Fergus J Cameron

Diabetes Australia, Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (134)513 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system deficits are well described in type 1 diabetes (T1D); however the brain regions most affected and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. This prospective study aimed to use functional MRI (fMRI) and a working memory task (WMT) to assess changes in brain function between euglycemia (5.0 ± 0.5mmol/l) and hypoglycemia (2.6 ± 0.5mmol/l) or hyperglycemia (18-20 ± 0.5 mmol/l) in youth aged 12-18 y with T1D. Exclusion criteria: HbA1c > 9.0%, IQ < 70, prior history of DKA, seizure, neurological disease or substance abuse.
    09/2015; 13(3):59-60. DOI:10.1007/s12467-015-0027-8
  • Ashleigh Lin · Elisabeth A Northam · George A Werther · Fergus J Cameron ·

    Diabetes care 08/2015; 38(8):e121-2. DOI:10.2337/dc15-0814 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Fergus J Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: A constant supply of glucose to the brain is critical for normal cerebral metabolism. The dysglycemia of type 1 diabetes (T1D) can affect activity, survival, and function of neural cells. Clinical studies in T1D have shown impairments in brain morphology and function. The most neurotoxic milieu seems to be young age and/or diabetic ketoacidosis at onset, severe hypoglycemia under the age of 6 years followed by chronic hyperglycemia. Adverse cognitive outcomes seem to be associated with poorer mental health outcomes. It is imperative to improve outcomes by investigating the mechanisms of injury so that neuroprotective strategies independent of glycemia can be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Clinics of North America 08/2015; 62(4):911-927. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2015.04.003 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To document electroencephalogram (EEG) changes and their correlation with clinical parameters in a newly diagnosed pediatric cohort of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with and without diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and to define their medium term utility and significance. Prospective longitudinal study of children presenting with T1DM. EEGs were performed within 24 h of diagnosis, day 5, and at 6 months post-diagnosis and reviewed by a neurologist blinded to clinical status. Severity of encephalopathy was graded from 1 to 5 using the Aoki and Lombroso encephalopathy scale. Cognitive abilities were assessed using standardized tests of attention, memory, and intelligence. Eighty eight children were recruited; 34 presented with DKA. Abnormal background slowing was more often observed in the first 24 h in children with DKA (p = 0.01). Encephalopathy scores on day 1 correlated with initial pH, CO2 , HCO3 , base excess, respiratory rate, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and IV fluid intake (all parameters p < 0.05). EEG scores at day 1 did not correlate with contemporaneous mental state or cognition in the medium term. DKA was associated with significant clinical and neurophysiologic signs of brain dysfunction at presentation. While EEG is sensitive to the detection of encephalopathy in newly diagnosed T1DM, it has limited use in identifying children at risk of later cognitive deficits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Pediatric Diabetes 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/pedi.12284 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Fergus J Cameron · Dr Diane K Wherrett ·
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic medical disorders in children. The management of diabetes remains a substantial burden on children with diabetes and their families, despite improvements in treatment and rates of morbidity and mortality. Although most children with diabetes have type 1 diabetes, the increasing recognition of type 2 diabetes and genetic forms of diabetes in the paediatric population has important treatment implications. Diabetes therapy focuses strongly on targets for good metabolic control to reduce the risk of long-term complications. A parallel goal is to minimise short-term complications of hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. Technology offers opportunity for improvement in care, but has not yet fully lived up to its potential. New insights into the pathogenesis of diabetes and the development of new therapies have led to clinical trials aimed at the prevention of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 05/2015; 385(9982):2096-106. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60971-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes there is little distinctiveness about concepts and the nomenclature is confusing. Even among experts similar terms are used for different strategies. The aim of our review - based on the experiences of the Hvidoere Study Group (HSG) - is to propose comprehensive definitions for current insulin regimens reflecting current diabetes management in childhood and adolescence. The HSG - founded in 1994 - is an international group representing 24 highly experienced pediatric diabetes centers, from Europe, Japan, North America and Australia. Different benchmarking studies of the HSG revealed a broad variety of insulin regimens applied in each center, respectively. Furthermore, the understanding of insulin regimens has been persistently different between the centers since more than 20 yr. Not even the terms 'conventional' and 'intensified therapy' were used consistently among all members. Besides the concepts 'conventional' and 'intensified', several other terms for the characterization of insulin regimens are in use: Basal Bolus Concept (BBC), multiple daily injections (MDI), and flexible insulin therapy (FIT) are most frequently used, although none of these expressions is clearly or consistently defined. The proposed new classification for insulin management will be comprehensive, simple, and catchy. Currently available terms were included. This classification may offer the opportunity to compare therapeutic strategies without the currently existing confusion on the insulin regimen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Pediatric Diabetes 04/2015; 16(6). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12275 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 04/2015; 2015(Suppl 1):O36. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2015-S1-O36
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    International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 04/2015; 2015(Suppl 1):O35. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2015-S1-O35
  • Mary White · Fergus J Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: Transition is defined as the 'purposeful, planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic physical and medical conditions from child-centred to adult-oriented health care systems' by Blum RW, (2002). The primary goal of transition is to ensure an uninterrupted process in healthcare delivery between the paediatric and adult settings; however, losses to follow up and decreased engagement with specialist services are common during this time. The current transition literature specifically pertaining to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is often limited by incomplete data, the absence of control data and lack of follow up data spanning both the paediatric and adult years. This paper serves to review the current transition literature base, highlighting areas which warrant further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 04/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2015.03.004 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 04/2015; 2015(Suppl 1):O37. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2015-S1-O37
  • Alicia R Jones · Margaret R Zacharin · Fergus J Cameron · Peter J Simm ·
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study aims to examine the referral practices for the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) bone density service over the past 13 years and to demonstrate referral patterns and possible limitations to accessing paediatric bone densitometry.Methods All patients attending the RCH Healthy Bones Unit for bone densitometry from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2012, aged under 18 years of age, were included. Densitometry results were downloaded directly from the Hologic scanner into an Excel document. However, the referring unit and indication for referral were collected manually from either the referral card or the hospital's scanned medical records system.ResultsA total of 5767 bone densitometry scans were performed over the study period on 3004 patients. The majority of referrals were made by the Endocrinology department, followed by Adolescent Medicine, Gastroenterology and Neurology. Relatively few referrals were made by general paediatrics. The most common indication for bone density test overall was eating disorders, followed by steroid use, osteogenesis imperfecta and other collagen disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. The lowest lumbar spine z-scores by indication were for cerebral palsy and other causes of immobility.Conclusions Multiple childhood diseases predispose to low bone density; however, paediatric bone densitometry is still underutilised and not appropriately supported by subsidies.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 02/2015; 51(6). DOI:10.1111/jpc.12789 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Controversy exists regarding which individuals will benefit most from commencement of diabetes technologies such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS), such as ‘real-time’ sensor-augmented pumping (SAP). Because higher usage correlates with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) achieved, we aimed to predict future usage of technologies using a questionnaire-based tool.SubjectsThe tool was distributed to two groups of youth with type 1 diabetes; group A (n = 50; mean age 12 ± 2.5 yr) which subsequently commenced ‘real-time’ CGMS and group B (n = 47; mean age 13 ± 3 yr) which commenced CSII utilisation.Methods For the CGMS group, recommended usage was ≥5 days (70%) per week [≥70% = high usage (HU); <70% = low usage (LU)], assessed at 3 months. In the CSII group, HU was quantified as entering ≥5 blood sugars per day to the pump and LU as <5 blood sugars per day, at 6 months from initiation. Binary logistic regression with forward stepwise conditional was used to utilise tool scales and calculate an applied formula.ResultsOf the CGMS group, using gender, baseline HbA1c, and two subscales of the tool generated a formula which predicted both high and low usage with 92% accuracy. Twelve (24%) showed HU vs. 38 who exhibited LU at 3 months.Of the CSII group, 32 (68%) exhibited HU vs. 15 who exhibited LU at 6 months. Four tool items plus gender predicted HU/LU with 95% accuracy.Conclusions This pilot study resulted in successful prediction of individuals who will and those who will not go on to show recommended usage of CSII and CGMS.
    Pediatric Diabetes 01/2015; 30. DOI:10.1111/pedi.12253 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between cardiac autonomic dysfunction and high albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Adolescents recruited as part of a multicenter screening study (n = 445, 49% female, aged 10-17 years, mean duration 6.9 years; mean HbA1c 8.4%, 68 mmol/mol) underwent a 10-min continuous electrocardiogram recording for heart rate variability analysis. Time-domain heart rate variability measures included baseline heart rate, standard deviation of the R-R interval (SDNN), and root mean squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD). Spectral analysis included sympathetic (low-frequency) and parasympathetic (high-frequency) components. Standardized ACR were calculated from six early morning urine collections using an established algorithm, reflecting age, sex, and duration, and stratified into ACR tertiles, where the upper tertile reflects higher nephropathy risk. The upper-tertile ACR group had a faster heart rate (76 vs 73 bpm; P < 0.01) and less heart rate variability (SDNN 68 vs 76 ms, P = 0.02; RMSSD 63 vs 71 ms, P = 0.04). HbA1c was 8.5% (69 mmol/mmol) in the upper tertile vs 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in the lower tertiles (P = 0.07). In multivariable analysis, upper-tertile ACR was associated with faster heart rate (β = 2.5, 95% CI 0.2-4.8, P = 0.03) and lower RMSSD (β = -9.5, 95% CI -18.2 to -0.8, P = 0.03), independent of age and HbA1c. Adolescents at potentially higher risk for nephropathy show an adverse cardiac autonomic profile, indicating sympathetic overdrive, compared with the lower-risk group. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will further characterize the relationship between autonomic and renal dysfunction and the effect of interventions in this population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 01/2015; 38(4). DOI:10.2337/dc14-1848 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    Ashleigh Lin · Elisabeth A Northam · George A Werther · Fergus J Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined illness-related change in intelligence quotient (IQ) in a cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes studied prospectively from disease onset in childhood to follow-up 12 years later in late adolescence/early adulthood. Participants included type 1 diabetes patients (n = 95; mean age at follow-up 21.3 years) and healthy control participants (HCs; n = 67; mean age at follow-up 21.0 years) from a cohort followed prospectively. Measures included Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and prospective collection of data on metabolic control history. Young people with type 1 diabetes showed greater decline in verbal IQ (VIQ) and full-scale IQ (FSIQ), but not performance IQ (PIQ), than HCs. Within the diabetes group, a younger age at diabetes onset was associated with a decline in PIQ and FSIQ (P ≤ 0.001). A history of hypoglycemic seizures was associated with a decline in VIQ (P = 0.002). Long-term metabolic control was not associated with changes in IQ. Interaction terms were not significant, suggesting no moderating effect of one diabetes-related variable over another. The presence of diabetes may negatively influence some aspects of IQ over time. Specific illness risk factors, such as an earlier age of disease onset and a history of hypoglycemic seizures, appear to put the young person at greater risk. Academic progress of children identified as at risk should be monitored and educational supports provided if necessary. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 12/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.2337/dc14-1385 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Donohue and Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome are rare autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene, INSR. Phenotypic features include extreme insulin resistance, linear growth retardation, paucity of fat and muscle, and soft tissue overgrowth. The insulin receptor is also expressed in the kidney, where animal data suggest it plays a role in glomerular function and blood pressure (BP) regulation, yet such a role in the human kidney is untested. Patients with biallelic INSR mutations provide a rare opportunity to ascertain its role in man. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with INSR mutations. Data for BP, renal imaging, plasma creatinine and electrolyte levels, as well as urine protein, albumin and calcium excretion were sought from the treating clinicians. Results: From 33 patients with INSR mutations, data were available for 17 patients. Plasma creatinine was low (mean ± SD: 25 ± 9 μmol/l) and mean plasma electrolyte concentrations were within the normal range (n = 13). Systolic BP ranged between the 18th and 91st percentile for age, sex, height and weight (n = 9; mean ± SD: 49 ± 24). Twenty-four-hour urinary calcium data were available from 10 patients and revealed hypercalciuria in all (mean ± SD: 0.32 ± 0.17 mmol/kg/day; normal <0.1). Nephrocalcinosis was present in all patients (n = 17). Urinary albumin excretion (n = 7) ranged from 4.3-122.5 μg/min (mean ± SD: 32.4 ± 41.0 μg/min; normal <20). Conclusions: INSR dysfunction is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. No other consistent abnormality of renal function was noted. Normotension and stable glomerular function with only moderate proteinuria is in contrast to genetically modified mice who have elevated BP and progressive diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Nephron Physiology 10/2014; 128(3-4). DOI:10.1159/000366225 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Mary White · Margaret R Zacharin · George A Werther · Fergus J Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: Massive insulin overdose may be associated with unpredictable and prolonged hypoglycemia. Concerns surrounding the potential provocation of insulin release from beta cells have previously prevented the use of intravenous glucagon as an adjunct to infusion of dextrose in this situation. We describe the case of a 15-yr-old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who presented with profound hypoglycemia following an overdose of an unknown quantity of premixed insulin. Owing to an increasing dextrose requirement and a dependence on hourly intramuscular glucagon injections, a continuous intravenous infusion of glucagon was commenced which successfully avoided the requirement for central venous access or concentrated dextrose infusion. Nausea was managed with anti-emetics. Intramuscular and subcutaneous glucagon is effective in the management of refractory and severe hypoglycemia in youth with both T1DM and hyperinsulinism. Concerns regarding the precipitation of rebound hypoglycemia with the use of intravenous glucagon do not relate to those with T1DM. This treatment option may be a useful adjunct in the management of insulin overdose in youth with T1DM and may avoid the requirement for invasive central venous access placement.
    Pediatric Diabetes 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/pedi.12210 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a cognitive behaviour therapy-based programme to improve glycaemic control and psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A total of 147 adolescents aged 13-16 years were randomized to the intervention (n = 73) or standard care (n = 74). The primary outcome was glycaemic control at 3 and 12 months post randomization, and secondary measures were stress, self-efficacy and quality of life. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess differences in means between groups at each time point. There was little evidence of differences in glycaemic control between groups. However, psychosocial wellbeing improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. Recommendations for future programmes are discussed. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000368336).
    Journal of Health Psychology 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/1359105314547940 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    Orla M Neylon · Michele A O'Connell · Susan M Donath · Fergus J Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: Automated blood glucose (BG) and insulin pump systems allow wireless transmission of all BG readings to a user's pump. This study aimed to assess whether use of such a system, as compared with a manual BG entry insulin pump, resulted in higher mean daily frequency of BGs recorded after 6 months. A 12-month randomized crossover trial, comprising 2 phases, was conducted. All participants used insulin pump devices with automated vs manual BG entry for 6 months each; order of system use was randomly assigned. Device interactions were assessed from pump and glucometer downloads. Thirty-five participants were enrolled; 9 withdrew during the study. Use of the automated insulin pump system resulted in higher mean daily BG recorded over 6 months of use when compared to a manual BG entry system (5.8 ± 1.7 vs 5.0 ± 1.9; P = .02 [95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 1.58]). Bolus frequency was similar between groups. No HbA1c difference was observed between groups at 6 months (8.0% [64 mmol/l] ± 1.3 automated vs 7.7% [61 mmol/l] ± 0.9 manual; P = .38). Post hoc analysis demonstrated improved ΔHbA1c with automated system use in an adolescent subgroup with suboptimal baseline BG frequency (-0.9% vs + 0.5%; P = .003). Use of an automated glucometer/insulin pump resulted in higher number of BGs recorded over 6 months when compared to an insulin pump with manual BG entry. This may be especially beneficial for adolescent manual system users who enter <5 BGs per day into their pump.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2014; 8(5):998-1004. DOI:10.1177/1932296814539461
  • EM Westrupp · E Northam · KJ Lee · SE Scratch · F Cameron ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months. Results: A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p < 0.05), but not for child mental health or glycemic control, with little effect at 12 months. Prespecified subgroup analyses for children with pre-existing internalizing or externalizing behavior problems indicated greater improvements in child mental health, parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p < 0.05), but lower parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems. Conclusions: This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems.
    Pediatric Diabetes 08/2014; 16(7). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12205 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The origins of cardiovascular and renal disease in type 1 diabetes begin during childhood. We aimed to evaluate carotid (cIMT) and aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and urinary albumin excretion in adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT). Research design and methods: A total of 406 adolescents with type 1 diabetes, who were 14.1 ± 1.9 years old with type 1 diabetes duration of 6.7 ± 3.7 years, and 57 age-matched control subjects provided clinical and biochemical data and ultrasound measurements of vascular structure (cIMT and aIMT). Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function was also measured in 123 of 406 with type 1 diabetes and all control subjects. Results: In type 1 diabetic subjects, mean/maximal aIMT (P < 0.006; <0.008), but not mean/maximal cIMT, was greater than in control subjects. Mean/maximal aIMT related to urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (multiple regression coefficient [SE], 0.013 [0.006], P = 0.03; 0.023 [0.007], P = 0.002), LDL cholesterol (0.019 [0.008], P = 0.02; 0.025 [0.011], P = 0.02), and age (0.010 [0.004], P = 0.004; 0.012 [0.005], P = 0.01), independent of other variables. Mean/maximal cIMT was greater in males (0.023 [0.006], P = 0.02; 0.029 [0.007], P < 0.0001), and mean cIMT related independently to systolic blood pressure (0.001 [0.001], P = 0.04). Vascular smooth muscle function related to aIMT and cIMT but not to urinary albumin excretion. Conclusions: aIMT may be a more sensitive marker of atherosclerosis than cIMT in type 1 diabetes during mid-adolescence. Higher urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, is associated with early atherosclerosis and should direct clinical attention to modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.
    Diabetes Care 07/2014; 37(11). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0700 · 8.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
513.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2005-2015
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
      • Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics (CEBU)
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002-2015
    • The Royal Children's Hospital
      • Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2014
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011
    • Children's Hospital at Westmead
      • Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008
    • University of Wollongong
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada