license and rules for obtaining a disability pension due to low vision. Results highlight the possibility of using a milestone approach to describe progressive eye disease. Government and research reports, websites, and journal articles were evaluated to review rules and requirements in Germany, Spain, Italy, France, the UK, and the US. Visual acuity limits are present in all driver's license regulations. In most countries, the visual acuity limit is 0.5. Visual field limits are included in some driver's license regulations. In Europe, binocular visual field requirements typically follow the European Union standard of ≥120°. In the US, the visual field requirements are typically between 110° and 140°. Some countries distinguish between being partially sighted and blind in the definition of legal blindness, and in others there is only one limit. Loss of driving privileges could be used as a milestone to monitor progressive eye disease. Forfeiture could be standardized as a best-corrected visual acuity of <0.5 or visual field of <120°, which is consistent in most countries. However, requirements to receive disability pensions were too variable to standardize as milestones in progressive eye disease. Implementation of the World Health Organization criteria for low vision and blindness would help to establish better comparability between countries.
    Clinical Ophthalmology 01/2010; 4:1361-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate long-term resource consumption and clinical outcome of patients with early primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with prostaglandins in clinical practice in France. Thirty-four geographically spread specialized hospitals and private practices enrolled consecutive patients receiving, for the first time, a prostaglandin, alone or in combination. The study was based on routine practice and no consultations, examinations, or treatments were mandated by the protocol. Treating physicians recorded each consultation, including all examinations performed, referrals, admissions, and prescriptions. Descriptive analysis of resource consumption and development of intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual fields was performed, for all patients who completed the 4-year follow-up. The study enrolled 602 patients and 78% completed 4-year follow-up. Mean age was 65 years and mean time since diagnosis was 4 years. Mean IOP was reduced from a baseline of 21.2 mm Hg to 16.5 mm Hg during the first year and remained stable throughout the study. Mean visual fields at baseline were -4.2 mean deviation and stable during the follow-up. Total mean health care costs per patient were €1947, of which medication represented 50%. Over half of the patients (52%) remained on their initial medication during the 4 years. Drug changes were mostly because of inadequate IOP control and the number of treatment switches was significantly related to costs. This is the first prospective study of treatment with prostaglandins in clinical practice. The results indicate that many patients with early glaucoma managed primarily with prostaglandins will show very little progression over 4 years. Compared with the mid-90s, costs have not increased despite the higher acquisition cost of prostaglandins, as surgical interventions and medical consultations have decreased.
    Journal of glaucoma 09/2009; 19(3):199-206. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Ulrich Thelen, Patricia Buchholz, Friedemann Kimmich
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    ABSTRACT: At the introduction of the fixed-combination of brimonidine/timolol in Germany in 2006, a non-interventional, multicenter, observational, open-label study was initiated to evaluate efficacy, tolerability, and safety of this preparation in a broad patient population. The study population comprised patients with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) control who participating physicians determined required a change of medication, and who switched to exclusive use of the new fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5%. Patient demographics and information on specific risk factors were collected. IOP readings were recorded for each eye at treated baseline (previous therapy), 4 to 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after changing to twice-daily brimonidine/timolol. Tolerability was measured using a four-step scale ranging from excellent to poor. All adverse events were recorded. Mean treated baseline IOP (+/-SD) for all patients (N = 861) was 20.8 +/- 3.5 mmHg. Five hundred sixty-five patients switched from monotherapy, 138 patients switched from other fixed combinations, and 158 patients had been using non-fixed combinations of up to four different active agents. The brimonidine/timolol fixed combination provided an additional IOP decrease in most pretreatment subgroups, with an overall reduction to 16.9 +/- 2.6 mmHg after 4 to 6 weeks and to 16.5 +/- 2.7 mmHg after 12 weeks. Both of these values were significantly lower than baseline IOP (p < 0.001). A target pressure of <18 mmHg was achieved in 79.5% of all eyes at week 12. Tolerability of fixed-combination brimonidine/timolol was rated excellent or good by the physicians for 97.1% of patients, and by 93.4% of the patients themselves. Few adverse events occurred during the treatment period. Although this study was limited by its observational design, our results show that the fixed combination of brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% was effective, well tolerated, and safe in a broad POAG patient population.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 04/2009; 25(4):1003-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Cord Feuerhake, Patricia Buchholz, Friedemann Kimmich
