Fergus J Cameron

Diabetes Australia, Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (128)433.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Massive insulin overdose may be associated with unpredictable and prolonged hypoglycemia. Concerns surrounding the potential provocation of insulin release from beta cells have previously prevented the use of intravenous glucagon as an adjunct to infusion of dextrose in this situation. We describe the case of a 15-yr-old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who presented with profound hypoglycemia following an overdose of an unknown quantity of premixed insulin. Owing to an increasing dextrose requirement and a dependence on hourly intramuscular glucagon injections, a continuous intravenous infusion of glucagon was commenced which successfully avoided the requirement for central venous access or concentrated dextrose infusion. Nausea was managed with anti-emetics. Intramuscular and subcutaneous glucagon is effective in the management of refractory and severe hypoglycemia in youth with both T1DM and hyperinsulinism. Concerns regarding the precipitation of rebound hypoglycemia with the use of intravenous glucagon do not relate to those with T1DM. This treatment option may be a useful adjunct in the management of insulin overdose in youth with T1DM and may avoid the requirement for invasive central venous access placement.
    Pediatric Diabetes 09/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a cognitive behaviour therapy-based programme to improve glycaemic control and psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A total of 147 adolescents aged 13-16 years were randomized to the intervention (n = 73) or standard care (n = 74). The primary outcome was glycaemic control at 3 and 12 months post randomization, and secondary measures were stress, self-efficacy and quality of life. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess differences in means between groups at each time point. There was little evidence of differences in glycaemic control between groups. However, psychosocial wellbeing improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. Recommendations for future programmes are discussed. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000368336).
    Journal of health psychology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Automated blood glucose (BG) and insulin pump systems allow wireless transmission of all BG readings to a user's pump. This study aimed to assess whether use of such a system, as compared with a manual BG entry insulin pump, resulted in higher mean daily frequency of BGs recorded after 6 months. A 12-month randomized crossover trial, comprising 2 phases, was conducted. All participants used insulin pump devices with automated vs manual BG entry for 6 months each; order of system use was randomly assigned. Device interactions were assessed from pump and glucometer downloads. Thirty-five participants were enrolled; 9 withdrew during the study. Use of the automated insulin pump system resulted in higher mean daily BG recorded over 6 months of use when compared to a manual BG entry system (5.8 ± 1.7 vs 5.0 ± 1.9; P = .02 [95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 1.58]). Bolus frequency was similar between groups. No HbA1c difference was observed between groups at 6 months (8.0% [64 mmol/l] ± 1.3 automated vs 7.7% [61 mmol/l] ± 0.9 manual; P = .38). Post hoc analysis demonstrated improved ΔHbA1c with automated system use in an adolescent subgroup with suboptimal baseline BG frequency (-0.9% vs + 0.5%; P = .003). Use of an automated glucometer/insulin pump resulted in higher number of BGs recorded over 6 months when compared to an insulin pump with manual BG entry. This may be especially beneficial for adolescent manual system users who enter <5 BGs per day into their pump.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2014; 8(5):998-1004.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial.Methods:Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months.Results:A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p < 0.05), but not for child mental health or glycemic control, with little effect at 12 months. Prespecified subgroup analyses for children with pre-existing internalizing or externalizing behavior problems indicated greater improvements in child mental health, parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p < 0.05), but lower parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems.Conclusions:This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems.
    Pediatric Diabetes 08/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The origins of cardiovascular and renal disease in type 1 diabetes begin during childhood. We aimed to evaluate carotid (cIMT) and aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and urinary albumin excretion in adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT).
    Diabetes care. 07/2014;
  • Pediatric Diabetes 07/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infliximab and adalimumab have established roles in IBD therapy. NICE and SMC guidelines mandate reassessment of disease activity after 12 months. Therapy should ordinarily be discontinued where clinical remission and mucosal healing has been achieved. However, there are presently few data about outcomes of anti-TNF withdrawal.
    Gut 06/2014; 63(Suppl 1):A1. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during childhood on brain morphology and function.
    Diabetes care. 06/2014; 37(6):1554-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus living in rural and regional Australia have previously been shown to have limited access to specialised diabetes services. The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne has been running diabetes outreach clinics to Western Victoria, Australia, for over 13 years. We aim to evaluate this service by comparing the outcomes of three outreach clinics with our urban diabetes clinic at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. We examine our tertiary, multidisciplinary team-based model of care, where visiting specialist medical staff work alongside local allied health teams. The local teams provide interim care between clinics utilising the same protocols and treatment practices as the tertiary centre. Longitudinal data encapsulating the years 2005-2010, as a cohort study with a control group, are reviewed. A total of 69 rural patients were compared with 1387 metropolitan patients. Metabolic control was comparable, with no difference in mean HbA1c (8.3%/67 mmol/mol for both groups). Treatment options varied slightly at diagnosis, while insulin pump usage was comparable between treatment settings (20.3% rural compared with 27.6% urban, P = 0.19). Of note was that the number of visits per year was higher in the rural group (3.3 per year rural compared with 2.7 urban, P < 0.001). We conclude that the outreach service is able to provide a comparable level of care when the urban model is translated to a rural setting. This model may be further able to be extrapolated to other geographic areas and also other chronic health conditions of childhood.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 02/2014; · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Orla M Neylon, Peter A Baghurst, Fergus J Cameron
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    ABSTRACT: Despite much discussion regarding the clinical relevance of glycemic variation (GV), little discourse has addressed the properties of the data set from which it is derived. We aimed to assess the minimum duration of data required using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) that most closely approximates to a gold standard 90-day measure. Data from 20 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were examined. All participants had CGM data sets of 90 days duration, from which standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), mean amplitude of glycemic action (MAGE), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA1-8) were calculated for the overall period and then investigational periods of 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 days. The percentage difference between each measure and the overall measure per time period was assessed. As the duration of the CGM data set increased, the percentage error continued to decrease, giving a metric approximating more closely toward the overall measure. Median SD and CV differed from the overall measure by <10% at 12 days duration. The frequency of interruptions to the CGM trace rendered MAGE and CONGA unreliable, hence SD and CV were reported. We suggest that data sets used to infer GV should be of a minimum duration of 12 days. MAGE and CONGA exhibit poor performance in the setting of frequent trace interruption.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 02/2014; 8(2):273-276.
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    ABSTRACT: Management of Type 1 diabetes is associated with substantial personal and psychological demands which are often exacerbated during adolescence thus placing young people at significant risk for mental health problems. Supportive parenting can mitigate these risks, however the challenges and stresses associated with parenting a child with a chronic illness can interfere with a parent's capacity to parent effectively. Therefore, interventions that provide support for both the adolescent and their parents are needed to prevent mental health problems in adolescents; to build and maintain positive parent-adolescent relationships; and to empower young people to better self-manage their Type 1 diabetes. This paper presents the research protocol for a study evaluating the efficacy of the Nothing Ventured Nothing Gained online adolescent and parenting intervention. The intervention aims to improve the mental health outcomes of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.Method/design: A randomized controlled trial using repeated measures with two arms (intervention and wait-list control) will be used to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of the online intervention. Approximately 120 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, aged 13-18 years and one of their parents/guardians will be recruited from pediatric diabetes clinics across Victoria, Australia. Participants will be randomized to receive the intervention immediately or to wait 6 months before accessing the intervention. Adolescent, parent and family outcomes will be assessed via self-report questionnaires at three time points (baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months). The primary outcome is improved adolescent mental health (depression and anxiety). Secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioral (diabetes self-management and risk taking behavior), psychosocial (diabetes relevant quality of life, parent reported child well-being, self-efficacy, resilience, and perceived illness benefits and burdens); metabolic (HbA1c) outcomes; parent psychosocial outcomes (negative affect and fatigue, self-efficacy, and parent experience of child illness); and family outcomes (parent and adolescent reported parent-adolescent communication, responsibility for diabetes care, diabetes related conflict). Process variables including recruitment, retention, intervention completion and intervention satisfaction will also be assessed. The results of this study will provide valuable information about the efficacy, acceptability and therefore the viability of delivering online interventions to families affected by chronic illnesses such as Type 1 diabetes.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry (ANZCTR); ACTRN12610000170022.
    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1185. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Although a diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) may be confronting to children with type 1 diabetes and their families, we hypothesize that children with CD have lower urinary albumin excretion, a marker of renal dysfunction. RESEARCH DESIGN: Twenty-four children with type 1 diabetes and biopsy-proven CD, on a gluten-free diet for at least 1 yr, were recruited from a single paediatric diabetes clinic alongside 55 children with type 1 diabetes but without CD matched for age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glycaemic control. RESULTS: Despite comparable diabetes exposure, glycaemic control and nutritional status, children with type 1 diabetes and CD had a lower urinary albumin creatinine ratio than in diabetic subjects without CD (0.9 ± 0.3 mg/mmol vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/mmol; p = 0.01). Participants with CD also showed slower progression in albuminuria over 5-yr of follow-up while a small but significant increase was observed in the children with diabetes alone (1.6 ± 0.3 mg/mmol; follow-up 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/mmol; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: As urinary albumin excretion is continuously associated with the risk of kidney disease, it is possible to speculate that CD or its management confers a degree of renoprotection. Larger studies are required to test this hypothesis.
    Pediatric Diabetes 06/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) show less effective metabolic control than other age groups, partly because of biological changes beyond their control and partly because in this period of developmental transition, psychosocial factors can militate against young people upholding their lifestyle and medical regimens. Parents have an important role to play in supporting adolescents to self-manage their disease, but resultant family tensions can be high. In this study, we aimed to assess family functioning and adolescent behaviour/ adjustment and examine the relationships between these parent-reported variables and adolescent metabolic control (HbA1c), self-reported health and diabetes self-care. METHOD: A sample of 76 parents of Australian adolescents with T1D completed the Child Health Questionnaire --Parent form. Their adolescent child with T1D provided their HbA1c level from their most recent clinic visit, their self-reported general health, and completed a measure of diabetes self-care. RESULTS: Parent-reported family conflict was high, as was disease impact on family dynamics and parental stress. Higher HbA1c (poorer metabolic control) and less adequate adolescent self-care were associated with lower levels of family functioning, more adolescent behavioural difficulties and poorer adolescent mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of these findings was discussed in relation to needs for information and support among Australian families with an adolescent with T1D, acknowledging the important dimension of family functioning and relationships in adolescent chronic disease management.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 03/2013; 11(1):50. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 03/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    Elisabeth A Northam, Fergus J Cameron
    Diabetes 02/2013; 62(2):341-2. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal use of recent technological advances in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring remains limited by the impact of behaviour on self-care. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in psychosocial methods of optimising care in youth with type 1 diabetes. We therefore sought to examine the literature for demographic, interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of self-care and/or metabolic control. Studies for this systematic review were obtained via an electronic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. Seventy studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These studies have indicated that identifiable individual characteristics in each domain are robustly associated with metabolic control and/or self-care in children and adolescents. We present these characteristics and propose a theoretical model of their interactions and effect on diabetes outcomes. There is currently no consensus regarding patient selection for insulin pump therapy. In this era of scarce healthcare resources, it may be prudent to identify youth requiring increased psychosocial support prior to regimen intensification. The importance of this review lies in its potential to create a framework for rationally utilising resources by stratifying costly therapeutic options to those who, in the first instance, will be most likely to benefit from them. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 01/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine the association between ethnicity, phenotype, sun behaviour and other characteristics, and constitutive and relative facultative skin pigmentation. 191 participants were recruited, with a mean age of 7.6 years (SD 3.4), during 2009-2011 from Maternal and Child Health Centres and schools in Melbourne, Australia. Parental questionnaire data were obtained on sun behaviour and examination consisted of noting the child's natural skin, hair and eye colour, ethnicity, naevi count and spectrophotometric melanin density (MD). Constitutive skin pigmentation was estimated from buttock MD. Relative facultative skin pigmentation was estimated by hand compared to buttock absorption. Ethnicity, hair colour and skin colour were associated with constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation on univariate analysis. Higher ambient UVR in the past month, greater freckling, greater naevi and increased sun exposure over the past year were related to darker facultative skin pigmentation. Sun exposure over the life-course was not. The two skin charts accounted for 39.7% and 21.4% of buttock MD, respectively. Relative facultative skin pigmentation is associated with recent UVR levels, not life-course sun exposure. Relative facultative skin pigmentation may not be a useful measure of sun exposure over the early life-course. Skin colour charts can be used to assess constitutive skin pigmentation if spectrophotometry is not available. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 01/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychosocial predictors of diabetes self‐care (adherence to care regimes), metabolic control (glycated haemoglobin), and mental health among rural‐ and urban‐dwelling youth with type 1 diabetes. One hundred and twenty three adolescents/young adults (aged 13−25 years, mean = 16 years, standard deviation = 3.8 years) with type 1 diabetes, 50 males and 73 females, completed questionnaires reporting on diabetes self‐care, metabolic control, mental health (negative affect, quality of life), risk‐taking behaviours and attitudes, diabetes self‐efficacy, community engagement, and perceived social support. No rural/urban differences were detected on key predictors or outcome variables. Structural equation modelling revealed that high diabetes self‐efficacy, lower risk behaviour, and more conservative attitudes to risk taking predicted better diabetes self‐care, which in turn predicted better metabolic control and mental health. Social support and engagement in community activities did not influence diabetes self‐care. The study has significance because both diabetes self‐efficacy and propensity towards risk behaviour are potential targets for educational and counselling interventions designed to improve diabetes self‐care regimes and resultant metabolic and mental health outcomes.
    Australian Psychologist 01/2013; 48(5). · 0.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
433.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006–2014
    • Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
      • • Research Group for Child Neuropsychology
      • • Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics (CEBU)
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Menzies Research Institute
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
    • Children's Hospital at Westmead
      • Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1996–2014
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2013
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1995–2013
    • The Royal Children's Hospital
      • • Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes
      • • Centre for Community Child Health
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2010
    • Monash University (Australia)
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2008
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2004
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia