Heejin Kimm

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (30)76.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.
    AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 02/2014; 26(1):1-12. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    Jung-Eun Lim, Heejin Kimm, Sun Ha Jee
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer. Bilirubin, an antioxidant, is inversely associated with the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the influence of smoking and bilirubin levels on the risk of lung cancer in the Severance cohort study.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103972. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to develop a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk model among the Korean Heart Study (KHS) population and compare it with the Framingham CHD risk score.
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(5):e005025. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women. A total of 42,845 participants who visited one of seven health examination centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea between 2004 and 2008 were included in this study. The incidence rates of diabetes were determined through December 2011. To evaluate the effects of adiponectin on type 2 diabetes, the Cox proportional hazard model was used. Of the 40,005 participants, 959 developed type 2 diabetes during a 6-year follow-up. After the adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, the risks for type 2 diabetes in participants with normoglycemia had a 1.70-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.38) increase in men and a 1.83-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 2.86) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin when compared to the highest tertile of adiponectin. For participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), the risk for type 2 diabetes had a 1.46-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.83) increase in men and a 2.52-fold (95% CI, 1.57 to 4.06) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin. Except for female participants with normoglycemia, all the risks remained significant after the adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounding variables. Surprisingly, BMI and waist circumference were not predictors of type 2 diabetes in men or women with IFG after adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounders. A strong association between adiponectin and diabetes was observed. The use of adiponectin as a predictor of type 2 diabetes is considered to be useful.
    Diabetes & metabolism journal 08/2013; 37(4):252-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Thigh circumference is associated with diabetes risk; however, the role of obesity as a potential effect modifier has not been well studied.Methods: We examined the association between thigh circumference and diabetes in a cross-sectional study of 322 370 Koreans aged 30 to 79 years. The association between diabetes and thigh circumference in relation to body mass index (BMI) was analyzed among 15 375 participants, using multivariate logistic regression. Thigh circumference was categorized into 9 percentile categories-namely, the 2.5th, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles-and the 50th percentile was used as the reference value for thigh circumference. Separate analyses were performed for men and women.Results: The association of thigh circumference with diabetes showed contradictory patterns before and after adjustment for BMI and waist circumference. Small thigh circumference was associated with greater risk of diabetes among men and women. This relationship was stronger among participants younger than 50 years, although age was not a significant effect modifier. BMI was a significant effect modifier among men with a BMI of less than 25 kg/m(2). Among women, diabetes risk increased with smaller thigh circumference.Conclusions: Small thigh circumference was associated with diabetes, and this association was stronger among participants with a BMI of less than 25 kg/m(2). Thigh circumference might be a useful diabetes marker in lean populations.
    Journal of Epidemiology 07/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the rationale, objectives, protocol, and preliminary results for a new prospective cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in South Korea. Study members were recruited from participants in routine health assessments at health promotion centres across South Korea. Established and emerging CVD risk factors were measured. Eighteen centres holding electronic health records agreed to linkage of participants' records to future health insurance claims for monitoring of disease events. The recruitment of 430,920 participants (266,782 men, 164,138 women), aged 30-74 years, provides broad geographical reach across South Korea. Risk factor prevalence was more favourable in women than men, and, in general, in the younger rather than older study members. There was also close similarity between the characteristics of the present sample and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The expected associations between risk factors and both CVD and death were also apparent. Data from the present sample, based on data linkage, show close agreement with South Korea-wide surveys (for risk factor prevalence) and the extant literature (for risk factor associations). These findings gives confidence in future results anticipated from this cohort study of east Asians - a group that has been traditionally under-researched.
    European journal of preventive cardiology. 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. DESIGN: Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. SETTING: 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. PARTICIPANTS: 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). RESULTS: Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (P(interaction)<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (P(interaction)<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: Both sexes face increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease with lower estimated glomerular filtration rates and higher albuminuria. These findings were robust across a large global consortium.
    BMJ (online) 01/2013; 346:f324. · 17.22 Impact Factor
  • Eunhae Chung, Heejin Kimm, In Han Song
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    ABSTRACT: Background: As a result of flexibility of labor market, the number of temporary workers has been increasing, and their unstable employment status threatens their economic status in Korea. Both job instability and economic status have been reported as risk factors for depression. However, little is known about the interaction between the two, particularly in longitudinal studies. We investigated the interaction between the effects of employment stability during 3 years in combination with economic status on depression. Methods: Based on the 1st(2005) through 4th(2008) wave data from KOWEPS(Korea WElfare Panel Study), data of 1,963 workers was analyzed. Employment instability was classified with four categories according to the employment status changes. Economic status was defined using disposable income and depression level was measured by CES-D. Results: Groups of employment instability consisted maintaining regular worker(n=1,094), downward(n=135), upward,(n=368), and maintaining temporary worker(n=366). The result showed that (1) compared to the group of maintaining regular worker(13.254.20), the depressive level by CES-D was worse in the maintaining temporary worker group(15.07.15, p<0.001). (2) As the disposable income was higher, the depressive level got lower(correlation coefficient -0.149, p<0.0001). (3) Statistically significant interaction effect was detected between employment instability and economic status(disposable income) on depression. Workers in downward group(β=-0.050, p<0.01) and maintaining temporary worker group(β=-0.079, p<0.001) showed decreasing depression level than maintaining stable workers as their disposable income increased. Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is necessary to understand the severity of depression caused by unstable employment, and mental health policy should address those with unstable employment status and low economic situation.
    140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Suicide, one of the most serious social problems in current Korea, has been known to negatively influence other people. Especially, in the adolescent period when sensitively influenced by peer group members, friends' suicide-related behaviors may have a serious impact on adolescents. Therefore, this study is to investigate the influence of friends' suicide attempts on adolescents' suicidal ideation, and to examine the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between friends' suicide attempts and adolescents' suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were collected from 549 middle school students of 5 schools selected from each regional districts of Seoul and Incheon metropolitan areas. Multiple regression analysis was used for analysis. Results: First, it is found that friends' suicidal attempts statistically significantly increases adolescents' suicidal ideation(β=.16, p<.001). Second, social support has a moderating effect on the relationship between friends' suicide attempts and adolescents' suicidal ideation(β=-.09, p<.05). In other words, students who have friends with suicide attempts reported a greater level of suicidal ideation; and having social support resources reduced the effects of friends' suicide attempts resulting in lowered level of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, at the crisis occurrence of suicidal-related behaviors among adolescents, prompt crisis intervention should be made to prevent from increasing the negative influence on peer members, and efforts should be directed at constructing social support systems in families, schools, and communities.
    140st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2012; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity increases mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease and there is a possibility that smoking effects obesity. However, previous studies concerning the effects of smoking on obesity are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine whether smoking is positively related to abdominal obesity in men with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of 2197 type 2 diabetic patients who visited Huh's Diabetes Center from 2003 to 2009. Indices of abdominal obesity were defined as visceral fat thickness (VFT) measured by ultrasonography and waist circumference (WC). Overall obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant differences in WC and VFT by smoking status were identified. However, there was no statistical difference in BMI according to smoking status. Means of WC and VFT were not significantly higher in heavy smokers and lower in mild smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, the BMI confounder adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for VFT in ex-smokers and current-smokers were 1.70 (1.21 to 2.39) and 1.86 (1.27 to 2.73), respectively. Smoking status was positively associated with abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients.
    Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 09/2012; 45(5):316-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the leading causes of cancer deaths and can be caused by environmental factors as well as genetic factors. Therefore, we developed a prediction model of CRC using genetic risk scores (GRS) and evaluated the effects of conventional risk factors, including family history of CRC, in combination with GRS on the risk of CRC in Koreans. This study included 187 cases (men, 133; women, 54) and 976 controls (men, 554; women, 422). GRS were calculated with most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism with CRC through a genomewide association study. The area under the curve (AUC) increased by 0.5% to 5.2% when either counted or weighted GRS was added to a prediction model consisting of age alone (AUC 0.687 for men, 0.598 for women) or age and family history of CRC (AUC 0.692 for men, 0.603 for women) for both men and women. Furthermore, the risk of CRC significantly increased for individuals with a family history of CRC in the highest quartile of GRS when compared to subjects without a family history of CRC in the lowest quartile of GRS (counted GRS odds ratio [OR], 47.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9 to 471.8 for men; OR, 22.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 344.2 for women) (weighted GRS OR, 35.9; 95% CI, 5.9 to 218.2 for men; OR, 18.1, 95% CI, 3.7 to 88.1 for women). Our findings suggest that in Koreans, especially in Korean men, GRS improve the prediction of CRC when considered in conjunction with age and family history of CRC.