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03% and timolol 0.5% (Ganfort) among German patients. Multicenter, observational, open-label study of patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (n = 606). As determined by participating physicians, patients had insufficient IOP control and required a medication change. They were switched to once-daily fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol with no wash-out period. IOP was recorded at treated baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks after switching. Tolerability was measured using a 4-step scale (excellent, good, moderate, poor) and all adverse events were recorded. A total of 405 patients switched from monotherapy, 97 switched from other fixed combinations, and 104 switched from non-fixed combinations. Among all patients, 32.5% had used prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy, 8.7% had been using a fixed combination that included a PGA, and 6.9% had been using an adjunctive combination of a PGA and a beta-blocker. Mean treated baseline IOP (+/-SD) for all patients was 20.7 +/- 3.5 mmHg. Overall, changing medication to fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol lowered IOP to 16.6 +/- 2.7 mmHg (p < 0.001 vs. baseline) after 4-6 weeks and to 16.1 +/- 2.6 mmHg (p < 0.001) after 12 weeks; reductions of 19.8% and 22.2%, respectively. Combined bimatoprost/timolol provided an additional IOP reduction versus baseline in most subgroups based on prior treatment. At week 12, patients who had previously used a beta-blocker achieved an additional 25.8% decrease from baseline and IOP was reduced by 22.6% in former PGA monotherapy patients. At week 12, 84.6% of all eyes reached a target pressure less than or equal to 18 mmHg. Tolerability of bimatoprost/timolol was rated excellent or good by the physicians for 98.7% of patients and by 96.7% of the patients themselves. Few adverse events occurred during the treatment period. Although this study was limited by its observational design, our results show that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% was effective, well tolerated, and safe in a broad patient population.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 04/2009; 25(4):1037-43. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well accepted that conditions that cause central vision loss (CVL) have a negative impact on functional ability and quality of life (QoL), but the impact of diseases that cause peripheral vision loss (PVL) is less well understood. Focusing on glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the effects of CVL and PVL on QoL were compared. A systematic literature review of publications reporting QoL in patients with CVL or PVL identified 87 publications using four generic (Short-Form Health Survey-36 and -12, EuroQoL EQ-5D and Sickness Impact Profile) and five vision-specific (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-51, -39, and -25, Impact of Vision Impairment and Visual Function-14) QoL instruments; 33 and 15 publications reported QoL in ARMD and glaucoma, respectively. QoL was impaired to a similar extent by diseases associated with PVL and CVL, but different domains were affected. In contrast to ARMD, mental aspects appeared to be affected more than physical aspects in patients with glaucoma. The differential impact upon QoL might be a function of the pathology of the diseases, for example potential for blindness and better ability to perform physical tasks due to retention of central vision may explain these observations in glaucoma.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 02/2009; 3:433-45.
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    Thomas Kaercher, Patricia Buchholz, Friedemann Kimmich
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Optive, a new dry eye product containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) and glycerol (0.9%), in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). This was a non-interventional and observational study including patients with dry eye who required a change of medication or were naïve to dry eye treatment (N = 5,277). Disease severity, tear break-up time (TBUT), tolerability, and change in clinical symptoms were recorded at baseline and at final visit (2 to 4 weeks after first treatment). The severity of KCS was mild in 18.6%, moderate in 59.9%, and severe in 21.5% of patients based on physicians' assessment. TBUT was measured in 4,338 patients before switching to or initiating therapy with Optive and at final visit. Baseline measurement of mean TBUT was 7.7 +/- 3.9 seconds. This value increased to 10.0 +/- 4.7 seconds at final visit. Most patients (85.4%) reported improvement in local comfort. The majority (75.1%) of patients felt an improvement in symptoms after changing their treatment. Two percent of patients reported adverse events, and 0.4% were treatment-related. Optive was well tolerated and improved the symptoms of dry eye after 2 to 4 weeks.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 02/2009; 3:33-9.
  • Tim Mills, Simon K Law, John Walt, Patricia Buchholz, Jan Hansen
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases have a long-term negative impact on quality of life (QOL). Decreased QOL is associated with increased financial burden on healthcare systems and society. However, few publications have investigated the impact of glaucoma on patients' QOL in comparison with other chronic diseases observed in patients with similar demographic characteristics. To this end, a systematic literature search to assess QOL in glaucoma and three other chronic diseases (osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dementia) was performed. A total of 146 publications were identified that reported QOL using six commonly used generic QOL instruments: 36-, 12- and 20-item Short-Form Health Surveys (SF-36, -12 and -20), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Health Utilities Index-Mark III (HUI-III). The publication breakdown was as follows: glaucoma (10%), osteoporosis (26%), diabetes (52%) and dementia (12%); one publication assessed QOL in glaucoma, diabetes and dementia. QOL was affected to a similar or slightly lesser degree by glaucoma than by osteoporosis, diabetes or dementia. Among the publications reporting SF-36, -12 and -20 evaluations, physical component scores were generally lower than mental component scores across all diseases. QOL was affected more in patients with glaucoma than in demographically matched non-glaucomatous controls according to SF-20 assessment. EQ-5D and SIP results showed that QOL decreased as the severity of glaucoma increased. Patients with glaucoma had the lowest scores on the SIP instrument, indicating better QOL than patients with osteoporosis or diabetes (no data were available on dementia). The HUI-III instrument identified poorer QOL in patients with dementia than other diseases, probably due to cognitive deficits. However, for some of the instruments, data were scarce, and interpretation of the results should be conservative. Although there are limited published QOL studies in glaucoma, its impact on QOL appears to be broadly similar to that of other serious chronic diseases. Development of a QOL instrument that measures vision-specific and general health aspects would better document the impact of glaucoma on QOL and would facilitate comparisons with other chronic disease states.
    Drugs & Aging 01/2009; 26(11):933-50. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the degree to which glaucoma treatment guidelines have been incorporated into daily practices and to describe the therapeutic practices chosen for patients with insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Ophthalmologists in private practice in Germany were surveyed to obtain information about patients who exhibited unsatisfactory progress with IOP-lowering pharmacotherapy. Using a questionnaire, physicians provided data concerning treatment difficulty, target IOP, number and type of medications used, two most recent IOP readings, and optic nerve head and visual field observations. Of the 853 patients analyzed, primary open-angle glaucoma was the diagnosis for 67.1%, and other diagnoses included ocular hypertension, normal tension glaucoma, and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Target IOP levels had been determined for 95.5% of patients, and not achieving the target pressure was identified as a treatment difficulty for 81.0% of patients. Of patients on monotherapy, beta-blockers were prescribed most often (42.3%). Of all patients, 53.3% were treated with two or more agents as either fixed or non-fixed combinations. The non-fixed combination of a prostaglandin and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor was the most frequently prescribed dual therapy (19.2%). Non-fixed prostaglandin plus beta-blocker was used by 18.0% of dual therapy patients, whereas the available fixed combination was used by 10.5%. Non-compliance was identified as a cause of unsatisfactory IOP-lowering in 26.8% of all patients. This study is limited by its descriptive, non-interventional design. Treatment alterations are necessary to achieve sufficient IOP control in some patients. If these patients were to take advantage of more aggressive therapies as outlined by treatment guidelines, including newer formulations and fixed combination preparations, both efficacy and compliance may be improved.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2008; 24(5):1295-301. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this cost-effectiveness analysis is to evaluate cost-effectiveness ratios of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering agents bimatoprost, latanoprost and timolol in five major European countries: France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The cost-effectiveness analysis is based on achievement of IOP targets between 13 and 18 mm Hg. Thus, the cost-effectiveness ratios express the costs of having one patient successfully achieving IOP target. The perspective of the analysis is that of the health care sector payer, including costs of medicine and costs of ophthalmologist visits. The time frame is first year of glaucoma treatment. Four treatment strategies are analysed: Timolol as first line with add-on latanoprost or bimatoprost if IOP targets are not met, and latanoprost and bimatoprost as first line with add-on timolol. In the UK, Spain, Italy and Germany the timolol first with add-on of bimatoprost is the least expensive treatment. This strategy dominates both strategies involving latanoprost (as add-on to timolol or as first line) in these four countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bimatoprost first-line therapy versus timolol with add-on bimatoprost varies from each country and target (from 305 pounds sterlings to 43,720 euros per patient). In France the timolol first line and latanoprost add-on is not dominated and is the cheapest alternative. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of timolol with add-on bimatoprost versus add-on latanoprost lies between 71 euros and 355 euros per patient depending on target (18 and 13 mm Hg, respectively). First-line treatment of latanoprost is dominated in all countries. In four out of five countries the timolol first-line therapy with add-on latanoprost is also dominated. Based on this pharmacoeconomic analysis, the most cost-effective strategy seems to be timolol first line with add-on bimatoprost if target is not met after 3 months.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2006; 22(5):897-905. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess resource utilization and costs associated with glaucoma management in France and Sweden. A total of 267 patient records (121 in France, 146 in Sweden) with diagnoses of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OH), treated medically, were reviewed for a 2-year period (beginning during 1997-99) for relevant clinical and resource utilization data. Economic data were applied to estimate treatment costs. The annual cost of treating glaucoma was estimated at SEK5305 (531 euro )/patient in Sweden and 390 euro/patient in France. In both countries, medication costs comprised about half of the total costs. Surgical procedures and hospitalizations represented greater proportions of total cost in France (7.0% and 9.6%, respectively) than in Sweden (3.7% and 0.6%, respectively). Medication costs represent a high proportion of total treatment costs. These findings highlight the relative importance of medical therapy and of assessing the cost-effectiveness of medications in glaucoma.
    Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 03/2006; 84(1):74-83. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this review was to evaluate different measures of efficacy of the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering lipid class agents bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma. Study arms of timolol in trials including the above mentioned lipid class drugs were also included. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized clinical trials including one or more of the lipid class drugs bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost. The study results were pooled, and the simple, weighted IOP-lowering efficacy was compared among the lipid class drugs and timolol, where data were available. Efficacy parameters were reviewed, including mean reduction of IOP and percentage of patients achieving different levels of IOP. 161 articles were identified of which 42 were included in the analysis. A total of 9295 patients participated in the included trials. Based on all studies, timolol on average had a weighted mean IOP reduction of 22.2%, while latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost had a weighted mean IOP reduction of 26.7%, 28.7% and 30.3%, respectively. Analysis of target achievement to various IOP levels shows that bimatoprost seems more efficacious than latanoprost. The direct comparisons (head-to-head studies) also show that bimatoprost is the most efficacious treatment, however it is not conclusive whether latanoprost or travoprost is better in reducing IOP. This review shows that bimatoprost seems to be the most efficacious treatment in lowering IOP. Head-to-head studies confirm this.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 12/2005; 21(11):1875-83. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review recent evidence evaluating the effect of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema on health-related quality of life. A search of PubMed was conducted according to a strategy that combined the text words 'diabetic retinopathy' and 'quality of life' (n = 91; November 11, 2004) and 'diabetic macular edema' and 'quality of life' (n = 6; November 22, 2004). The Methods sections of all abstracts were reviewed for valid generic or disease-specific instruments used to evaluate health-related quality of life. In addition, abstracts were reviewed to ensure that the study sample was made up predominantly of diabetic individuals. Recent data suggest that persons with diabetic retinopathy are willing to trade off significant time to eliminate their ocular condition (mean time tradeoff score = 0.77-0.8) and that laser photocoagulation can improve health-related quality of life (significant improvement noted in 8 of 11 domains in the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire). In addition, recent research has noted that health-related quality of life can become affected in persons with diabetic retinopathy prior to visual loss, primarily because of anxiety about the future and emotional reaction to diagnosis and treatment. From a search of the literature, several recent articles could be identified that demonstrated both a qualitative and a quantitative reduction in health-related quality of life in persons with diabetic retinopathy. With many novel treatments being explored for the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, measuring health-related quality of life will likely play an important role both in the decision to offer treatment and in monitoring relevant health gains that may be derived from intervention.
    Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 07/2005; 16(3):155-9. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eye Allergy Patient Impact Questionnaire (EAPIQ) was developed based on a pilot study conducted in the US and focus groups with eye allergy sufferers in Europe. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the psychometric validation of the EAPIQ. One hundred forty six patients from two allergy clinics completed the EAPIQ twice over a two-week period during the fall and winter allergy seasons, along with concurrent measures of health status, work productivity, and utility. Construct validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), concurrent, known-group, and clinical validities, and responsiveness of the EAPIQ were assessed. Known-group validity was assessed by comparing EAPIQ scale scores between patients grouped according to their self-rating of ocular allergy severity (no symptoms, very mild, mild, moderate, severe, very severe). Clinical validity was assessed by assessing differences in EAPIQ scores between groups of patients rated by their clinician as non-symptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe. Results from the validation study suggested the deletion of 14 of 43 items (including embedded questions) that required patients to complete the percentage of time they were troubled by something (daily activity limitations/emotional troubles). These items yielded a significant amount of missing or inconsistent data (50%). The resulting factor analysis suggested four domains: symptoms, daily life impact, psychosocial impact, and treatment satisfaction. When included as separate scales, the symptom-bother and symptom-frequency scales were highly correlated (> 0.9). As a consequence, and due to superior discriminative validity, the symptom bother and frequency items were summed. All items met the tests for item convergent validity (item-scale correlation = 0.4). The success rate for item discriminant validity testing was 97% (item-scale correlation greater with own scale than with any other). The criterion for internal consistency reliability (alpha coefficient > or = 0.70) was met for all EAPIQ scales (range 0.89-0.93), as was the criterion for test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation [ICC] > or = 0.70). Largely moderate correlations between the scales of the EAPIQ and the mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (miniRQLQ) and low correlations with the Health Utilities Index 2/3 (HUI2/3) were indicative of satisfactory concurrent validity. The EAPIQ symptoms, Daily Life Impact, and Psychosocial Impact scales were able to distinguish between patients differing in eye allergy symptom severity, as rated by patients and clinicians, providing evidence of satisfactory known-group and clinical validities, respectively. Preliminary analyses indicated the EAPIQ Symptoms, Daily Life Impact, and Psychosocial Impact scales to be responsive to changes in eye allergies. Following item reduction, construct validity, reliability, concurrent validity, known-group validity, and preliminary responsiveness were satisfactory for the EAPIQ in this population of ocular allergy patients.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 02/2005; 3:67. · 2.27 Impact Factor