    Genomics & informatics. 09/2012; 10(3):175-83.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most studies that have evaluated the association between combined lifestyle factors and mortality outcomes have been conducted in populations of Caucasian origin. The objective of this study was to examine the association between combined lifestyle scores and the risk of mortality in Korean men and women. METHODS: The study population included 59,941 Koreans, 30-84 years of age, who had visited the Severance Health Promotion Center between 1994 and 2003. Cox regression models were fitted to establish the association between combined lifestyle factors (current smoker, heavy daily alcohol use, overweight or obese weight, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet) and mortality outcomes. RESULTS: During 10.3 years of follow-up, there were 2,398 cases of death from any cause. Individual and combined lifestyle factors were found to be associated with the risk of mortality. Compared to those having none or only one risk factor, in men with a combination of four lifestyle factors, the relative risk for cancer mortality was 2.34-fold, for non-cancer mortality 2.52-fold, and for all-cause mortality 2.44-fold. In women, the relative risk was 2.09-fold for cancer mortality, 2.89-fold for non-cancer mortality, and 2.51-fold for all-cause mortality. The population attributable risks for all-cause mortality for the four risk factors combined was 44.5% for men and 26.5% for women. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that having a high (unhealthy) lifestyle score, in contrast to a low (healthy) score, can substantially increase the risk of death by any cause, cancer, and non-cancer in Korean men and women.
    BMC Public Health 08/2012; 12(1):673. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Physical activity decreases deaths from cardiovascular disease and other causes; however, it is unclear whether physical activity is associated with cancer incidence and death in Asian populations.Methods: Data from 59 636 Koreans aged 30 to 93 years were collected using a questionnaire and medical examination at the Severance Hospital Health Promotion Center between 1994 and 2004. Study participants were followed for a mean duration of 10.3 years.Results: In the exercising group, the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed a lower risk of cancer death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85) in men but not in women. Those who exercised, as compared with those who did not, had lower risks of all-cause death (men: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.60-0.76; women: HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.53-0.79) and noncancer death (men: 0.63, 0.53-0.75; women: 0.52, 0.39-0.69). Physical activity was inversely associated with risk of noncancer death among men and women.Conclusions: Physical activity was associated with lower risks of cancer death and noncancer death.
    Journal of Epidemiology 07/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and its concentration decreases in smokers. However, studies about the association between cigarette smoking and bilirubin are scarce and most are limited to total bilirubin. Additionally, bilirubin is highly related to hemoglobin. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between bilirubin subtypes and cigarette smoking in healthy Korean men independently of hemoglobin. This study included 48 040 Korean men aged 30 to 87 years who visited the Korea Medical Institute for routine health examinations from January to December, 2007. The association of smoking with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking into consideration differences in subjects and smoking characteristics. Current smokers had lower bilirubin concentrations than never-smokers and ex-smokers. Smoking amount and duration were inversely significantly associated with total, direct, and indirect bilirubin. In a multivariable adjusted model, compared to never-smokers, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of current smokers with the highest number of pack-years were 1.7 (1.6 to 1.9) for total, 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) for direct, and 1.7 (1.6 to 1.9) for indirect bilirubin. After further adjustment for hemoglobin, this association became stronger (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1.9 to 2.2] for total; 1.9 [1.8 to 2.0] for direct; 2.0 [1.9 to 2.2] for indirect bilirubin). In this study, bilirubin subtypes are inversely associated with smoking status, smoking amount, and smoking duration in healthy Korean men independently of hemoglobin. Further studies are needed to investigate this association in healthy Korean women.
    Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 03/2012; 45(2):105-12.
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    ABSTRACT: As well as biomedical risk factors, psychological factors have been reported to be related to mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction and mortality in elderly people through an 11.8-year follow-up study of a prospective cohort. Among 3,600 participants of the Kangwha Cohort Study who survived in 1994, 1,939 respondents of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI)-A questionnaire were included (men, 821; women, 1118). The mortality risk for the period up to December 2005 was measured using the Cox Proportional Hazard Model. When the relationship between LSI and mortality was evaluated in men, the unsatisfied group with lower LSI scores showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.83) than the satisfied group with higher LSI scores. In women, the unsatisfied group showed a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.30-3.85) than the satisfied group. We found that elderly people with a lower LSI score, regardless of gender, were at risk of increased mortality from all causes, and low LSI score was also associated with cardiovascular mortality.
    BMC Public Health 01/2012; 12:54. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical insurance claims (MIC) data are one of the largest sources of outcome data in the form of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. We evaluated the validity of the ICD codes from the Korean National MIC data with respect to the outcomes from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Korean Heart Study. Baseline information was obtained from health examinations conducted from 1994 to 2001. Outcome information regarding the incidence of AMI came from hospital admission discharge records from 1994 to 2007. Structured questionnaires were sent to 98 hospitals. In total, 107 cases of AMI with ICD codes of I21- (93 men, 26-73 years of age) were included in the final analyses. ICD code accuracy and reliability (kappa) for AMI were calculated. A large number of AMI cases were from hospitals located in the Seoul area (75.9%). The accuracy of AMI was 71.4%, according to World Health Organization criteria (1997-2000, n=24, kappa=0.46) and 73.1% according to the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology (ESC/ACC) criteria (2001-2007, n=83, kappa=0.74). An age of 50 years or older was the only factor related to inaccuracy of codes for AMI (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-17.7) in patients diagnosed since January 2001 using ESC/ACC criteria (n=83). The accuracy for diagnosing AMI using the ICD-10 codes in Korean MIC data was >70%, and reliability was fair to good; however, more attention is required for recoding ICD codes in older patients.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2012; 42(1):10-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes.
    Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi. 11/2011; 44(6):235-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that leptin and adiponectin are associated with metabolic syndrome. The leptin/adiponectin ratio has been suggested as an atherosclerotic index. The objective of this study was to compare the degree of association of metabolic syndrome with adiponectin levels, leptin levels, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and leptin/high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin ratio. The study population included 3272 Koreans (men: 1915, women: 1357; age, 30-84 years), who had visited the Health Examination Center. Adipokines were divided into quartiles, and metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP III). A logistic regression model was fitted to establish the association between adipokines and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, such as adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and leptin, were found to be statistically related to metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest quartile, the leptin/HMW adiponectin ratio in the highest quartile was associated with a 5-fold increase in the probability of prevalent metabolic syndrome, which was independent of age, smoking status, exercise, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and body mass index. There was a linear increase in the leptin/HMW adiponectin ratio as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The leptin/HMW adiponectin ratio had the highest odds ratio in women. In addition, compared to adiponectin or leptin alone, the AUC of the leptin/adiponectin ratio and leptin/HMW adiponectin ratio was higher for metabolic syndrome. We may suggest that the leptin/HMW adiponectin ratio is not superior to other adipokine markers, but is as effective as the leptin/total adiponectin ratio.
    Endocrine Journal 08/2011; 58(9):807-15. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) has been reported to be associated with obesity in US adults and children, Korean children and the Italian population, the association has not been found in Dutch or Belgian populations or in US military subjects. Therefore, we examined whether Ad-36 infection is associated with obesity in Korean adults. A total of 540 age- and sex-matched individuals, who were normal weight, overweight or obese, were selected from participants in routine health examinations at the Ewha Womans University Medical Center. Overweight participants were defined as those with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 ≤ BMI<25 kg m(-2) and obese subjects were those with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2), according to the International Obesity Task Force definition. Ad-36 antibody was measured using a serum neutralization assay. Although more overweight participants than normal or obese subjects tested positive for the Ad-36 antibody (40%, 32.8% and 30%, respectively), the differences were not significant. The participants who tested positive for Ad-36 antibody had lower levels of triglycerides (TG) in each of the three groups, higher total cholesterol (TC) in the obese group and higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in both the normal and obese groups. The odds ratio (OR) for Ad-36 antibody positivity was greater in overweight than in normal subjects (OR=2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-3.55) after adjusting for age, sex and waist circumference. However, this OR was non-significant in the obese group (OR=1.56; 95% CI, 0.67-3.67). Ad-36 seems to be strongly associated with overweight, but not obese, Korean adults.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 05/2011; 36(2):281-5. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the effect of insulin resistance on the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and metabolic syndrome. The association between ALT levels and metabolic syndrome were determined, independently of insulin resistance in Korean populations. The association between ALT and metabolic syndrome were examined in 28,456 subjects who visited 7 Health Promotion Centers at University Hospitals in Korea from 2006 to 2008. HOMA-IR index was used to represent insulin resistance index. ALT levels were found to be positively associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, alcohol intake, and smoking status. Furthermore, when additional adjustment was made for insulin resistance, this association between ALT and metabolic syndrome, although slightly attenuated, remained strongly significant. Subjects in the highest ALT quartile were found to have a higher risk of having metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio (OR)=4.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.96-4.99 for men and OR=3.51, 95%CI=2.73-4.52 for women). In addition, the association between ALT level and the risk of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the relatively low risk group. ALT levels were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome independently of insulin resistance and with an interaction by age. Further cohort studies are needed to determine the usefulness of ALT levels for predicting the risk of metabolic syndrome.
    Circulation Journal 02/2011; 75(4):964-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

241 Citations
76.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Graduate School of Public Health
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States